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X%  '  ^' 











IN  1662. 




VOL.  II. 

Of  whom  the  world  was  not  worthy. — Hkbbews. 

The  Nonconformists  have  salTened  what  is  next  to  death,  and  too  maay 
have  suffered   even  onto    death:    of  whom  then  shall  4)ieif*4i£aths  .be    • 
required? — Bishop  Mortom.  ;!••'    * /•  •*    *.••**• 

.    •,• 

^  •*•"    ••••  •      •    • 

•  m 


Honoon : 


*     TORK-tntBCr,  COTBHT-«ABDBt. 

*     1813. 

•  •     •  « 

••  •••  ••• :  •«• 

•  •  ••    ••\  I 


JohuUdal 1 

John  GrMDiTDod S3 

WiUiun  Smjlb 44 

Tfaomas  Seltle  4B 

John  PcDry 48 

Thomu  Galakcr,  len 68 

ArthorWake 70 

WiUlun  Whilaker 19 

Henc?  Alvcy 8S 

John  Prime  ST 

Richard  Alln ib. 

Fr«aci9  JohBMD 88 

William  Cole 106 

JohDHonand lOT 

Hesrj  Smith loe 

ArttorDeal Ill 

William  Cbarke 119 

JohDDairell       IIT 

Cbcistnpher  Ooodman 183 

WilliamPerklD IS9 

Joiias  Nicboli ,  IH 

Tfaoma*  Cartwright  Ib. 

Edward  Phillpi 169 

Mr  Midglvy            163 

Williun  Hubbock 104 

Thomas  Care w 166 

Georfe  Coiyat 168 

FraDcuTilgge 160 

FerclTal  Wjbora  ih. 

McbolaiBoaad HI 

Xzckias  Morley 174 

JohnRainolds    176 

Thomat  Brightmao 168 

Richard  HauBKl 183 

Tboma*  WUcocki 165 

Jobo  Smyth 196 

▼OL.  II. 

Richard  ClifloD IM  ' 

NkhoUuRoih 900 

Hr.  Uuicaiter SOS 

Thomai  Peacock ib. 

Gabriel  Powei SH 

Thomai  Holland *19 

Hugh  Bronghlon SIS 

Wilham  Burton SW 

Richard  Rt^icn !>■ 

RandalBata 8M 

DanlelDjke  !3S 

Robert  Parker BST 

Richard  OaiTtoa S4I 

BcoryAlray M7 

Georce  TTIlhen 248 

Franci)  Bonne; SSO 

EdDiundBuDDey  .........  S5S 

Huiebiui  Pagel SS9 


Pan!  Bftjaa Ml 

Vniiiani  Bradihaw 864 

Hr.  Jenklo STD 

SiLmucI  Hteron 870 

GeorgeGiffoid 87S  " 

JeremlabDvke S79 

Tliomai  Hdwhie ib, 

Tbomai  Wilwii SSS 

AndrewWiUet 884 

Stephen  Bfcrtan 889 

Thomas  Paget. . . .' 891 

Hr.Knighi !9» 

jDhnRandall CM 

Nicholai  Byfieid S»T 

Heniy  Aintwerth 990 

William  Femble SOt 

John  Sprint 306 


.*  ' 



•'•  r 

•  •  •    • 

» •  •   •  • 
*  ■  •  •  • 

•  • 


JskdUdal 1 

lokn  Greenwood  .........  83 

WOliamSmjIh it 

nomuSeltle  48 

John  Peor; A8 

Thomu  GkrakcT,  )eD 68 

AiUmr  Wake TO 

WiUiuD  Wbiiaker 78 

VtMzj  Ahej 85 

JahnPrine  8T 

UckardAUen ib. 

flucia  Jobaion 89 

mUiaaColc 106 

JthaBdUnd lOT 

HarjSinltk 108 

ArikuDent Ill 

William  Charkc 113 

JobDDarrell 117 

Cbriilnphei  Goodman 183 

ffilliam  PerkiD 1S8 

Joiiai  Nkbols 136 

TtMui  Cartwrisbl  lb, 

Elaard  Pbillpi 1 69 

Ui.UUgtej 163 

William  flobbock 164 

TkoBuCarcw    166 

Gta^  Corjal 168 

Fnneia  Trigte 160 

PeriiTnl  Wjbarn   ib. 

Nicboiai  Bound Ill 

Ezekiai  Haric; 1 74 

Juba  KaiDoliiiL     116 

Tboma*  BrighbnaD 188 

Rictaard  Hauowl 1 83 

namni  Wilcocki 18fi 

JoboSmjlb  195 

TOL.  II. 

Richard  Cltnon IM  ' 

Niebolai  Ruk KO 

Hr.  I^neaiter 80ft 

Tbomai  Peacock lb. 

GabrielPowel 811 

■niaiiiai  HoilaiH] 813 

Hugh  Broagh Ian 81K 

ffUliam  Barton 830 

Richard  Riqien 881 

Randal  Bain 834 

Daniel  Dyk 83ft 

RoberlPaiker BST 

Richafd  GantoB «■ 

Henry  Aira; 9*1 

GeoTge  WItben **8 

Franc  U  Bnnaey **" 

Edmund  Bunncy B« 

Jiusebiu.  Pagel BSS 

TboBiu  stone SSS 

Fanl  BajnM Ml 

William  Bradabaw 88* 

Hr.  JcDkln tETO 

Samnel  Hleron fflO 

George  Gi  Hind S73 

JercDiiah  Dyke 8T9 

Tbomat  Helwlue ib. 

Thomai  WilMD 888 

Andrew  Willet 881 

Stephen  Egerton 889 

Tbomas  IVgel 891 

Mr.Knighl S95 

John  Randall SBS 

Nichola*  ByBeld B9T 

Henry  Aimworth 899 

William  Pemble 304 

John  Sprint 30S 



JabD  Knewtiub SDH 

Jlidwrd  Ct*ckeniharj> ....  319 

WaliBr  TrpiYin 314 

ttnry  Jucub 3W 

Jobn  Itobintun 3M 

Rleburd  HIack M4 

Aalhuny  WottDD 34S 

tlif  bard  Ibilbwcl) M9 

Jnbn  I'mloii 398 

J*b  Thrnimurton 361 

IWopbllnt  Bradbvurn  ....  3M 

\CiUlBm  Hinde S«t 

WlltianPinke 369 

SabMllan  Bcarfirld lb. 

Robcrlfirawn 866 

Pnuwi*  iiiniMon-  •  < am 

nobrrlTllEolU S7S 

Jalu  Warbam 976 

ArlJiDr  llildrrihon lb. 

Tbomai  INII      388 

Kobfrl  Rollou SBO 

ClIlciThnrn MB 

TfcawK  Beard 399 

TbonlfTajlor an 

wllllaB  Ann 405 

Joha  CarUT 40Q 

Jl>|h  Clark 4lt 

JohnllaydcB 4J& 

Rickard  Slbbi 41s 

Jobo  Avrry   410 

Juhn  Itugcn 4il 

JobD  Msfcrlck tSS 

Hear)  Uelltbrand 4S4 


ll«nry  Raaiidtn  .' 42T 

Kubcri  Cutlln 4U 

Jwrpb  Motft 4» 

JMlmAVorkraul. 4St 

William  WbaUkr 4SS 

JobuBall MO 

n<.™.llrr«r 4M 

l^wrrnrr  Chadderlon MB 

JobuRodd iM 

M'lliljm  I'Vrincr Ul 

HamMel  Ward 4SS 

llrory  Arcber 49f 

KwBDcl  Ihwc 460 

Htepben  Mote 4U 

Rlcluud  Baruirri 4M 

JoDBihu  Bnrr 4W 

Jobo  EaUD 4M 

John  Howe Ml 

Mr.  Wrath   4W 

WllUuni  Wralbband 410 

Tobiai  Criip      471 

Alfunder  l.e>KhtDn  ......  410 

Juba  Hrdgwkk      4SS 

Kicbucd  Hcd^xJck 4W 

JulloM  Herring 4W 

(terip  Fbllipi 4B1 

CDllbulrTlowtilng    405 

Jnhn  DoHnliani   4H 

Tbomaifoilc} 40T 

lAwrcDreSntlllaic 4M 

Cktitft  IlnBlley SOI 

Mr  UifU          dOS 

llriiry  UnMrr Mil 

Lawreoee  ClarbMW ,.  5Uk 


'IVcbanKlerot  ArebbkhopWblltin 

Tbc  eaaalnallaB  or  HcHji  Barrav 

Barrow^  prlUlM  to  the  AilarD«y-(irMt«l 


k»p  Hall's  acctuMion  «f  Fraocii  Jobiuon  •■■^•i 
Ji4Hiri««aad  AiuworthUn BnwalM  '•■..  .,^. 

AtMMtaf  tiang-neek  • ».<« 

Ihjlia' ii[  iif  rhilfiiliiM   M«. 

nntdM  made  KUuip  for  afpoiiag  tta  pMilM*    ••* 
Tte  coHrgiam  ca*t  alF their  larplica    »•••••..■..■ 

nticiflTefaled  Caitirtighl'i mtwiim    i,.^. ...*.. 

ftiftop  UaddoE  ciBum  Cartwrigbl    ••..•........ 

Irikrd^  i^mion  of  Wbiigifi'i  wrilJDgi  ....•«..>. 

WtagiA'i (real  incopiialcDcy    . ......i>*« •■••••*' 

4Kn  ElialwUi  ioccned  aptat  BMif  Ajtew  «. 
lk<karacMr  of  tbe  Earlof  W*wkk   ..,*>.««.  . 

Bcn'tcbuacinof  Caitvrisbi  .^ , 

^  diiines  wrow  ID  CortwTicU    »•_.„,., 
VAjlnu'i&lscBcciuallaaorCuMricbl    .... 

biipurilaniiai    ■•.*i... 
SiiFiancii  KnaUjs  a  palianaf  (be  pnritana       •. 

IbrTraBibUioD  of  tkaBlUa ..,.».■.. 

laecdoie  of  Wake  bmI  Bte«p ..•  ...>«: 

Ih'fbarscurDflJicboluFollor,*^.  ».*•*». 
Ik^w  VoodcDck  coainuKed  ro  NcwptB  ...•« 
fc  Petti  Vttatwonb't  cbancler  and  impriioaBe 
kitobtrt  Harie;'i  tbaruter  and  dcatk  ...••.., 

"'      > Hogh  Brongbtou    ..,■........»>•••••.• 

AnosBloritae  famoot  Jobn  Speed    .....•.«•■■■••••. 
l^vCoMao  TemBTkabte  for  leadiog  tta  MM*  ••.»•* 

Ajaoliar  method  of  teachiog  Hebrew •... 

ABdNe  of  Bishop  Hoiioaand  H.  BrmeUH    

^ckarBclerof  Bbhop  Ravis 

' Vaughnn  ..•.•.........••..• 

IMip  Neile  JocUaed  la  popery 

~~^  Freke  a  lealDDi  penecator    ..........■.....••■ 

"~~^ 8ea»ble» »  lealoni  pmecniar    ............... 


A  little  black  edpBgaflko(i>e  la  Bancroft 

Bah^  Baion'i  defence  of  Ike  charch      

—— WartwrtM't  »btud  opinion  of  penccvtiM  .... 

»  af  BUbop  Nortn    «gS 

Kootsfonl  chapel  iiupeDdcd ,., lb. 

Accaaot  of  the  famous  Poraui S9S 

Tbomai  Fotficid        S»T 

Dr  Thomas  Sparke 384 

William  Brenster S4I 

Sir  Anthon;  Cope      344 

Arehbiitop  BBOcrofi    34* 

'    Or.  fiicbard  Uoabpie 348 

L*dj  BowM a feneroiii  Triiad  to  (be  paritaw ,..,.  S5I 

AccoDot  of  Lord  Brook    353 

"'                    Bisbnp  Andrews 366 

Anecdote  of  (he  Duke  of  Backingham S5T 

AccoDDl  of  the  Dulie  of  Backiagbam    SB9 

Biihep  Wiilianu .' 310 

Theiip|;eaiidplDDder  ofLeicuiler   373 

EailafHunliiiEdDn'BleUerloJIildenliam    380 

Tbecni^UeDtenceagaiDstVigblaDsndHoit   3S3 

Tbechanuter  of  Sir  AugUilin  NichoU  391 

AaecdolcaraBiihapaBd  W.  Amet    40S 

AccDDDt  of  Biihup  Wren      410 

Archbishop  TIarinet    41S 

"The  cauit  of  Mr.  Baxter's  «0D>er9itiii    4S0 

Accoant  of  Lawrence  Faltciongh     4!l 

—  — Sir  Henry  Savlla     4S4 

Alnunacki  burnt  by  the  paplits 4S5 

The  Fhanicter  of  Archbiahop  Laud      436 

JobDHuoiacoufessDriQQueenHaiytraign    4ST 

King  CharWs  recommcndaiion     444 

AccouUarUr  Waller  Uildmay 44a 

Bilmne  battery  of  KlngJamei 447 

Account  of  Bishop  J e(;on    440 

Anecdoleof  S,  Fairclough's  coDVeTiloD ...........   ........  45S 

A  mistake  of  Dr.  Doddridge  reciieed     4t5 

Lr?ingstnnBndAndr.rfunpro«ecnled    48B 

Archblshcip  Laudaboldamertion      500 

The  characterofArclihishop  Abbot      509 

Theodore Hwk projected  (beRayal  Society    004 



John  Udal.  —  This  celebrated  puritan  was  educalei 
in  tbe  uniyenitj  of  Cambridge,  andwas  a  man  of  excdknt 
parts,  great  learning,  Pennine  pietj,  and  vntatnidiei 
lojalty  to  Queen  Elizabeth,  but  a  great  sufferer  oa  account 
of  his  nonconformity.  He  was  prdacher  abouit  si^en  years, 
at  Kingston-upon^Thames ;  but  aflenriudB  dcprireA^ 
imprisoned,  and  condemned;  and,  at  lafit,  he  died^pute 
heart-broken  in  prison.  Some  of  his  faeaiera  at  Kin^ston^ 
taking  ofieoce  at  his  faithfid  ivamings  and  admonitionfl^ 
j^xnight  complaints  against  him  to  those  in  power,  whm  he 
was  put  to  silence  by  the  official.  Dr.  Hone,  and  commttfarf 
to  prison.  But  by  ikk  unaoficited'  fayotv  and  influence  of 
the  Countess  of  Warwick,  Sir  Drue  Dniry,  aild  dther 
excellent  perscms,  he  was  lekawd,  and  mtorcd  to  ius 

September  96,  1586,  he  was  conyened  befbre  the  Bish(q[> 
of  Winchester,  and  the  Dean  of  Windsor,  wfaed  thejr 
entered  upon  the  following  conversation  : 

Bishop.  Mr.  Udal,  you  are  beholden  to  my  bdy  oif 
Warwick.  She  hath  been  earnest  for  you,  and  tdleth  me^ 
that  you  will  submityourself. 

Udal.  I  thank  Grod  for  her  ladydiip's  care.  I  watt 
contented,  and  alwajrs  have  been,  to  submit  taany  thing 
that  is  just  and  godly. 

B.  W  hat  you  wUl  do,  I  know  not  Hitherto  you  have 
not  done  it ;  for  you  refiued  to  swear  according  to  law. 

U.  By  your  honour's  ferour,  I  never  refused  to  swear,  89 
&r  as  the  law  doth  bind  me. 

B.  No  i  Wherefore  then  were  you  committed  ? 

U.  You  know  best.  I  was  contents  to  swear,  if  I  might 
ftret  see  the  articles. 

B.  Th^tiiaakndei  foondatipfttoatandupttD. 

VpL.  If.  & 


U.  It  is  to  me  a  matter  of  great  importance^  For  with 
what  conscience  can  I  call  the  Lord  to  witness,  and  protest 
by  his  name,  that  I  will  answer  I  know  not  what  ? 

Dean.  Mr.  Udal,  the  thiogs  objected  i^inst  you,  I  dare 
say,  are  against  your  doctrme^  or  your  fife,  which  are  no 

B.  Nay,  they  charge  nothing  against  his  life,  but  his 
doctrine  only. 

U.  The  greater  is  the  mercy  of  God  towards  me.  For 
I  have  given  the  greater  offence  by  my  life ;  but  it  hath 
pleased  him  so  to  keep  my  sins  from  their  sight,  that  I 
might  suffer  for  his  sake.  Your  restraining  me  from  my 
ministry,  makes  the  world  believej  that  the  slanders  raised 
against  me  are  true;  the  ignorant  call  in  quc^ion  the 
jgospel  which  I  have  preached ;  and  thus  a  door  is  widely 
opened  for  every  wicked  man  to  contemn  the  doctrine  of 
our  Saviour. 

'  Here  the  bishop  laid  all  the  blame  on  Mr.  Udal,  aiid 
discovered  so  haid  a  heart  against  the  suffering  church  of 
^God,  that  Mr.  Udal  burst  into  a  flood  of  tears,  and  was 
^nstndned  to  turn  aside,  to  weeip  for  the  space  of  half  an 
Jiour.     Upon  his* Wtum,  he  was  addressed  as  follows : 

.B.  Will  you  answer  the  articles  charged  against  you, 
that  thesethings  may  be  redressed  ? 

U.  If  I  may  first  see  them,  I  shall  be  satisfied.  . 

B.  Mr.  Hartwell,  write  to  the  roister  to  let  him  see 
them ;  then  go  with  him  to  some  of  the  commissioners  to 
swear  him. 

U.  This  will  be  a  long  course.  '  I  pray  you,  that,  in  the 
mean  time,  I  may  continue  my  ministry,  for  the  good  of  the 
poor  people. 

'  B.  That  you  may  not    Now  that  you  are  suspended, 
you  must  so  abide,  until  you  be  clearecL    - 

U.  Then  whatsoever  becomes  of  me,  I  beseech  you,  let 
flie  poor  people  have  a  preacher. 

B.  That  is  a  good  motion,  and  I  will  look  after  it. 

Mr.  Udal  then  receiving  tb^  letter,  departed ;  and  the 
articles  being  shewn  him,  he  was  takesr  to  Dr.  Hammond  to 
be  sworn,  who  said,  "  You  must  swear  to  answer  these 
articles,  so  far  as  the  law  bindeth  you."  "  Do  you  mean," 
said  Mr.  Udal,  <<  that  I  shall  answer  them,  so  &.r  as  it 
appeareth  to  ine,  that  I  am  by  law  required  ?"  And 
finding  that  he  might,  he  took  the  oatiii,*  and  ddivered  to 
the  register  his  answers  to  all  the  articles  in  writing.  These 
articles,  with  the  alisn/^rs,  are  ndw  be£tee  me,  and  are 

UDAL-  9 

thirty-six  iti  number ;  but  too  long  for  insertion.*  They 
cdiitain  the  charges  ^hich  certain  ill-disposed  persons,  in 
the  parish  of  Kingston,  brought  against  him  to  the  hi^h 
commission.  His  answers,  indeed,  furnished  the  commis- 
sioners with  sufficient  matter  for  animadversion,  when  he 
underwent  his  next  examination.  October  17th  he  was 
convened  before  the  high  commission,  at  Lambeth ;  whea 
Archbishop  Wliitgift,  the  Bishops  of  Winchester  and 
Hereford,  Dr.  Aubery,  Dr.  Lewin,  Dr.  Cosin,  Mr.  Hartwell, 
and  others,  were  present.  Upon  the  reading  of  the  articles 
and  his  answers,  they  made  their  remarks  as  follows : 
.  Archbishop:  You  are  not  to  judge,  Mr,  Udal,  who  ymlk 
disorderly ;  nor  account  any  so  to  do,  till  it  be  proved. 
.  U.  How  shall  I  count  him  to  do  otherwise,  who  ^ivetfa 
himself  up  to  notorious  sins ;  and  after  being  admomshed^ 
not  only  amendeth  not,  but  goeth  on  more  stubborn  than 
before  ? 

B.  You  must  do  more  than  that. 

U.  You  mean,  we  must  present  them ;  and  so  we  have 
done  several ;  but  presentment  is  of  no  use.  - 

A.  You  must  expect  what  will  follow,  and  not  appmnt 
your  own  time./ 

U.  We  may  do  this  long  enough  before  we  see  any 
redress,  so  long  as  things  are  managed  thus.  I  have  seen 
malefactors  presented  two  or  three  years  ago,  but  of  whose 
trials  we  have  heard  nothing. 

A.  You  say,  Christ  is  the  only  archbishop.  Why  do 
you  not  caU  him  arch-pastor  and  arch-shcphnd  ? 

U.  As  I  am  at  liberty  to  call  the  ministers  of  Christ  bj 
those  titles  given  them  by  the  Holy  Ghost,  as  pastors, 
shepherds,  and  watchmen ;  so,  I  think,  I  may  Jesus  Christ. 

A.  No,  no;  the  archbishop  was  in  your  way,  and 
it  troubled  you  to  think  of  ham.  -  But  there  will  be  an 
archlnshqp  when  you  shall  be  no  preacher  at  Kingston. 

B.  The  rest  of  that  artide  is  sophistical,  on  like  Apollo 
the  oracle. 

U.  Perhaps  I  have  taken  some  advantage  of  the  words, 
and  not  answered  acoxding  to  the  meaning  thereof  as  the 
law  lequiinelli. 

A.  Those  eldcEs  of  which  you  q^eak,  were  bisbopi^  and 
not  any  other. 

.    U.  in  1  C».  xiL  tpwamon  are  mfirfionfrf  as  ditittoct 
fiom  teachers. 

«  MSu  Kcfirt^^  ffu  ni-^7lu 



A.  That  is  meant  of  civil  gort^rnors,  and  not  of  a  oompany 
of  unlearned,  simple  men,  as  you  would  hayie  it. 

U.  The  apostle  there  speaketh  of  those  who  were  ordained 
in  the  church.  But  it  is  of  no  use  to  dispute  these  matieni 
in  this  place. 

A.  Wiken  you  say,  that  pastors  may  di3  ta^nng  by  thdr 
efwn  discretion,  but  only  by  the  direction  6f  the  word  6f 
God,  y<m  say  true;  hvit  in  this,  you  strike  at  something 

B.  Many  things  are  lawful^  and  mhy  be  doiie^  that  h&ye 
no  direct  warrant  from  the  itotd. 

U.  If  that  can  be  proTed^  it  is  sufficieiM,  and  agte^abte  to 
no\y  answer. 

B.  What  occasion  h&d  jrou  tb  sp«aK  of  imch  datteM  a^ 
•fficerilL  orders,  canons,  &;C.  t 

U.  I  have  not  choteft  those  subje6ts  oii  ptii'pos^,  and 
have  spoken  upon  them  only  as  they  qame  in  my  way; 
This  I  mu^  do,  or  I  could  not  dechtre  All  the  council 
of  God. 
.   Dr.  Cpsin*  That  you  will  neVer  do  vMle  you  lire. 

U.  But  I  must  ddivet  as  much  as  I  know. 

A.  It  is  becaui^  you  would  rail  agfunst  aiitfabrif^. 

B.  Why  do  you  wbh  that  the  pfiBlie  sertice  were 
IdMdged?  It  may  all  be  read  in  three  quarters  of  an 

U.  But  I  have  known  it,  with  other  business  io  be  dont 
before  sermon,  to  last  about  two  hours. 

A.  They  who  are  wearied  iritii  it,  are  your  scholaiti,  Wh6 
iilm  km,f  inih  noticing  but  your  setmonil. 

U.  my  schdars  never  keep  out  till  ibe  sermon  begins ; 
but  if  any  ckf  them  be  weary  of  the  senice,  I  nerer  taught 
thein  so  to  be. 

A.  All  the  service  might  be  i^ead  well  enbtigh ;  but  yaa 
will  ist^nd  in  your  rain  r^titions,  both  in  your  ptayerii 
Hnd  your  sermons,  and  niake  no  account  of  so  doing. 

U.  I  pray  you  have  a  better  opinion  of  me,  unless  yod 
know  that  wlmt  you  say  is  true. 

A.  Nay,  I  speak  not  of  you  alone,  bUt  all  of  yout  sort : 
this  iar  your  manner.  Why  should  you  preachy  thai  soml^ 
)[^rs(in6  make  but  small  acCoiint  of  setmbh^  If 

.    U.  Because  I  know  it  to  be  true. 

B.  Though  petscms  may  have  been  bf  tHat  mind^  they 
may  be  altered. 

A.  When  you  spoke  of  Christ's  descent  into  hell,  that 
which  you  said  is  most  afisurd. 

,  B.  The  ptooes  i|i  Pettr  and  Aeti^  aie  monstroudvaboied 
oj  Calvin  and  others,  -who  hcid  tliat  c^i^on^  For  w)iQ 
ever  knew  sepulchre  mean  hell  ? 

U.  The  original  word  there  used,  is  qRcxl  taken  for 
grav^,  though  |t  alfp  ipeans  lieU  ? 

IfaitweU*,  Shew  me  pne  place^  if  jou  can. 

U.  That  I  can  easily  do ;  for  as  often  as  the  Hebrew 
f" ord  in  the  014  Tf^ftameni^  meaneUi  grave,  so  does  also  the 

H.  How  can  that  be  ?  The  Old  Testament  was  writteii 
in  Hebrew,  and  not  in  Groek* 

IJ.  Do  you  not  know  that  thf  Septuagint  is  in  Gseek,  in 
which  you  will  find  what  I  say  is  true  t 

A.  How  can  tb§  foul  go  into  t)ie  grave  ?  What  an 
absurd  thfnff  is  that  I 

..  U.  The  H<^Eew  vnpi^  usui^y  ^^piifieth  the  whole  mail  f 
as  Gren.  :<lvi.  it  is  odd,  ^^  Tkeife  went  seventy  souls,  that  m^ 
twenty  persom,  into  E|gypt*^ 

A.  Do  you  then  believe  ijat  QM^  both  «oul  and  body^ 
w&kt  into  the  grave  ? 

U.  No.  But  it  is,  alsQp  often  taken  for  the  body ;  and 
jvhen^sver  it  is  thufs  tsdiea,  it  is  so  translated  in  the  Sep* 
iuagint :  as  Lam.  i.  19. 

H.  1  wish  I  bad  a  book,  that  I  might  see  it. 

A.  The  human  soul  of  Christ  after  his  dsalh^  descended 
ji^to  th(9  place  of  the  damned/  and  whosoever  bolkveth  not 
this,  but  denieth  it,  is  an  heretic. 

^  U.  The  church  ff  EngUmd  is  taught,  and  also  believeth, 
fliat  which  you  acco«9t  haopi^. 

A.  Nq  rmi^t  for  tbat.  We  ceoeive  ngtbing  for  the 
^tiine  of  the  ^iMircb  of  i^figlfmd,  bft  Ib^t  iHiich  is 
authorized  by  act  of  parliament. 

U.  Then  your  doctrine  i9  not  the  doctrine  of  the  ciiurch. 
ffxim§  §f  ber  airtickpt  saHjb  <Hily,  that  Christ  descended  o 
iBtp  bell,  witbput  Qxi^rseMiflg  }iow.  J  ' 

A.  You  speak  of  unprea^biMi^  ministetos  being  fcMsted  if 
by  satan,  that  vou  may  disgrace  authprity. 

,  9.  If  a.miaiirt^r  be  learned,  yet  bath  no  utterance,  will 
iron  di^ftUov  him  as  wfit  ? 

V.'  Yen,  Ab4  J  nHiJili  Ufomi^  tba  word  i^  God  dis* 
alloweth  him. 

B.  Whaprp,  I  |^y  gm^  *b*k  I  vmy  know  it  ? 

U.  In  1  Tim.  iii.  2.,  2  Tim.  ii.  24.  He  must  be  op/ <# 
Uacb^  which  imiftieOk  moi  f»fy  iakmkdge,  ha>  uHerancef 



B.  Yaa  mwA  wbUithf  mm  mmnB^  ilkthm. 

U.  I  Uiiiik  I  bnre  dcued  mjwdf  bjr  ny  wm 

B.  Nay,  fay  your  Une,  jma  faaic  wiL  Yi 

U.  THen  dupatdi  me  aeomdiBgiy.  II  ii 
and  buideoMMiie  to  aitcod  so  aAcs  frooi  day  to  day. 

A.  My  lord  of  Wiacha^  •ppo^  kn  ^  ^«l*»d  on 
Friday  oome  wcweom^sL 

B.  I  am  content    Come  in  tfe  aftenooa. 

Mr.  Udal  then  departed,  intendii^  to  ffaa  aoeofding 
la  ajqpointment.  In  the  oMan  time,  tlie  Coualoi  of  War- 
wick wrote  a  pressing  letter  to  tlie  bishop,  in  hia  behaK 
Upon  hiff  appeanoice,  afier  long  attendanoe,  he  wna  called 

bdfdre  the  biriiop,  who  tlras  addressed  Um : 
B.  The  aiticleshroagfat  against  yo«,  are  not  to  be  ptofod) 

§K  the  witnesses  fear  the  displeasure  of  yoor  unineiow 
ftiends,  wUdi  is  a  veiy  hard  care. 

U.  It  is  haid,  if  it  be  trar.  Bat  there  if  aa  ascb  ftar^ 
only  they  are  nnaUe  to  prove  more  than  I  have  abcady. 

B.  Yon  hare,  indeed,  oonfinsedsofficient^unst  yourself. 

U.  Let  ii  then  apjpear.  F<»  I  most  jnstify  all  that  I 
haye  confessed,  nntil  it  be  refilled;  and  when  it  is  refuted, 
I  shall  be  willing  to  recant,  in  the  same  ptaoe  in  which  it 
was  spoken. 

B.  I  will  not  deal  with  you  in  that  way.    Bnt  for  the 

sake  of  yonr  friends,  and  other  causes,  I  am  willing  to 
restore  you  to  your  preaching,  if  you  wiU  assnre  mo 
under  your  own  nttud,  that  yon  will  speak  no  ukho  against 
any  thing  by  authority  estabUshed. 

U.  I  will  promise  you  to  preach  nothing  but  the  word  of 

B;  The  word  of  God,  as  you  tune  pleased  to  call  it  i 

U.  If  I  be  unable  to  understand  what  is,  and  what  is  not, 
the  word  of  God,  I  am  unfit  to  be  a  preacher,  and  so  you 
may  finally  dismiss  me.  It  were  abetter  for  me  to  be  a 
{dbughman,  than  a  preacher,  imder  any  oflier  conditions. 

B.  Then  I  may  not  admit  you.  This  would  help  td 
incrpase  oontroyersies. 

U.  I  will  promise  you  to  promote  the  peace  of  the 
church,  all  that  I  can.   More  I  cannot  do. 

B.  Wall,  1  wm  8(«k  advice  about  it  Ip  the  mean  time 
you  may  depart. 

;  Ifr.  Udal,  Imimg  ^epvted,  commimkated  an  •ocomt 
^  these  transacftipo*  to  bip  frienck^  and  the  Cioiuifcn  of 
Warwick  seat  a  messenger  tp  the  bishop  for  a  deckuira 
answer.  Therefore,  by  l^r  jodlj  and  zealoas  importonitji 
bis  lordship  sent  for  A(r.  Udal,  when  he  thus  addiesiea 

B.  I  am  to  restore  yoa,  Mr.  Udal,  to  yoor  former  place 
of  preaching;  yet  I  must  admonish  you  to  reftain  finom 
speaking  against  things  by  law  established.  For,  sorely,  if 
you  give  occasion  to  be  again  deprived,  no  subjad  in 
£nffland  shall  obtain  your  restoration. 

U.  Surely,  I  have  not  at  any  time^  purposely  said  any 
thing  tending  thereunto.  But  I  may  never  conceal  the 
trutb  which  my  text  otkietix  me. 

B.  We  had  need  walk  warily.  Things  are  out  of  square. 
There  is  much  inquiry  where  is  the  cause.  Some  blame  us 
Wshc^ ;  but  God  knoweth  where  the  blame  ia.  I  think  it 
is  in  the  controversy  among  ourselves. 

U.  So  do  I.  Butinwhomisthecauseofthecontnnrersy, 
I  shall  not  now  dispute.    I  came  for  another  purpose. 

B.  Take  heed  you  do  not  triumph  over  your  enemiesL 
This  will  create  greater  variance  and  dissention. 

U.  If  I  should  be  restored,  I  am  determined  to  pass  it 
over  in  nknce,  and  leave  my  enemies  to  their  maker  and 
judge.  I  must  suffer  greater  things  than  these  for  Christ*! 

B.  Well,  this  is  all  I  have  to  say  to  you  at  this  time. 

Mr.  Udal  then  departed,  having  obtained  his  libertv  to 
ccmtinue  preaching;  for  which  he  blessed  and  praised 
God,  and  prayed  that  these  troubles  mi^ht  be  over-ruled  for 
the  advancement  of  God^s  glory,  and  Ine  further  prosperity 
of  his  church,* 

Thus,  after  much  trouble  and  expense^  with  the  loss  of 
much  tune^  this  learned  and  excellent  divine  was  restored 
to  his  mimstry.  About  the  same  time,  he  united  with  ln| 
bfethren  in  subscribiag  the  ''  Book  oi  Discipline."f  His 
troal4e9,  however,  were  not  ended.  In  the  year  1588^ 
he  was  again  suspended  and  deprived  al  his  living.  Having 
received  the  ecclesiastical  censure  a  second  time,  the  inha- 
bitants, of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne  prevailed  upon  the  Earl 
of  Huntingdon,  k^d  president  of  the  north,  to  smd  him  to 
preach  the  word  of  life  among  them.  Therefore,  being 
driven  from  his  living  add  his  flock  at  Kingston^  he  went 

•  MS.  Refiner,  p.  779-781.  f  Neal*t  Puritam,  v»l.  i.  p.  4M. 


to  Newcastle,  where  his  ministerial  labours,  during  hit 
continuance,  were  greatly  blessed  to  many  souls.  But  Mr. 
Udal-  had  not  been  there  above  a  ^ear,  (the  plague  being  in 
the  town  all  the  time,  which  carried  off  two  thrasand  of  its 
inhabitants,)  when,  by  an  order  from  the  privy  council, 
he  was  sent  for  to  London.  He  immediately  obeyed 
the  summons,  and  appeared  at  Lord  Cobham's  house, 
January  13,  ISS9,  The  conunissioners  present  were  Lord 
CoUham,  Lord  Buckhurst,  Lord  Chief  Justice  Anderson, 
the  Bishop  of  Aocliester,  Dr.  Aubery,  Dr.  Lewin,  Mr. 
Fortesque,  and  Egerton  the  solicitor,  llie  lord  chief 
justice  then  entered  upon  his  examination  in  the  following 
manner : 

Anderson.  How  long  have  you  been  at  Newcastle  ? 

Udal.  About  a  year,  if  it  please  your  lordship. 

A.  Why  went  you  from  Kingston-upon-Thames  ? 

U.  Because  I  was  silenced  Uiere,  and  was  called  to 

Bishop.  What  calling  had  you  thither  ? 

U.  The  people  made  means  to  my  lord  of  Huntingdon^ 
who  sent  me  thither. 

B.  Had  you  the  allowance  of  the  bishop  of  the  diocese  I 
U,  At  that  time,  there  was  none. 

A..  You  are  called  hither  to  answer  concerning  certain 
books,  which  are  tiiought  to  be  of  your  making. 

U.  If  it  be  for  any  of  Martin  s  books,  I  have  already 
answered,  and  am  ready  so  to  do  again. 

A.  Where  have  you  answered,  and  in  what  manner  ? 

U.  At  L?imbeth,  a  year  and  a  half  ago,  I  cleared  myself 
not  to  be  the  author,  nor  to  know  who  ne  was. 

A.  Is  this  true,  Mr.  Beadle  ? 

Beadle.  I  have  heard  that  there  was  such  a  thing,  but  I 
was  not  there,  if  it  please  your  lordship. 

Aubery  and  LewLn.  'There  was  such  a  thing,  my  lord's 
grace  told  us. 

U.  I  am  the  hardlier  dealt  with,  to  be  fetched  up  so  far, 
at  this  time  ot  the  year.  I  have  had  a  journey,  I  would 
not  wish  unto  my  enemy. 

B.  You  may  thank  your  own  dealing  for  it. 

A.  But  you  are  to  answer  concerning  dher  books. 

U.  I  hope  your  lordship  will  not  urge  me  to  any  others, 
seeing  I  was  sent  for  about  those. 

A.  You  most  answer  to  others  also :  What  say  you  of 
^  A  Demonstration"  and  <<  A  DiaiiogQt  ?"  did  you  not 

UDAL;  11 

v.  I  cannot  answer*  • 

A.  Why  would  you  clear  yourself  of  M artin,  and  not 
of  th^se,  but  that  you  are  guilty  ? 

U.  Not  so,  my  lord.  1  have  reascm  to  answer  in  thef 
one,  but  not  in  the  other. 

A.  I  pray  let  us  hear  your  reason ;  for  I  cannot  conceive 
dfiiy  seeing  they  are  all  written  concerning  one  matter. 

U.  This  is  the  matter,  my  lord.     I  hold  the  matter  pro- 

Ced  in  them  to  be  aU  one ;  but  I  would  not  be  thought  to 
die  it  in  that  manner,  which  the  former  books  do ;  and ' 
because  I  think  otherwise  of  the  latter,  I  care  not  though 
(he?  should  be  fathered  upon  me. 

Buckhurst.  But,  I  pray  you  tell  me,  know  you  not 
Penry  ? 

U.  Yes,  my  lord,  that  I  do. 

Buck.  And  do  you  not  know  him  to  be  Martin  ? 

U.  No,  surely,  nor  do  I  think  him  to  be  Martin. 
Buck.  What  is  your  reason  ? 

U.  This,  toy  lord :  when  it  first  came  out,  he,  under- 
standing that  some  gave  him  out  to  be  the  author,  wrote  a 
ktter  to  a  friend  in  London,  wherein  he  denied  it,  in  such 
terms  as  declare  him  to  be  ignorant  and  clear  in  it. 

Buck.  Where  is  tliat  letter  ? 

U.  Indeed  I  cannot  tell  you.  For  I  have  forgotten  to 
whom  it  was  written. 

Buck.  You  will  not  tell  where  it  is. 

U.  Why,  my  lord,  it  tendeth  to  the  clearing  of  one,  and 
the  accusation  of  none. 

Buck.  Canyon  tell  where  Penry  is  ? 

U.  No,  stti^y,  my  Icnrd. 

Back.  When  did  you  see  him  ? 

U.  About  a  quarter  of  a  year  ago. 

Buck.  Whete  did  you  see  him? 

U.  He  called  at  my  door  and  saluted  me. 

Buck.  Nay,  he  remained  belike  with  you. 

U.  No,  indeed ;  he  neither  came  into  my  house,  nor  did 
he  so  much  as  drink  with  me. 

Buck.  How  came  you  acquainted  with  him  ? 

U.  I  think  at  Cambridge;  but  I  have  often  been  in  his 

Buck.  Where? 

U.  At  various  places. 

A.  What  say  you?  did  you  make  these  books?  or 
know  you  who  made  them  ? 

U.  ^  cannot  answer  to  that  question,  my  lord. 


A.  Yoa  hnil  an  gmiil  my  you  vera  the  autliur. 

v.  TlmtwilUoiri>lluw. 

Cdiiliiuii.  Mr.  lltliil,  if  yew  l>p  not  llic  nutbor,  my  to; 
and  ifyuu  be,  coiifMut  it:  Von  amy  fiiul  fovoiir. 

U.  My  loni,  I  tiiitik  tiw.  niittidr,  fur  luiy  tliiojt  I  know* 
did  wdT;  aiul  1  kium  he  iv  iiK|uiroil  ndcr  lo  Ih;  pimihiiol ; 
thisnififfCf  I  think  it  my  duty  lo  biiiiliT  tlic  riiidinfr  uf  him 
out,  wliJcli  I  VMiiiiot  do  licttcr  liuiii  thiia. 

A.  And  why  in>,  I  pmy  you  ? 

V-  BtKMUnp,  ifitvury  oiii;  that  in  siiRunolMl  do  deny  it, 
the  KUtlior  nt  length  inusl  rieudo  Ik;  found  out, 

A.  Why  (hire  yon  not  cotifrui  it,  if  you  Im;  IIk!  auliuir? 
Dare  you  nut  Htiiiid  Ut  your  own  doiri^  ? 

U.  1  pr»rnmni  iKfiirr,  tJuit  I  likrd  oflhe  lirMikH,  and  (lie 
mattff  Iinndli-d  iu  th<-ni :  hut  wlwther  I  iiinilt^  tliein  or  n'>, 
I  will  iKit  iiHRwcT.  BeHiUn,  if  1  were  tlie  uullior,  1  think 
tliot  liy  law  1  need  nut  wiHWcr. 

A.  Tliiit  iittnic,  il'it  coiiconii^l  the  lou  of  your  life.* 

Furtifiqiie.  1  ftruy  yiiu  by  what  law  did  you  jwiioh  nt 
Newctrntle,  biting  forhiildtin  at  Kin^pilim  ? 

U.  I  kniiw  no  lawiifpiiiiiititfNni;iHf{  it  writ  the  ofiidnl.  Dr. 
Hone,  who  HileucuJ  int;;  wluwc  authority  reacketh  not  out 
of  his  own  nrrlidmrmiry. 

F.  What  wn>  the  i-AUfM!  lor  Hhidi  you  were  nilcmx-d? 

V.  Kurrly  J  cannot  U-]\,  nor  yet  tNui|fiue. 

A.  Wrll,  whiit  Miy  you  of  Uiohc  IjuoJwI  who  made 
tbpm  I  and  whiire  wen;  they  |irintt:d  ? 

U.  TIioukIi  1  «»mld  Ml  your  Icvdnliip,  yet  dare  I  not; 
for  the  rcnjuitiH  liitlore  alleged. 

B.  I  ivuy  you  let  nu;  ask  you  a  qnoitiun  or  two  OHiccrn- 
lAK  vourlwoK. 

IT.  It  M  not  ynt  proved  to  be  mine.  Dot  1  will  antwcr  to 
any  thing  concornuig  the  matter  of  the  book,  M  f«i  M  ( 

B.  You  cnll  it  a  DcmonitnUion.  1  pray  you  wlial  is  a 
Pononiliation  i     I  bi.-lievc  you  know  nhol  it  U. 

U.  Ifyoii  lind  ukknd  nu-  \hitt  (junlioa  wIm«  1  wu  a  \iof 
In  Cumitt'idf^'.  of  B  year'*  »tniHlijfx,  it  IimI  Imiu  a  note  uf 
ifptoriuv:r  in  mr,  toltare  IkO)  uiutMr  tonmmcTyou. 

KkitIuii.  Mr.  I'dal,  I  am  torry  llwl  yoo  will  iwt 
aiuwi-r,  nor  lake  an  oatii.  Tou  nrtt  llkn  the  •etuiaa'T 
prresf « ;  wbo  aay,  thore  b  no  law  to  fioa|fal|lMRU  utjuai** 

tJDAL.  is 

tr.  Sir^  if  it  be  a  liberty  by  law,  there  is  no  Teaionrwfij 
they  should  not  challenge  it. 

Buck.  My  lord,  it  is  no  standing  with  him.  What 
sttyest  thou,  wilt  thou  take  the  oath  ? 

U.  I  have  said  as  much  thereuiito  ^  I  ckAj  my  lord. 

Aub^ry  and  Lewin.  It  on  hare  taken  it  heretofore;  and 
why  will  yon  not  take  it  now  ? 

U.  I  Was  called  to  answer  certain  articles  upon  mine  oaflt. 
when  I  freely  confessed  that  against  myself,  which  coura 
never  haVe  been  proved ;  and  when  my  friends  labodred  t6 
have  me  restored,  the  archbishop  answered,  that  there  was 
sufficient  matter  against  me,  by  my  own  confession,  why  | 
tiionld  not  be  restored :  whereupon  1  covenanted  with  mine 
own  heart,  never  to  be  mine  own  acciiser  in  that  sort 

B.  Will  you  take  an  oath  ? 

U.  I  dare  not  take  it. 

B.  Then  yon  mu^  go  to  prison,  and  it  will  go  hard  with 
you.  For  you  must  remain  there  until  you  be  glad  to 
take  it. 

U.  God's  will  be  done.  I  had  rather  go  to  prison  with 
m  mod  conscience,  than  be  at  liberty  with  an  ill  one, 

B.  Your  sentence  for  this  time  is,  to  go  close  prisoner  to 
the  Ghitehouse,  and  you  are  beholden  to  my  lords  here,  fliat 
ihey  have  heard  you  so  low. 

tr.  I  acknowledge  it,  and  do  humbly  thank  their  hooouit 
for  it.» 

In  the  conclusion,  Mr.  Udal  was  sent  to  the  Gatehons<$. 
Take  the  account  in  his  own  words.  <<  I  was  carri^  to 
the  Gatehouse  by  a  messenger,  who  delivered  me  with  a 
warrant  to  be  kept  close  prisofier ;  and  not  to  be  sufiered  to 
have  pen,  ink,  or  paper,  pr  any  person  to  speak  to  me. 
Thus  I  remained  half  a  year,  in  all  which  time,  my  wife 
could  not  get  leave  to  come  to  me,  saving  only  that  in  the 
hearing  of  the  keeper,  she  mirht  speak  to  me,  and  I  to  her, 
of  such  things  as  she  should  think  meet :  although  she 
made  suit  to  uie  commissioners,  and  also  to  the  council,  for 
more  liberty.  All  this  time,  my  chamber-fellows  were 
seminary  priests,  traitors,  and  professed  papists.  At  the 
^A  €^  half  a  year,  I  was  removed  to  the  White-lion  in 
Sottfliwaik;  and  iQien  carried  to  the  assizes  at  Croydon. "f 

JuFf  S4tb,  Mr.  Udal,  with  fetters  on  his  legs,  was  taken 
4o  Croydon,  and  indicted  upon  the  statute  of  23  £liz.  cap.  3. 

*  State  iVyaU,  toI.  t  p.  144—146.    fedU.  1719. 
t  Peiree't  Ylndicstto,  put  h  p.  in. 


before  Baran  Olarke  and  Serjeant  Puckering,  for  -wrlilng 
a  wicked,  scandalous,  ahd  seditious  libel,  entitled  <<  A 
Demonstration  of  the  Truth  of  that  Discipline  which 
Christ  hath  prescribed  in  his  Word  for  the  Govenunent  ot 
bis  Church,  m  all  Times  and  Places,  until  the  end  of  the 
World/'  It  was  dedicated  '^  To  the  supposed  govemort  of 
ihe  chi^rch  of  England,  the  archbish<^,  lordAiishops, 
archdeacons,  and  (he  rest  of  that  order/'  In  the  dedication  of 
the  book,  are  these  words,  as  inserted  in  the  indictment^and 
upon  which  the  charge  against  him  was  founded :  '^  Who 
<<  can,  without  blushing,  deny  you  (the  .bishops)  to  be 
<<  the  cause  of  all  ungodliness :  seeing  your  government  is 
}^  that  which  ^iyeth  leave  to  a  man  to  be  any  thing,  saving 
<^  a  sound  christian  ?  For  certainly  it  is  more  free  in  these 
<^  days,  to  be  a  papist,  anabaptist,  of  the  family  of  love ; 
<^  yea,  any  most  wicked  one  whatsoever,  than  that  which  we 
^  should  be.  And  I  could  live  these  twenty  ^ears,  any 
^  such  in  England ;  (yea  in  a  bishop's  house,' it  may  be) 
^  and  never  be  much  molested  for  it.  So  true  is  that  which 
<<  you  are  charged  with,  in  a  ^  Dialogue'  lately  come  forth 
^<  against  you,  and  since  burned  bv  you,  that  you  care  for 
^  nothing  but  the  maintenance  of  your  dignities,  be  it  to 
^^  the  damnation  of  your  own  souls,  and  infinite  millions 
<^  more."*  His  indictment  said,  <^  That  he  not  having  the 
fear  of  God  before  his  eyes,  but  being  stirred  up  by  the 
.  imii^ation  of  the  devils  did  maliciously  publish  a  scandalous 
and  infamous  libel  against  the  queen's  majesty,  her  crown 
and  dignity ."f 

,  Mr.  U(ml  being  brought  to  the  bar,  and  his  indictment 
read,  humbly  reouested  their  ^^  lordships  to  grant  him  to 
answer  by  counsel ;"  which  the  jud^  peremptorily  refused, 
•aying,  ^<  You  cannot  have  it  Therefore  answer  your 
indictment''  He  then  pleaded  nU  guillj/j  and  put  himself 
iipon  the  trial  of  his  country .{  In'  opening  the  case,  Mr. 
Daulton,  the  queen's  counsel,  made  a  long  invective  against 
the  new  discipline,  as  he  was  pleased  to  call  it,  which,  he 
affirmed,  was  not  to  be  found  m  the  wonl  of  God.  When 
he  had  done,  Mr.  Udal  observed,  that,  as  this  was  a  contro- 
yersv  among  learned  divines,  he  thought  Mr.  Daulton 
mi^bt  have  suspended  his  judjH^ent,  especially  as  he  himself 
had  formerly  snewed  some  likinff  to  the  same  cause.  Upon 
which  the  judge  said,  <<  Sirnm !  sirrah !  answer  to  the 


•  FoUer^t  Cbvrch  HU(.  h.  is.  p.  Sgl,  999.— 8(ryp€*i  Wbitcifl,  p.  941. 
t  Stetc  Trytdt,  toI.  1.  p.  147.  t  l^M. 

UDAL.  16 

Hmtter.^^^    ^'  Mr.  Daulton/-  said  he,  '^  go  on  to  prore  tba 
points, in  the  indictment;"  Tvhich  were  the  following: 
'    1.  That  Mr.  Udal  was  the  author  of  the  book* 

S.  That  he  had  a  malicious  intent  in  making  it. 

3.  That  the  matters  in  the  indictment  -were  felony  by  tbo 
statute  of  23  £liz«  cap.  3. 

-  The  first  point  to  be  proved^  was,  that  Mr.  tJdal  was  the 
author  c^  the  book;  and  here  it  is.  observable,  that  his 
judges  did  not  stand  upon  the  formality  of  bringing  him 
anuhis  accusers  face  to  face,  and  cause  them  to  appear  as 
witnesses  against  him  in  open  court ;  but  only  their  exami- 
nations were  produced,  to  which  the  register  swore.  And, 
first,  Stephen  Chatfield^s  articles  were  brought  forwards, 
containing  a  report  of  certain  papers  he  had  seen  in  Mr. 
UdaUs  study.  Upon  seeing  them,  and  asking  whose  they 
were,  Mr.  Udal  answered,  ^'  a  friend's.'^  Chatfield  then 
desired  him  to  get  rid  of  th^ ;  for  he  feared  they  concerned 
the  slate.  He  added,  that  Mr.  Udal  told  him  at  another 
time,  that  if  the  bishops  put  him  to  silence,  he  would  give 
them  such  a  blow  as  they  never  had.  Chatfield  was  then 
called  to  witness  these  things,  but  he  did  not  appear. 
Daulton  said,  he  went  out  of  tlie  way  on  purpose^  And 
when  the  judge  said,'"  Mr.  Udal,  you  are  glad  of  that;'* 
the  prisoner  replied,  "  My  lord,  I  heartily  wish  he  were 
Jbere..  For,  as  I  am  sure  ne  could  never  say  any  thing  to 
prove  this  point ;  so  I  am  able  to  prove,^that  he.  is  very 
sorry  that  he  ever  made  anv  complaint  against  me,  con- 
fessing he  did  it  in  anger  wnen  Martin  first  came  out,  and 
by  their  suggestions  whom  he  has  since  proved  to  be  very 
bad  men.''  Mr.  Udal  added,  "  That  the  book  was  pub- 
lished before  he  had  this  conversation  with  Chatfield."  And 
as  he  proceeded,  the  judge  interrupted  him,  saying,  the  case 
was  sufficiently  clear: 

The  examination  of  Nicholas  Tomkins  was  next  pro- 
duced. This  Tomkins  was  now  beyond  sea,  but  the  paper 
said,  that  Mr.  Udal  had  told  him,  he  was  the  author.  But 
Tomkins  himself  afterwards  said,  "That  he  would  not  for 
a  thousand  worlds  affirm  any  more,  than  that  he  heard  Mr. 
Udal  say,  that  he  would  not  doubt,  but  set  his  name  to  the 
book,  if  he  had  indifferait  judges."  When  Mr.  Udal 
ofkied  to  produce  his  witnesses  to  prove. this,  the  judge 
said,  "  That  because  the  witnesses  were  against  the  queen's 
majesty,  they  could  not  be  heard." 
*  The  contession  of  Henry  Sharp  of  Northampton,  was 
next  read,  who^  upon  his  oath  before  the  lord  chamberlain, 


had  declared,  ^<  That  he  heard  Mr.  Pcnrr  say,  that  Mr. 
Udal  ^as  the  author  of  the  Demonstraiiot:.  • 

This  was  all  the  evidence  of  the  fact,  upon  which  he 
was  convicted,  not  a  single  living  witnesn  being  produced 
in  court.  The  poor  man  had,  therefore,  no  opportunity  to 
ask  anj  questions,  or  refute  the  evidence.  And  what 
methods  were  used  to  extort  theae  confi^ions,  may  be  easily 
imagined  from  their  non-appearance  in  court,  and  having 
testincd  their  sorrow  for  what  they  had  done.  What  man 
of  common  understanding,  would  hang  his  dog  on  such 
evidence  as  this  ? 

To  prove  Mr.  Udal  guilty  of  sedition,  and  bring  him 
within  the  statute,  the  counsel  insisted,  that  his  threatening 
the  bishopsj  who  were  the  queen's  officers,  was,  by  con' 
■tniction,  threatening  the  queen  herself.     The  prisoneir 
desired  liberty  to  explain  the  passage ;  when  he  insisted, 
that  offence  against  the  bishops  was  not  sedition  against  the 
quoen.    But  all  that  could  be  said,  was  set  aside,  and  the 
judge  ^vc  it  for  law,  even  without  allowing  the  twO 
remainmg  points  of  the  indictment  to  be  examined,  <^  That 
they  who  spake  against  the  queen's  government  in  causes 
ecclesiastical,  or  her  ecclesiastical  laws,  proceedings,  and 
officers,  defamed  the   queen    herself."      Upon    this   the 
jurv  were  directed  to  find  him  guilty  of  the  fad^  and  the 
ludgcs  taking  upon  themselves  tlie  \yo\\\i  of  law,  condemned 
liim  as  a  felon.    Fuller  even  confesses,  that  the  proof  against 
liim  was  not  piwiant ;  for  it  watf  generally  believecJ,  that 
he  wrote  not  the  book,  but  only  the  preface.f    His  enemies 
might  as  well  have  condemned  him  without  the  formality 
of  a  trial.    The  statute  was  undoubtedly  strained  beyond 
its  meaning,  and  evidently  with  a  design  io  reacli  his  life. 
The  good  man  behaved  himself  with  great  modesty  and 
discretion  at  the  bar ;  and  having  said  as  much  for  himself 
as  must  have  satisfied  any  equitable  persons,  he  submitted 
io  the  judgment  of  the  court. 

<<  The  case  of  Mr.  Udal  seems  singular."  says  Hume^ 
«  aven  in  the  arbitrary  times  in  which  he  lived.  He  was 
thrown  into  prison  on  suspicion  of  harinf^  pnblished  a  book 
•gainst  the  bishops,  and  brought  to  his  trial  for  this  oifencc*. 
It  was  pretended  that  the  biriiops  were  part  of  the  qneen^ft 

Klitical  body ;  and  to  speak  against  them,  watf  to  attadl 
r,  and  was,  therefore,  felony  by  the  statute.   This  waa  not 

•  atrype*!  AbmIi,  vol.  Ui.   Appet.  f%  Mb«»8Mtta  Tryahf  «•!•  f.  p. 
f  Fuller*!  ChsKli  Hlit.  b.  ii.  p. 

UDAL.  17 

the  only  iniquity  to  which  Udal  was  exposed.  The  judges 
would  not  allow  the  jury  to  ^temdne  any  thing  but  the 
facty  of  his  being  the  author  of  the  book,  without  examining 
nis  intention,  or  the  import  of  his  words.  In  order  to  pro?e 
the  fapt,  they  did  not  produce  a  single  witness  to  the  court : 
they  only  read  the  testimony  of  two  or  three  persons  absent. 
They  would  not  allow  Udal  to  produce  any  exculpatory 
evidence,  saying,  it  was  not  permitted  against  the  crown. 
His  refusing  io  swear  that  he  was  not  the  author  of  the 
book,  was  employed  against  him  as  the  stron^t  proof  of 
his  ffuilt.  Notwithstanding  these  multiplied  iniouities,  the 
Terdict  of  the  jury  was  brought  a^inst  him.  For,  as  the 
queen  was  extremely  bent  upon  nis  prosecution,  it  was 
impossible  he  could  escape."* 

Mr.  Udal  was  convicted  at  tlie  summer  assizes,  1590,  but 
did  not  receive  sentence  till  the  Lent  following.  In  the 
mean  time,  pardon  was  offered  him,  if  he  would  sign  the 
fi>llowii^  recantation,  dated  February,  1591 : 

"  I,  Jo\m  Udal,  have  been  heretofore,  by  due  course  of 
*^  law,  convicted  of  felony,  for  pennii^  or  setting  forth  a 
''  certain  book,  called  '  The  Demonstration  of  Discipline ;' 
<^  wherein  false,  slanderous,  and  seditious  matters  are 
'^  contained  against  her  majesty's  prerogative  royal,  her 
^'  crown  and  dignity,  and  against  her  laws  and  government, 
<^  ecclesiastical  and  temporal,  by  law  establishol  under  her 
^'  highn^^  and  tending  to  the  erecting  a  new  form  of 
'^  government,  contrary  to  her  laws.  All  which  points,  I 
^'  do  now,  by  the  grace  of  God,  perceive  to  be  very 
^'  dangerous  to  the  peace  of  this  realm  and  church,  seditious 
^^  in  the  commonwealth,  and  infinitely  offensive  to  the 
"  queen's  most  excellent  majesty.  So  as  thereby,  now  seeing 
^'  the  grievousness  of  my  offence,  I  do  most  humbly,  on 
^'  my  knees,  before  and  in  this  presence,  submit  myself  to 
<^  the  mercy  of  her  highness,  being  most  sorry  that  I  have 
^^  so  deeply  and  worthily  incurred  her  majesty's  indignation 
<^  against  me ;  promising,  if  it  shall  please  God  to  move  her 
'^  royal  heart  to  have  compassion  on  me,  a  most  sorro\?ful, 
^'  convicted  person,  that  I  will,  for  ever  hereafter,  forsake  all 
^'  Undutiful  and  dangerous  courses,  and  demean  myself 
"  dutifully  and  peace&ly ;  for  I  acknowledge  her  laws  to  be 
^^  both  lawful  and  godly,  and  to  be  obeyed  by  every  subject."+ 

No  arguments  or  threatenings  of  the  judges  could  prevail 
upon  Mr.  Udal  to  sign  the  above  recantation.    He  could 

•  Hume's  Hist,  of  £ng.  vol.  v.  p.  345,  S46. 

t  8trype*8  Aonais,  vol.  W.  p.  8a»  9t.— Baker's  MS.  CoUec.  vol.  ZT.p.  45. 
VOL.  II.  C 


not,  for  the  world,  tiabscribe  to  that  ids  irue^  whteh  ht  knew 
to  be  fdlse.  He,  therefore^  resolved  to  suffer  on  the  gallop 
rather  than  be  guilty  of  such  pretarieatioti  and  hypdorilrjr. 
&ut  the  day  before  fiibnteiice  vftcs  to  be  passed  upon  hiiuu 
fae  oifleied  the  fMlowihg  MbmiBSiim,  dirawn  u]^  by  biSoMf^ 
dated  February  19,  1591 : 

<<  Concerning  the  book  wherecrf*  I  itas  by  due  touUM  of 
^  bw  convicted,  by  refenrinff  itay^df  to  th^  trial  of  Hie  laW^ 
<<  and  that  by  the  verdict  cftiireife  tneh,  I  am  found  to  b6 
^  the  author  of  it,  for  "HfUch  cause  an  MiMt  Subihtesiuta  ik 
^  teorthtty  required  aivd  offidred  of  iwe.  Although  I  ^MiHOl 
^<  disavow  the  muse  and  sufostttuce  ^tiA  d(MsiHiV^  debMSd 
*^  in  it,  which  I  must  needs  aicknoWledge  td  be  hoiy^  and  fM 
^  far  as  I  can  conceive  of  it)  agreeable  tb  the  w^rd  of  God; 
^^  yeft  I  confess,  the  manner  m  Writing  it  is  ^neh,  in  some 
^^  paits,  as  may  worthHy  be  bhmed,  atkd  might  piioVt)ke  hdt 
<<  majesty's  indignation.  Wherefore  the  triid  df  th^  hm 
<<  imputing  to  me  all  such  defaults  as  are  in  that  book^  Mil 
*<  laying  the  punishment  of  the  same  fai  m6st  grievous 
<<  manner  upon  me ;  as  mv  mofit  humble  sikit  to  her  inosl 
^^  excellent  majesty  is,  that  hier  mercy  and  gracious  pardon 
<^  may  fVee  me  flrom  the  guUt  and  offence,  which  the  said 
"^^  trial  of  the  law  hath  cast  upon  me,  and  l^irther,  of  h^r 
"  great  clemency,  to  restore  me  to  the  comfort  of  my  life 
^<  and  liberty ;  so  do  I  promise,  in  aH  humble  submission  to 
^^  God  and  her  majesty,  to  caity  myself  in  .tiie  whole 
<^  course  of  my  liife,  in  such  humble  and  dutiful  dbedience. 
<<  as  shaU  befit  a  minister  of  the  gospel  and  a  dutiful 
<<  subject,  fervently  and  continually  praying  for  the  good 
*<  preservation  of  her  highnesses  pretjeus  life  and  happy 
"  government,  to  the  honour  of  Go^,  and  comfort  oi^hcr 
^  loyal  and  dutiful  subjects."* 

Previous  to  this,  Mr.  Udal  had  often,  and  with  great 
teamestness,  petitioned  his  judges  for  their  mediation  with  the 
quwn.f  In  his  letter  to  Puckering,  dated  November  11, 
1590,  he  thus  expressed  himself: — "  I  resolved  to  call  to 
your  r(*mrml)rancc  my  hard  estate,  which  I  pray  you  to 
accept  as  proc<*edin£i:  from  him  who  wishdh  as  well  to  you 
as  to  his  own  soul.  I  nei*d  not  oiler  to  yonr  lordship's  con« 
sideration  of  Ihe  miserable  state  I  nm  in,  being  deprived  of 
that  living  Inr  which  myself,  my  wife  and  children,  should 
be  sonpnirlofl ;  and  s|)en(ling  the  little  substance  which 
God  has  given  me,  in  this  tedious  state  of  imprisonment; 

•  Htr>|»c*H  Aiiniiltf,  vol.  iv.  p.  n.— State  Tryalty  vol.  i.  p.  152—165. 
f  linker*!  MH.  CvUec.  vol.  sv.  p.  10—62. 

USAL.  1^ 

and  duM  expofiifig  hoik  ne  and  them  to  \mgg^  and 
misery^  I  praj  you  eall  to  miod,  by  whal;  cdnnie  tiiii 
miseij  WII8  brought  upon  me ;  and  if  you  fisd,  by  dai^ 
consideration,  that  I  am  worthy  to  leceive  the  pnnfaiiHBiirt 
from  the  (sfinteace  of  upr^ht  jiuBtice,  I  pray  yoa  ha^en  Ac 
execution  of  the  same :  tor  it  were  faei^,  in  Ais  case,  tor 
me  to  die  tha^  to  Uye. '  But  if  it  a{^)€ar  to  your  con« 
jdufncas,  as  I  h<^  it  will)  tfaot  ao  jualioe  against  her 
majesty  can  possibly  be  in  me,  seeing  I  pray  daily  tor 
her  maiesty^A  piosperky  and  happiness,  bpU|  in  soul  and 
body,  th^  {  do  humbly  and  aaartil^  desire  you  to  be  « 
means  that  I  may  be  released.  In  doing  this,  I  shall  net 
enly  forget  thi^  haid  opinion  copceiv^  of  your  couises 
agauut  me,  but  also  pray  heaitily  unto  God  to  bury  the  aasM^ 
arith  the  .sest  of  your  sins,  in  the  grave  of  his  scm,  Jasua 
Christ."  Mr.  Udal  wrote  several  other  lettors,  eiq>iassed 
in  most  humble  and  dut^l  languageJ»  Ait  iall  these  ap- 
plications were  to  no  purpose.  The  court  would  do  BotUog 
iiU  he  signed  their  sidinussion ;  which,  being  directly  coBr 
Ijrary  to  the /Convictions  of  his  conscience,  heuttoily  refused. 
AX  the  dose  of  4he  Lent  assizes,  Mr.  Udal,  being  called 
ixk  the  bar,  wilh  die  rest  of  the  &ilQnB,  and  adLed  what  he 
haA  to  say,  why  judgment  ishould  not  be  given  against 
bim,  according  to  tiie  veidiot,  ddiveied  ft  p^per  to  the 
/c»ui4,jC0iisisti^.ef  certain  reasons;  the  priocipai  of  wfaicj^ 
oreoe  the  toUowing : 

1.  ''  Because  ti^  juryweredixeeted  only  to  find  the/od^ 
viHbeMier  I  was  the  author  of  the  book;  aad  were  expressly 
^Q<^9^  by  ypur  lordafaip  from  inquuing.  into  the  uAtM^ 
.wkhout  a^ich  there  is  no  felimy. 

2.  ^<  Ttie  men  on  the  jury  were  not  left  to  their  awn 
consciences,  but  were  wrought  upon,  partly  by  |iroffMret> 
assurii^  them  it  should  be  no  further  danger  to  me,  bot 
4end  to  my  good ;  and  partly  by /ear,  as  appears  fixim  the 
^ief  some  of  them  have  manifestal  ever  since. 

3.  ^  The  statute,  in  the  true  meaning  of  it,  is  thought  not 
to  reach  my  case,  th^e  being  nothing  ^spoken  in  the  book 
^^oncerning  her  majesty's  person,  but  in  duly  and  honour; 
1  'beseedi  you,  therefore,  to  consider,  "vi^iether  drawing  it  bom 
dier  royail  person  to  the  bid^c^,  as  being  part  fii  her  body 
•politic,  be  nota  violentdepraving  and  wiiestmgof  the  statute. 

4.  -^^  But  if  the  statute  be  tal(:en  as  it  is  urged,  the  felonjr 
jnust consist  in  the  wusdidkms intent,'  wherein  i  appeal  finrt 

•  Sliype^s  AmuOiy  voL  if « p.  S|8-^a0. 


Ui  G^nI,  and  tlicn  to  nil  men  who  have  knrmn  the  eoune 
of  my  life,  and  to  your  lordnhipft*  own  coniiciencesy  wfaelbi:r 
you  can  find  me  guilty  of  any  act,  in  all  my  life,  that 
•avoured  of  any  malice  or  maiicioiM  intent  against  her 
nutj^y*  And  if  your  comiciefirefi  clear  me  before  God^  I 
faofie  you  will  not  procured  to  judgment, 

b.  ^'  By  the  lawn  ot  God,  and,  I  tni*t  aliifi,  by  the  lawa  of 
the  land,  the  witneMes  ought  to  have  been  produced  in  open 
court  lx;fore  me ;  but  they  were  not,  nor  any  thing  else, 
only  certain  papers  and  reports  of  defiositions*  This  kind 
of  evidence  is  not  allowed  in  the  case  of  lands,  and,  there- 
fore, it  ought  much  less  to  Ih;  allowevi  in  the  case  of  life. 

6*  "  None  of  the  di;prwitions  directly  prove  me  to  be  the 
author  of  the  Imok  in  qui?stion;  and  the  principal  witiMM 
is  wo  grieved  for  what  he  has  done,  that  he  is  ashamed  to 
come  where  he  is  known. 

7*  ^<  Supposing  I  were  the  author  of  the  book,  let  it  be 
lememberra  that  the  said  book,  for  substance,  contains 
notliing  but  what  is  taught  and  believed  by  the  best 
reformed  churches  in  Europe ;  so  that  in  condemning  me, 
you  comlemn  all  such  nations  and  churches  as  hold  tlie 
same  doctrine.  If  the  punishment  be  for  the  manner  dl 
writing)  this  may  be  thought  by  some  worthy  of  an 
admoniiion^  otfme^  ox  $ome  nhart  impriMonment ;  but  drMh 
for  an  error  ofsuch  a  kind,  cannot  but  be  extreme  cruelty, 
against  one  who  has  emhMvoured  to  shew  himself  a  dutiful 
subject,  and  a  faithful  minister  of  the  g<ispel. 

"  If  all  this  prevail  not,"  says  Mr.  IJdal,  "  y<4  my 
Redeemer  liveth,  to  whom  I  commcmd  myficlf,  and  say,  as 
Jeremiah  once  said,  in  a  case  not  much  unlike  mine, 
^  Behold,  I  am  in  your  hands  to  do  with  me  whatsoever 
seemeth  good  unto  you ;  but  know  you  this,  that  if  you  )mt 
me  to  death,  vou  shall  bring  innocent  blrxxl  upon  your 
own  heads,  and  upon  the  land.*  K%  the  blofxl  oi  Abel^  so 
tlie  blood  of  Udal^  will  cry  to  Gwl  with  a  loud  voice,  and 
the  righteous  Judge  of  the  land  will  require  it  at  the  luwds 
of  all  who  shall  be  found  guilty  of  it."* 

All  that  lie  could  sa^  proved  unavailalile.  His  reasons 
were  rejected ;  and  his  judges  remained  inflexible^  unless 
lie  would  sign  the  recantation  drawn  np  ton  Um ;  wmeb  bis 
conscience  not  suflfcring  him  to  do^  MBfOMB  of  dartb  was 
passeil  upon  him  Febniarjr  SOtiii  wad  wamwHtm  wnmAy  •  J 
awarded.  WhenbereoeiviMl'llii^  ■ 

UDAL.  21 

be  was  hot  in  the  least  dismayed,  bui  with  great  serioosnessy^ 
said,  "God's  will  be  done."«  The  next  morning,  the 
judges,  by  direction  from  court,  ^ve  private  orders  to  put 
off  his  excy^ution,  until  her  majesty's  pleasure  was  further 
known.  All  this  was  done  by  the  particular  appointment 
of  Whitgift.  "  For  Dr.  Bancroft,  by  his  order,  wrote  to 
Puckering,  signifying,  that,  if  Udal's  submission  did  not 
satisfy  him,  it  was  the  archbishop's  pleasure  that  he  should 
proceed  to  judgment,  and  command  his  execution ;  but 
afterwards  defer  the  same,  till  her  majesty's  pleasure  be 
consulted. "f  In  the  mean  tune,  the  Dean  of  St.  Paul's  and 
Dr.  Andrews  were  sent  to  persuade  him  to  sign  the  recan- 
tation ;  which  he  still  peremptorily  refused.  And,  l)ecause 
the  queen  had  been  misinformed  of  his  opinions,  Mr.  Udal, 
by  the  motion  of  Sir  Walter  Rawleigh,  who  highly 
esteemed  him,  sent  her  majesty  a  short  confession  of  hit 
faith,  as  follows : 

"I  believe,  and  have  often  preached,"  says  he,  "that 
the  church  of  England  is  a  part  oiibe  true  visible  church, 
the  word  and  sacraments  being  truly  dispensed ;  for  which 
reason,  I  have  communicateid  with  it  several  years  at; 
Kingston,  and  a  year  at  Newcastle-upon-Tyne;  and  do 
still  desire  to  be  a  preacher  in  the  same  church.  There* 
fore,  I  utterly  renounce  the  schism  and  separation  of  the 
Brownists. — I  do  allow  the  articles  of  idigion,  as  far  as 
they  contain  the  doctrine  of  faith  and  sacraments,  according 
to  law. — I  believe  the  queen's  majesty  hath,  and  ought  to  ^ 
have,  supreme  authority  over  all  persons,  in  all  causes 
ecclesiastical  and  civil.  Ahd  if  the  prince  command  any 
thing  contrary  to  the  word  of  God,  it  is  not  lawful  for  sub- 
jects to  rebdl  or  resist,  but,  with  patience  and  humility,  to 
bear  the  punishment  laid  upon  them. — ^I  believe  the  church, 
rightly  reformed,  ought  to  be  governed  by  ministers,  assisted 
by  ddersy  a&  in  the  foreign  reformed  churches. — I  believe 
the  censures  of  the  church  ought  merely  to  concern  the 
soul,  and  may  not  impeach  any  subject,  much  less  any 
prince^  in  liberty  of  body,  goods,  dominion,  or  any  earthly 
privile^:  nor  do  I  believe  that  k  christian  prince  ought 
otharwise  to  be  subject  to  church  censures,  than  our 
gracious  queen  professes  herself  to  be  by  the  preaching  of 

•  State  Tryals,  toI.  i.  p.  157. 

t  Baker*s  MS.  Collec.  yo\.  it.  p.  105.— Notwithstanding  these  barba- 
rous proceed in|^,  Whitgift  is  styled  a  pioos  and  a  prudent  prelate,  and  a 
■lan  not  given  to  boisterous  things,  bat  one  just  and  fair  io  all  bis  ways.—- 
fTharton'i  Troubles  ofX^tudy  vol.  i.  p.  80. 


2e  word  and  the  adroiii&tlratioii  df  the  Rac'ranients.  My 
Nrire  ifl)  that  her  majeity  mAy  be  truly  informed  of  every 
thing  1  hold)  that  I  may  obtain  her  gracious  farouri 
without  which,  I  do  not  wish  to  live/'* 

This  declaration  of  his  <liith,  Mr.  Udal  e^nt  to  Sif 
IValter  Rawleigh,  requesting  him  to  present  it  to  her 
mai^ty.  In  the  letter  enclosing  this  declaration,  dated 
February  32,  1591,  I^e  earnestly  solicits  this  honouraUe 
person  to  be  a  means  with  the  ^ueen  in  procuring  his 
pardon,  or  changing  his  sentence  into  banishment,  that  the 
knd  might  not  be  charged  with  his  blood.  In  this  letter 
he  says,  <^  I  beseech  you  to  be  a  means  of  appeasing  h^ 
m^esty's  indignation,  conceived  against  me  from  false 
accusation.  I^r'God  is  my  witness,  that  no  earthly  thing 
wHs  ever  so  dear  to  me,  as  to  nonour  her  majesty,  and  to  draw 
her  subjects  id  do  the  same :  and  of  the  truth  of  this,  I  tmft^ 
my  very  adversaries  will  be  witnesses  when  I  am  dead.'*f 

Kinj^  James  of  Scotland  wtote,  also,  to  the  queen,  in 
Ij^haU  of  Mr.  Udal,  nioit  eamestlv  requesting,  that,  f6r  tibe 
sake  of  his  intercemon,  the  good  man  mignt  be  spared^ 
promising  the  same  fatour  to  her  maiosty  in  any  matter  shd 
might  recommend  to  fail  attention.  This  letter,  dated  Jont 
10,  1591,  is  still  pre8erved.t  The  Turkey  merchants, 
about  the  same  time^  offered  to  send  him  as  chaplain  to  oM 
of  their  fiietories  abroad,  if  he  might  have  bis  life  and 
liberty ;  to  which  Mr.  Udal  consentra,  as  appears  from  fais 
letter  to  the  lord  treasurer.  He  says, ''  My  case  is  lamentable, 
having  now  been  above  three  years  in  durance,  which 
niakds  me  humbty  desire  your  lordship's  favour,  that  I  maj 
be  released  lirbm  my  imprisonment,  tne  Turkey  merchalili 
kaving  my  consent  io  so  llito  Syria  or  Guinea,  tikene  to 
ranain  two  years  with  their  factories,  if  my  liberty  can  ba 
obtained.^'  The  archbishop,  it  is  said,  yieklecl  to  tliis 
petition ;  the  keeper  promised  io  furtlier  it ;  and  the  £ail 
of  Essex  had  a  draught  of  his  pardon  ready  prefwed,  with 
this  condition,  that  he  should  never  return  without  llm 
queen's  license.  But  her  ntajest^  never  signed  it ;  and  the 
Turkey  ships  departing  without  him,poor  unhappy  Udal  died 
a  few  months  alter,  in  the  Marshals^  quite  heart-broken 
with  sorrow  and  grief,  towards  the  close  of  the  year  1592;^ 

Fuller  denominates  Mr.  Udal  a  learned  man,  Uameless  in 

«  Strype*!  WhKsift,  p.  875,  STS.^Baker*!  M8.  CoUee.  Tol.  xt.  p.  54^ 

+  Srrype*!  Whltgift,  p.  S7S. 

±  Poller*!  Church  HUt.  b.  fx.  u.  90S,  204. 

S  8trype»f  Whltgia,  p.  S77. 

biB  lifib^  poweiful  \fk  pniy^y  w4  M  1^  profitable  Ihmi 
pawful  in  preadiing.t  This  is  ceitfiisJy  a  very  hi^ 
cbaraQter  from  a  jie^ilpiis  cQpfomust ;  w4  vhat  a  pity  it  vas. 
tbat  so  excellent;  a  aqinLiter  of  CJirist  should  meet  witk 
such  cruel  treailtaieot  I  Ui^  rysmains  were  decef^lly  interred 
in  the  church-yard  pf  8t.  George's  in  SoDthwark,  near  to 
the  grave  of  the  faiinouih  Bishop  Bonner.  |Iis  funeral  was 
attended  by  greajt  nipibers  of  the  Jj^ndon  ministers,  whok 
baring  yisited  hiniL  jn  prison,  ih>w  wept  over  the  mortal 
remains  of  tfiat  man,  wbose  faith  and  patience  were  long 
and  severely  tried,  and  whp  died  fat  uie  testimony  of  a 
gOio<}  conscience^  and  stands  as  a  monument  of  the  oppres- 
sion and  cruelty  pf  tt^  goyerproent  puder  which  he  surared. 
Upon  King  Jamie^'s  accesi^ion  ip  the  cjrown  of  England, 
it  is  said,  the  first  person  be  iliquired  after  when  he  came 
itttp  this  Qduntry,  was  Mr.  Uda};  and  when  be  found  that 
be  was  dead,  be  Xf^e^^  ^^  9y  py  «^pl  then  the  greatei^ 

scholar  m  Eufope  is  4^."f 

His  WoaKs.— I.  The  Key  of  die  Holy  Toasue,  witfei  a  sl^Mjt 
pictionary,  and  a  l^axis  on  certain  Psalms,  1508. — ^2.  A  Commentiuj 
on  the  Lamentations  of  Jeremiah. — 3.  Various  Sermons. — 4.  llie 
State  of  the  Cfiurch  of  England  laid  open  in  a  Conference  between 
Diotrephes  a  Bishop,  TertuUus  a  Papist,  Demetrius  an  Usurer, 
Pandoch|i8.  ai^  {[fin-keeper^  and  Paul  a  Preacher  of  fhi^  Word  of 

John  Greenwood  was  a  laost  distinguished  puritan^ 
^A  a  ^reat  sufferer  for  nonconformity.  The  earliest 
Recount  pf  him  we  meet  witti,  is,  tbat  be  was  for 
soHije  tin^  chaplaii^  to  Lord  Rich;  but  afterwarda 
tenoi^Qed  his  episcppal  orders,  and  became  a  rigid 
firownist.  1%^  congregation  of  Brownists  about  London^ 
becpqiillg  pretty  numerous,  formed  themselves  into  a 
cbjurch,  A^.\Greenwood  be^  chosen  doctor  or  tcache^r^ 
^d  Mr.  Francis  Johtison  pastor,  by  the  sufferage  of  th^ 
Jb^tberhoG^.^  Tbis,  according  to  our  historians,  appeals 
to  haye  been  about  the  year  Ip^,  or  1593 ;  though  it  was 
piobably  ^  few  yeai^  earlier.| 

ypon  M^«  (jFreenwoodV  espousing  the  opinions  of  Iba 

•  •  •  • 

«  FQller'8  Church  |IisC.  b.  is.  p.  288, 8S3. 
f  Biog.  toritao.  toI.  tii.  p.  ixMd.    iBdit.  1747. 

^  The  first  of  these  articles,  Mr.  U^al  wrote  inprison,  and  he  is  oalj 
ntppoMil  to  be  the  anther  of  the  Iait-^Parf«  of  a  FhgUktr^  p.  SS3, 

iFor  a  circomstantial  accooojt  of  this,  see  Art.  Francii  JobUMio. 
Stryjpe*!  Anaals,  toI.  iii.  p.'  194;  i?,  p.  176, 


Brownists,  he  became  intimatelj  acquainted  with  Mir. 
Henry  Barrow,  a  lawyer,  and  a  zealous  Brownist.  Their 
history  is  so  closely  interwoven,  that  we  shall  consider  them 
in  connexion.  They  were  very  contracted  in  their  principles, 
and  fellow-sufferers  in  the  same  cause :  yet,  with  the  allow- 
ance of  some  mistaken  notions,  they  were  eminently  good 
men,  and  very  zealous  christians.  In  November,  1586, 
having  been  some  time  confined  in  prison,  they  were 
brought  before  the  high  conunission,  for  holding  and  pro- 
pagating schisroatical  and  seditious  opinions,  as  they  are 
c^alied  ;  the  most  remarkable  of  which  were  the  following: 
— *'  That  the  church  of  England  is  no  true  church. — That 
its  worship  is  downright  idolatry. — That  the  church  admits 
unsanctified  persons  to  her  communion. — That  the  con-, 
formable  ministers  have  no  lawful  calling. — That  the 
government  of  the  church  is  ungodly. — That  no  bishop,  or 

Treacher  in  the  church,  preacheth  sincerely  and  truly. — 
]hat  the  people  of  every  parish  ought  to  choose  their  own 
bishop.— That  every  elder,  though  he  be  no  doctor  or 
pastor,  is  a  bishop. — That  all  the  precise,  (meaning  those 
puritans  who  were  not  Brownists,)  who  refuse  the  ceremonies 
of  the  church,  strain  out  a  gnat,  and  swallow  a  camel,  and 
are  hypocrites. — -That  all  who  make  or  expound  any 
printed  or  written  catechisms,  are  idle  shepherds. — That  the 
children  of  ungodly  parents  ought  not  to  be  baptized.— 
And  that  to  use  set  forms  of  prayer  is  blasphemous."*  As 
we  have  this  catalogue  of  schismatical  and  seditious  opinions, 
from  those  who  would  not  be  at  all  disposed  to  favour  them, 
we  conclude  that  those  positions,  with  their  endeavouring  to 

Eropagate  them,  were  the  worst  crimes  with  which  they  could 
e  charged.  Some  of  their  sentiments  were,  undoubtedly, 
very  erroneous  and  uncharitable ;  but  others  were  true  and 
important,  shewing  their  views  of  religious  liberty. 

When  Mr.  Greenwood  and  Mr.  Barrow  appeared  before 
the  high  commission,  they  underwent  very  close  examina-  • 
tions ;  and  it  was  from  these  examinations  their  dangerous 
doctrines  were  collected.  The  examination  of  Mr.  Barrow, 
now  before  me^  is  an  article  so  little  known,  yet  so  curious, 
that  I  have  given  it,  though  at  considerable  length,  in  the 
following  note.f     It  appears  that  Mr.   Ghreienwood  was 

•  Heylin*t  Hist,  of  Pret.  p.  3^,  323.— CoHier't  Eccl.  Hist.  toI.  ii.  p. 

f  November  19*  1686,  Mr.  Barrow  appeared  at  Lambeth,  befbi^ 
Archbialiop  Whitgift,  bit  arcbdeacoa,  and  Dr.  Cotiu.  Oo  that  day,' 
beiDf  the  Lord's  dajr*  be  went  to  TMt  Bfr»  Greenwood,  and .  the  other 
bretiren,  imprisoned  in  the  Clink }  wiure  he  had  no  sooner  arrtred  than 


imprisoned  before  Mr.  Barrow ;  and  that,  in  the  numth  of 
November,  1586,  he  was  confined  in  the  Clink.  How  long 
he  had  been  in  a  state  of  imprisonment,  previouiB  to  that 
period,  it  is  now  difficult  to  ascertain.     We  are  toU^ 

Mr.  Shepherd,  the  keeper,  locked  him  up  in  the  priton,  tayioj^  he  bai 
orders  from  the  archbishop  so  to  do.  When  Mr.  Barrow  demanded 
a  sight  of  bis  warrant,  be  said  be  should  detain  him;  and  if  he  were 
wronged,- he  might  bring  an  action  against  him.  Upon  this,  the  keeper 
Immediately  went  to  the  archbishop  at  Lambeth,  and  presently  returned^ 
with  two  pursuivants.  Mr.  Barrow  was  then  put  into  a  boat,  and  carried  !• 
Lambeth.  On  their  way,  Watson,  one  of  the  pursuivants,  polled  oat  « 
paper  from  the  high  commission  court  at  Lambeth,  signifying  to  Mr. 
Barrow,  that  he  had  a  long  time  sought  him.  "  I  told  him,"  says  Mr. 
Barrow,  **  his  pains  deserved  thanks  neither  of  God  nor  me.  I  refused 
his  letter,  and  would  not  read  it,  being  under  the  arrest  of  the  keeper  of 
the  Clink,  who  then  sat  by  me."  Upon  their  arrival  at  the  archbishop's 
palace,  after  Watson  had  informed  his  master  of  what  had  passed  in  the 
boat,  Mr.  Barrow  was  brought  into  his  presence,  when  the  followiuf 
conference  took  place. 

Archbishop.  Is  your  name  Barrow  ? 

Barrow.  Yes. 

A.  It  is  told  me,  that  you  refuse  to  receive  or  obey  oor  letter.  Know 
yoii  what  you  do  ?  It  is  from  the  high  commissioners,  and  this  man  It  a 

B«  I  refused  to  receive  or  obey  that  letter,  at  that  time. 

A.  Why  so? 

B.  Because  I  was  under  arrest,  and  imprisoned  without  warrant,  and 
against  law  ;  it  was,  therefore,  too  late  to  bring  the  letter. 

A.  Why,  may  not  a  counsellor  commit  to  prison  by  his  bare  commandment? 

B.  That  is  not  the  question,  what  a  counsellor  may  do ;  but  whether 
thb  man  (pointing  to  the  keeper  of  the  Clink)  may  do  it,  without  warraat, 
by  the  law  of  the  land. 

A.  Know  you  the  law  of  the  land  ? 

B.  Very  little.  Yet  I  was  of  Gray  Vinn,  some  years.  (Here  Whitgifl 
msd  the  two  Doctors  derided  his  unskilfulness  in  the  law,  when  Mr. 
Barrow  said,)  Let  this  pass.  I  look  for  little  help,  by  law,  against  you.  I 
prey  you,  why  have  you  imprisoned  me,  and  sent  for  me  in  this  manner  I 

A.  That  shall  yon  know  upon  your  oath.     Will  you  swear  ? 

B.  I  hold  it  lawful  to  swear,  if  it  be  done  with  due  order  and  circnm* 

A.  Reach  a  book,  and  hold  it  him. 

B.  What  shall  I  do  with  it  ? 

A.  Lay  your  hand  upon  it,  man. 

B.  For  what  purpose  ? 

A.  To  swear. 

B.  I  use  to  swear  by  no  books. 

A.  Yon  shall  not  swear  by  the  book,  bot  by  God  only* 
*  B.  So  I  purpose,  when  I  swear. 

Cosins.  Did  you  never  take  an  oath  at  the  assize,  before  the  jodges  ? 

B.  No. 

C.  Would  yon  there  refuse  to  lay  yonr  hand  on  a  book,  and  swear  ? 

B.  Yes. 

C.  Then  yonr  testimony  would  not  be  taken. 

A.  Why,  man,  the  book  is  no  part  of  the  oath :  it  is  but  a  ceremony. 

B.  A  needless  and  wicked  ceremony. 

A.  Mrhy,  know  yoa  what  yoo  lay )  Kaow  you  what  book  it  is  ?  It  ^ 
fha  Bible. 


»  LIVES  aP  tm  FUWTANS. 

tmkod,  tb«(  purmiffanto  eotoml,  4^  n  tot0  homr  ^  tbn 
mgf^  Hito  an  honest  cUizen'ft  lioose^  in  liU^gate-biU  $  aii^ 
karing  wed  tlieir  ow»  p}c»6ure^  in  se^rcbing  all  pl^cos, 

B.  I  will  swear  hy  p«  SiMe. 
,  C.  fichieomlin  »re  Always  claiq#fomr»    It  If  |(  pfrpcln^  not*  to  know 
tlwQ  by. 

A.  Dr.  CosiiM  saitb  true.     Soe^  were  ^be  Pooalistf  of  old.     Ap4  soch 
•rt  tboa,  aed  ail  other  sphismatics,  fpcb  pi  Iboip  ^rt. 
'  B.  fifty  yoar  f^leasare^    God  ii^gjvf  yotp,    I  am  nekber  scbifin^lic,  ifor 
flaatoroat.    I  opljr  amwer  yoyr  de^i^nd^.    |f  you  wH),  |  wiU  be  •ileot. 

A.  Well,  will  y<Ni  lay  your  band  upon  tbe  Bil^le,  and  lake  aa  oath  ? 

B.  I  we  t4j»m  no  creaturet  to  tbe  name  of  God,  in  afi  o^atb* 

A.  Neithef  »ball  yoa.    Tbif  ic  only  a  avHom  .cofnoiavded  by  law. 

B.  The  law  ooght  not  to  cooinand  a  wicked  custom. 
A*  Why,  Is  it  not  lawful  to  lay  yoiw  hand  on  a  book  ? 
B.  Yes,  bat  not  in  aa  oath. 

A.  Will  yon  lay  yoqr  baii4  in  my  hand  iu>4  fWf ar  ? 

B.  No. 

A.  Will  you  lay  your  hand  on  the  table  and  swear* 
*    B.  No. 

A.  Will  yoB  bold  «p  yovr  ban^  tawacds  be«Ten  aad  sweiu*  ? 
;  B.  That  Is  not  amisf .    Bnl  I  will  as^  my  liberty. 

A.  Why,  you  hold  it  lawful  to  lay  your  hand  on  the  table  and  fWiear. 

B.  Yes,  if  It  be  mH  commanded  ^ad  m^de  neeessary. 

A.  Why,  the  book  is  the  same.  It  is  no  part  of  the  oath,l>l^^  thjog 

B.  If  it  be  not  •/  ih§  9gih^  why  do  3'on  so  penemptprily  enjoiji^  it  I 
And  if  it  be  iniiffwenty  afi  you  «fiy  it  is,  then  I  do  well  la  not  using  }U 

\  A.  N«y,  you  do  not  well  in  refusiiog  it.  For  therein  y^n  pbew  youraelf 
disobedient  to  tbe  bigber  powers,  set  over  yoa  by  God. 

B«  You  have  even  now  said  it  is  a  thing  indifferei^.  If  it  be,  there  ^  U9 
power  that  can  bring  my  liberty  into  bondage. 

A.  Where  find  you  that  i 

B.  la  i  Corinthians. — Here  a  Tealament  was  given  Him,  but  the  ftrch- 
bishop  and  the  others  so  interrupted  bim>  tbat  he  could  f^t  fi^d  ^e  pj^ice. 

A.  Your  divinity  is^ke  your  law. 

B.  The  word  of  God  is  not  tbe  worse  for  my  111  mempi^. 

A.  You  speak  not  as  yoa  think,  for  yon  are  pr^ad. 

B.  I  have  small  cause  to  be  proud  of  my  memory :  yoa  see  the  fynU  ^f 
it.  But  the  apostle  saith  it.  And  you  ha^e  no  cause  to  condemn  my 
memory,  seeing  you  have  all  utterly  forgotten  llUs saying,  **  All  things  jipre 
lawful  for  me,  but  I  will  not  be  brought  under  the  power  of  any.'' 

A.  I  would  like  it  well,  if  you  cited  your  place  in  Greek  or  Latin. 

B.  Why,  you  understand  English.     Is  not  tbe  word  of  Qod  l|i  Eagl||ll>  ? 
A.  Were  yon  of  Cambridge  F 

B*  Yes,  I  knew  yon  there. 

A.  Have  you  read  Calvin,  Beza,  and  othen  ? 

B.  I  have  fead  more  tban  enough..  Y^  X  knQW  not  why  f  |mi 

A.  it  is  reported,  that  you  come  not  to  chnrcb,  are  di«>pbediciiitto  |ier 
majesty,  and  say  there  is  no  true  church  in  England.  What^iiy  jv^i 
have  you  no|  at  any  time  said  this  ? 

B.  These  are  reports.  When  you  ba^e  ^produced  your  testimony,  I 
will  answer. 

A.  But  I  will  belter  belioTC  90a  apoD  your  XMMbi  than  .<;i9ther|i .  JB^w 
ttiy  you  ?  will  you  answer  ?  , 

-  :  GlUINWOOa  flr 

Iritiiovt  warrant,  Mr.  Oiecnwood  and  Mr.  Fnnds  Johnsoi^ 
whom  they  earned,  between  one  and  two  o^clock  at  nigiii^ 
to  Ae  Compter  fai  Wood-atreet.  Mr.  Edward  Boys,  tk* 
•wn^r  of  the  houses  lemained  a  prisoner  till  the  msMt  day  | 

B.  I  will  know  what  I  swear  to,  before  I  swear. 

A.  Swear  irst;  aod  theo,  if  any  thins  vnlawAillybedeHiaad^,  yo« 
•hall  not  answer. 

B.  I  have  oot  learned  so  to  swear.  I  will  first  know  aod  coaiSder  of 
the  matter,  before  i  take  m  oath. — Here  the  archhitbop  comnuuided  Dr* 
Cosins  to  record,  "  That  Mr.  Barrow  refused  to  swear  upon  a  book.'*' 

B.  Tes,  and  set  down  that  I  will  not  answer  that  at  roadooi ;  bat  I  wiU 
first  know  and  consider  of  the  things  I  swear  to,  whether  they  repairs  aa 

A.  Well,  when  were  yoa  at  charch  ? 

B.  That  is  aotMog  to  yoa. 

A.  You  area  schismatic,  a  recosant,  and  a  seditions  person. 

B.  Say  what  you  will  of  me,  I  freely  forgive  yasi. 

A.  I  care  not  for  your  forgiveness. 

B.  But  if  yon  ofiend  me,  you  ought  to  seek  it,  whikt  you  are  ia  th« 
way  with  me. 

A.  When  were  yon  at  church  ? 

B.  I  have  answered  that  already :  it  beloogeth  not  to  yon. 

A.  Are  you  in(Ke(ed  ? 

B.  lam. 

A.  It  belongeth  to  us,  and  I  wiH  not  ooly  meddle  wHb  you,  but  arraiga 
you  before  lae  as  an  Mretit, 

B.  Toa  shall  do  ao  more  than  God  will.  Err  I  a»y  i  but  an  heretic  I 
m\H  never  be. 

A.  Will  yoa  hereafter  eocne  to  church  ? 

B.  Future  things  are  in  the  Lord's  hands.    If  I  do  not,  you  kav«  a  law« 

A.  Have  you  spoken  this  of  the  church  of  England  ? 

B.  When  you  have  produced  your  witaess,  I  will  answer. 

A.  Upon  year -oath,  I  wiH  Wlieve  yoa. 

B.  But  I  will  not  accuse  myself. 

A.  You  are  lawless. 

B.  I  had  •rather  yon  produced  your  witness. 

A.  What  occupation  are  yau  of? 

B.  I  am  a  Gbrlstiau. 

A.  So  are  we  all. 

B.  I  deny  that. 

A.  Are  you  a  minister  ? 

B.  No. 

'  A.  Are  you  a  icbeolm»ter  ? 
e.  No. 

A.  Then  what  trade  are  yea  f 

B.  In  your  letter,  you  know  my  trade  In  the  snbscriptiott. 

A.  You  are  then  « -gentleman. 

B.  After  the  manner  of  our  oomitry,  a  jsentleumB. 

A.  Do  you  serve  any  taan? 

B.  No,  I  am  God's  freeman. 

A.  Have  you  any  lands  ? 

B.  No,  nor  fees. 

A>  How  do  you  live? 

B.  By  God's  goodness,  and  my  fl'iend's. 
-   ^  Where  dwelleth  be,  in  Norfolk  I 
■   B.  liPfes. 

Il;  Wierc  awm  70a,  la  Iiofldofi } 


wben,  by  ihe  archbishop  and  others,  they  were  commiited 
close  prisoners,  two  of  them  to  the  Clink,  and  one  to  the 
Fleet.  It  does  not  appear,  however,  whether  this  was  Mr^ 
Greenwood's  first  or  second  imprisonment.    In  the  year 

B.  No. 
^  A,  Can  yoa  find  snfficient'secority  for  yonr  good  bebaTioir  ? 
6.  Yes,  as  safficient  as  yoa  can  take. 

A,  You  cannot  have  tbe  qaeen. 

B.  Neither  can  yoa  take  her :  she  is  tbe  judge  of  the  law.  Yet,  for  my 
good  beba? ioor,  I  sappose,  I  could  get  ber  word. 

A.  Doth  she  then  know  you  i 
fi,  I  know  her. 

A.  Else,  were  it  a  pity  of  your  life. 

B.  Not  so. 

A.  Can  yoH  have  any  of  those  who  came  with  yoa,  to  be  bound  for  yoa  ? 

B.  I  think  I  can. 

A.  Do  yoa  know  them  ? 

B.  iknow  one  of  them. 

A.  What  is  he  ? 

B.  A  gentleman  of  Gray  Vinn.  ' 

A.  What  do  you  call  him  ? 

B.  Lacy. 

A.  Do  you  know  what  bond  you  are  to  enter  into  ?  Yoa  are  to  be 
boond  to  frequent  our  cbarcbes . 

B.  I  understood  yon  of  my  good  behaviour. 

A.  That  is  contained  in  it,  and  you  had  forfeited  your  bond  at  firrt. 

B.  Now  that  I  know  your  mind,  I  will  enter  into  no  soch  bond. 

A.  Will  you  enter  your  bond  to  appear  at  our  court  on  Tuesday  next; 
and  so  on  Thursday,  if  you  be  not  called  ;  and  be  boand  not  to  depart, 
until  yoa  be  dismissed  by  order  of  our  court  ? 

B.  No. 

A.  Then  I  will  send  yoa  to  prison. 

B.  You  shall  not  touch  one  hair  of  my  head,  withoot  the  will  of  my 
beavenly  Father* 

A.  Nay,  1  will  do  this  to  rectify  yon. 

B.  Consider  what  you  do.    You  shall  one  day  answer  for  it. 

A.  You  will  not  swear,  nor  enter  a  bond  for  your  appearance. 

B.  1  will  put  in  bond  for  my  bail  in  the  prison,  and  for  my  trne 

A.  Nay,  that  will  not  serve  tbe  tarn.  Mr.  Doctor,  enter  these  things. 
J  will  send  some  to  confer  with  you. 

B.  That  were  more  requisite  before  my  imprisonment. 

Mr.  Barrow  was  then  delivered  to  the  pursuivant,  who  immediately 
carried  him  to  the  Gatehouse,  where  be  remained  for  some  time,  aoi 
knowing  tbe  cause  of  his  imprisonment.  November  STth,  be  appeared  a 
second  time,  before  the  high  commission  at  Lambeth ;  upon  which,  the  arch- 
bishop, with  a  black  and  an  angry  countenance,  beholding  him,  inquired 
whether  he  would  thep  swear,  which  introduced  the  following  conference: 

B.  I  would  not  refuse  to  swear  on  a  proper  occasion. 

A.  Will  you  now  swear? 

B.  I  must  first  know  to  what. 

A.  So  you  shall  afterwards. 

B.  I  will  not  swear  unless  1  know  before. 

A.  Well,  I  will  thus  far  satisfy  your  humour. 

Here  the  archbishop  pulled  out  a  paper,  containing  many  things  coo* 
fosedly  pot  together,  according  to  the  malicious  liomoar  of  his-  actus^r  :< 
As,  '^That  he  denied  God  to  have  a  tr«e  cbttrcfc  in  £P|l9»d.-TTbat4bc 


1592,  Mr.  Greenwood  and  his  companion  IVir.  Barrow,  had 
been  confined  at  least  four  or  five  years  in  chse  prison, 
with  miserable  usa^e.* 

Mr.  Greenwoo(^ /as  well  as  Mr.  Barrow,  underwent  a 

worship  of  the  established  charch  is  idolatry. — That  the  mialifry  li 
Idolatrevs  and  aotiGhristiaD.— That  the  archbishop,  and  all  the  bithopt  im 
the  land,  are  antichrists. — That  all  the  ministers  in  the  land  are  thieret^ 
murderers,  hirelings,  and  hypocrites.  —  That  Mr.  Wigginton  and  Mr« 
Cajtwright  strain  oat  a.  gnat  and  swallow  a  cand. — ^TImU  he  condemnetJl 
aU  writers,  as  Calvin,  Beza,  &c  and  saith,  that  all  catechisms  are  idolatroni, 
and  not  to  be  used.'! 

.  Bishop  of  London.  How  say  yoa,  Mr.  Dean  of  Paors,  here  is  for  yoi. 
Yoti  have  written  a  catechism. 

.  A.  This  fellow  deals  indifferently,  and  makes  ns  all  alike.  Thus  far  I 
)iave satisfied  you.  .Now.  yon  know  what  yoir  shall  swear  to.  How  say 
you  ?  will  you  now  swear? 

Bp.  My  lord's  grace  doth  shew  this  favour  to  many. 

A.  Fetch  a  book. 

B.  It  is  needless. 

A.  Why,  will  you  not  swear  now  ? 

B.  An  oath  is  a  matter  of  great  importance,  and  requireth  great  eon- 
sideration.  But  I  will  answer  you  truly.  Mnch  of  the  matter  in  thi« 
bill  is  true.    But  the  form  is  false. 

A.  Go  to,  sirrah,  answer  directly.  Will  yon  swear?  Reach  him  a 

B.  There  Is  more  cause  to  swear  mine  accuser.     I  will  not  swear. 

A.  Where  is  his  keeper  ?  Yon  shall  not  prattle  here.  Away  with  hlau 
Clap  him  up  c/05«,  close :  let  no  nmn  come  to  him.  1  will  make  him  tall 
another,  tale,  ere  I  have  done  with  him. 

i  Mr.  Barrow  was  then  immediately  carried  again  to  prisoa,  where  be  re- 
maiaed  in  close  confinement  till  March  24th  follow  ing ;  when  he  was  brougltt 
before  the  two  Lord  Chief  Justices,  the  Lord  Chief  Baron,  the  Archbithop 
pf  C^terbnry,  and  the  Bishops  of  London  and  Winchester,  and  many 
others.  Upon  his  appearance,  he  was  commanded  to  lay  his  hand  apoa 
the  Bible,  which  led  to  the  following  conversation: 

B.  For  what  end  must  I  do  this  ? 
.A.  To  swear. 

B.  I  have  not  learned  to  swear  by  any  creatures. 

A.  This  is  the  word  of  God,  the  Bible. 

B.  The  book  is  not  the  eternal  God  himself,  by  whom  only  I  mwt  iwear, 
aifd  not  by  any  books  or  bibles. 

A.  So  you  shall  swear  by  God. 

B.  To  what  purpose  then  is  the  book  urged  ?  I  may  swear  by  nothiof 
lieiides  him,  and  by  nothing  with  him. 

,  Bbhop  of  Winchester.  How  prove  you  that  ? 

B.  It  is  so  commanded  in  the  book  of  the  law,  Deut.  vi.  10.,  and  to 
expounded  by  several  of  the  prophets,  by  Jesus  Christ  MmMlf,  and  his 

A.  Well,  will  you  swear  that  you  will  answer  nothing  bat  the  truth,  and 
the  whole  truth,  to  such  interrogatories  as  we  shall  denmod  of  yon  I 
'    B.  I  wiU  know  the  matter,  before  I  either  swear  or  answer. 

A.  Set  down,  that  he  will  not  swear. 

L.  C.  Justice.  You  shall  only  swear  to  answer  to  the  truth.  If  aay 
aalawful  thing  be  demanded  of  yon,  you  need  aot  answer. 

B.  My  lordy  every  truth  requireth  not  an  oath.    An  oath  requiretJi 

*     *  •  .•  8trypc*t  Amals,  vol*  If .  p.  95, 96. 


eb^e  farmnHialiop,  He  appeared  ai  London  palace,  before 
the  Archbishop  of  Canteiiiury,  the  Bishops  ot  London  and 
Winchester,  the  two  Lord  Chief  Justices,  the  Lord  Chief 
Ustnmy  the  Massbsr  of  the  Hoik,  and  others.    Upon  his 

^rettl  itglurd  and  reverence,  sod  heiugdtmfped  for  conSroMitioii,  ought  t« 
ht  tM9  ead  of  all  strife.  My  lord,  if  I  ilioald  err,  and  deliver  k  apon  my 
^Bik  for  tmthy  it  woold  be  a  doable  tin.  Aad  if  I  thoold  either  aot  koow^ 
not  remeBiber,or  aot  deliver  the  whole  tralh,  Ishoaid,  by  tach  a  rash  oath, 
Ik  lorawora.    Bot,  by  God's  grace,  I  will  answer  Bothiag  Irat  the  trath. 

A.  A  christiaB  aaa's  word  oag bt  to  be  as  true  as  hie  oath.  We  will 
then  proceed  with  yoa  withoatyoar  oath.  What  say  yoa  to  this  questioaf 
It  it  lawful  to  say  the  PaUr-n^tttr  publicly »  as  a  prayer  ia  the  charch,  or 
privately,  or  not? 

B.  I  kuow  not  what  you  mean  by  your  Pater-aoster,  unless  yoa  perad- 
veatare  mean  the  form  of  pvayer  which  oar  8avioar  taagfat  his  dkdplefl, 
coamionly  called  the  Lord's  prayer. 

A.  So  I  mean. 

The  following  articles  of  ioqairy  were  then  proposed  to  Mr.  Barrow,  to 
which  he  gave  the  answers  annexed. 

1.  May  the  Lord's  prayer  be  used  in  the  charch  ? 

Ia  my  opioioh  it  is  rather  a  sammary  than  aa  ea|oiaed  form ;  and  not 
fiodiag  it  ined  by  the  apostles,  I  think  it  may  aot  be  constaatly  used. 

2.  May  titurgies  or  forms  of  prayer  l>e  wed  ia  the  cbarch  ? 

Imih^  word  of  God,  I  find  no  authority  given  to  any  maa  to  impose  them 
apon  the  charch  ;  and  it  is,  therefore,  high  presumption  to  impose  them. 

5.  IslhcCUHnmoo  Piayer  idolatrous,  saperstitioas,  and  po|iish  f 
ia  my  opiiition,  it  Is. 

4.  Are  the  sacraments  of  the  church  of  England  trve  sacraments  ? 

As  they  are  publicly  administered,  (hey  are  not  trae  sacmmeats. 

^.  Are  >the  laws  and  government  of  tlie  charch  of  Boglaad  aalawfal 
aad  antiohriglian  ^ 

As  the  decrees  oad  caaons  of  the  church  are  ao  naaieroas,  I  can&ot 
jadge  of  all  ^  bat  many  of  them,  and  the  ecdeiiastical  courts  and  govemoM, 
■re  onlamrfiil  and4Miticbristi8a. 

6.  Are  such  as  have  l>eeti  baptized  in  the  church  -of  England  rightly 
baptized  ?  or  should  they  be  baptized  agala  ? 

They  are  not  baptized  according  to  the  institution  of  Christ;  yet  they 
may  not  need  it  again. 

7.  Is  the  church  of  England  the  true  church  of  Cbrht  ? 

4As  It  1s<iidwFoTnied,4t  isnot;  yet  there  are  many  exceUeot  «hri»tiaos 
in  it. 

8.  Is  the  queen  supreme  governor  of  the  church,  and  may  she  make  lawr 

The  queen  is  supreme  governor  of  -the  whole  land,  and  ovor^be  ohupch, 
|>odies  and  goods ;  but  may  not  make  any  other  laws  for  the  chorah  of 
Mritft,  thati-be  Jlatfaileft'in  bis  word. 

^.  ti  it^lvwlril  Ivrtbe  prhree  to  alter  the  judicial  law  of  M^ses^? 

I  cannot  see  it  lawful  for  any  one  to  alter  the  least  part  of  thstiairi 
irWhont  il(ili%^li^itry  to >the  moral  km,  and  opposing  the  will  of  God. 

10.  May:a<prrate  person  refbrm'the  thuroh,«rf  the  pvinoe  negleot<k  ?    • 

No  private  pemms  ni»y  i*<$form  the  state,  but  >tbey  ought 'to  ^taio  -ftom 
all  unlawful  things  commanded  by  the  pi^ince. 

4U  Oo|fbt<«very  paftivalar  church  of  Christ  to  hanre  a  presbytery  ? 

The  government  df  ^the 'dhurch «of  Christ iwilongethnot  to 'Ibefin^^odlgr, 
tMit  every  panrtioiilar  ohorch^ou^ht  to-have-en  tfldership. 

After  giving  thesa  answers,  he  was  sent  back  to  prison,  where  he  waft 
Alosaly  coollned^  i^  fpiiefbfiqg  flawed  Jko  «e«  f|ii«i,4»r«peak  to  hiai.    And 


appearance,  ceiiain  ktettogAtortes  Wel«  put  to  hiitt/  as 
follows : 

Q.  What  is  your  natte  ? 

G.  JohnGreeawoodk 

k^Hngh  ht  ettnmaf  rtqticmi  a  €bfj  t>f  liii  sMweft,  Ibe  Ikimnr  cotldiiol 
be  obtAkM^di 

JoDe  f  a,  1J6T,  Mr.  ftrttlMr  was  ^igftHi  fcrM^  op,  aftd  mterwcnt 
kBOther  feimniiNrtioa^  httbft  Hie  AttbaMMl)^,  lh«  Lord  diftttcellor,  the 
Loud  TreMtrer;  Lerd  BoeMMinft,  tWt  Bi«liop  ef  London,  lostlce  Yonoi;, 
Dr.  Some,  aad  others.  The  Lord  Treasurer  introdated  his  eaaiDinstion  al 
follows : 

Trea^arer.  Wky  mtt  yen  la  prisM,  Battow  f 

B.  I  am  id  prisoo,  my  lord.  Upon  the  atatate  nade  for  Micannts.  ■ 

T.  Why  will  you  oot  com^  tib  cMftthf 

B.  My  whole  desire  is  to  come  to  the  church  of  Ood. 
'■   T.  Is^dMuaitafiBltfsHealfeilow.  Bat^fbynotcometoovtclrarcbes? 

B.  My  hird,  the  causes  are  gt«at  «iid  many  :  .as, — 1.  Because  aH  tia 
wricttd  la  tfte  Mad  are  retHf«d  «ato  Hkt  coamHrafoa.— 4.  Yon  bare  a  Wbt 
and  an  aotichristiaa  toiaittry  aete^er  year  chardi. — S,  Ton  do  not  wonhlj^ 
Godarighty  bat  in  an  idolatrous  and  a  superstitious  manner. — And,  4.  Tear 
cba^h  is  sot  |;av«raed  by  the  IVstaliKAt  df  Christ,  bat  by  tlw  ftoadsb 
courts  and  canons. 

T.  florfe  «i  matter  etobagb,  indeed.  I  perceiye  tboa  takcst  ddight  to  be 
an  author  of  this  new  religion. 

Chaiic€41or.  I  oeter  beard  sack  Htuff  la  aH  ny  life. 

Loadon.  Is  the  Wolrship  «f  tlite  c^uirh  idolatrous  ? 

B.  la  tfie  Book  of  CoraaiDa  Ptayef,  there  is  little  else:  as,  the  saiali'* 
days,  eves,  fosts,  idoUfeadts,  ftc. 

Lond.  Sfliy  there.  Is  it  aet  la^l^l  to  ke^p  m  taemorial  of  the  laiBti  ia 

«.  Not  aftM*  thte  aaan^r.    it  is  idbMtry. 

Lond.  Baw  prove  yoe  ttet  ff 

B.  By  the  first  commandment. 

Load.  Why,  ttat  is,  *'  Thoa  thalt  %ave  no  otber  Gods  bfefora  ae." 
What  of  that  ? 

B.  The  words  u^,  **  Thou  shah  hstrt  no  other  Oods  btjbre  my  /kss.'* 
We  are,  therefore,  forbidden  to  gi^e  aay  part  of  God's  worship  to  aay 

Land."  Why,  ^neither  do  we^ 

B.  Yes,  you  celebrate  a  day,  and  sanctify  an  cr^,  alid  call  tbcn  by  the 
names  of  saints ;  and  thus  younal^e  a  fpast,aad  devise  a  worship  unto  tiiem. 

T.  Why,  may  ire  not  call  the  day  by  their  names  ?  Isaot  this  in  our 
liberty  ? 

Bk  No,  toy  lord. 

T.  How  do  yoa  prove  that  ? 

6.  tn  the  beginning  of  the  Bible,  it  iiB  written,  that  God  biAidf  named 
all  the  days,  the  first,  the  second,  &c. 

T.  Then  we  may  not  call  them  Sunday,  Monday,  &c. 

B.  We  are  otherwise  taught  to  call  them,  in  the  word  of  6Sod« 

T.  Why,  thou  thyself  eallesi  Sirnday,  the  Lord^t  dag. 

B.  And  so  the  Holy  Ghost  calleth  it,  in  the  first  of  Revelation. 

Lond.  We  baveiiothSng  in  our  saints'-days,  l>nt  what  is  taken  forth  of  the 

B.  in  that,  you  say  true-;  for  yon  find  ifo  saints'-days  in  the  «criptiu«t. 

Lond.  We  find  their  histories  and  deeds  in  the  scriptare. 

B.  Bm  aot  theit  days  aad  Csstivals. 

Backhant.  Ha  !»•  praiia  s^rit. 


Lay  yoBT  hand  upon  the  book.  You  must  take  aa 
oath.   ' 

G.  I  will  swear  by  the  name  of  God,  if  there  be  any 
need ;  but  not  by,  or  upon,  any  book. 

T.  He  has  a  hot  brain.  How  do  you  like  the  collects,  and  epwtles  and 
gospels,  for  the  saints^-days,  as  they  are  in  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer? 

B.  I  dislike  all.     We  ought  not  so  to  use  prayers  and  scriptures. 

Lond.  May  we  not  make  commemoration  of  the  saints'  lives  in  the  cbarch  ? 

B.  Not  after  your  manner,  by  giving  peculiar  days,  eves,  fasts,  feasts, 
und  worship,  unto  them.  ... 

1*.  What  is  there  idolatrous  in  this  ? 

Bl  It  is  all  idolatrous.    We  ought  not  so  to  use  the  scriptares. 

Lond.  What  not  in  commemoration  of  the  saints  ? 

B.  A's  I  have  said,  not  after  your  manner.  , 

T.  What  evil  is  there  in  it  ? 

B.  It  is  all  evil,  my  lord.  For,  by  thus  abusing  the  scripture,  we  make  it 
an  idol.  Things  in  themselves  good,  thus  become  evil.  As,  in  the  mass- 
iook,  whence  this  stuff  is  taken,  there  are  sundry  good  collects  and  places 
^  scripture,  which  superstitious  abuse  renders  abominable. 

Buck.  He  is  out  of  his  wits. 

B.  No,  my  lord^  I  speak  the  words  of  truth  and  soberness,  as  I  could 
make  appear,  if  I  might  be  suffered. 

T.  Here  we  pray,  that  our  lives  may  be  such  as  theirs  were,  void  of 

B.  So  we  ought  to  do.  Tet  not  to  use  the  scriptures  in  this  manner  to 
days  and  times,  nor  to  be  so  restrained  or  stinted  in  our  prayers,  as  to  be 
tied  to  this  form  of  words,  time,  place,  manner,  kneeling,  standing,  &c. 

BueJt.  This  fellow  delighteth  to  hear  himself  talk/  , 

A.  He  is  a  sower  of  errors ;  and,  therefore,  I  committed  him. 

B.  Tou,  indeed,  committed  me  half  a    year    close    prisoner  in  tht 
Gatehouse,  and  I  never  uutil  now  understood  the  cause,  neither  do  I  yet ' 
know  what  errors  they  are.     Shew  them,  therefore,  I  pray  you. 

Bucit.  He  has  a  presumptuous  spirit. 

B.  My  lord,  all  spirits  must  be  tried  and  judged  by  the  word  of  God. 
But  if  I  err,  my  lord,  it  is  meet  1  should  be  shewn  wherein. 

Chan.  There  must  be  stricter  laws  made  for  such  fellows. 

B.  Would  to  God  there  were,  my  lord,  our  journey  would  then  be  tlw 

T.  You  complained  to  us  of  injustice ;  wherein  have  you  received  wrong  ) 

B.  By  being  imprisoned,  my  lord,  without  due  trial. 

T.  Too  said  you  were  condemned  upon  the  statute. 

B.  Unjustly,  my  lord.    That  statute  was  not  made  for  us. 

T.  There  must  be  stricter  laws  made  for  you. 

B.  O,  my  lord  I  speak  more  comfortably.     We  have  sorrows  enow. 

T.  Indeed,  thou  lookest  as  if  thou  hadst  a  troubled  conscience. 

B.  No,  my  lord,  I  praise  God  for  it.  But  it  is  an  awful  thing,  that  the 
tword  of  bur  prince  should  thus  be  drawn  against  her  faithful  subjects. 

T.  The  queen's  sword  is  not  yet  drawn  against  Mr.  Barrow  and  hit 

B.  We  have  been  long  confined  in  close  prison. 

T.  Have  you  not  had  a  conference  ? 

Lond.  Several  have  been  with  them,  whom  they  mocked. 

B.  We  have  mocked  no  man.  Miserable  physicians  are  you  all.  WTt 
desired  a  public  conference,  that  all  might  knaw  our  opinions,  and  wherein 
we  err. 

A*  Tou  shall  have  no  such  conference,  you  have  published  too  much 
already;  and,  therefore,  I  committed  you  close  prisonen. 


Qi  We  will  examine  you  then  without  an  oath.  Are 
jou  a  minister  ? 

G.  I  was  one,  aooo^dihg  to  your  orders. 
Q.  Who  degraded  you  ? 

B.  Bat  coBtnury  to  the  law. 

T.  On  such  occa8ioQ9  it  may  be  done  by  law.    Have  yoa  any  leatpiog  ? 

B.  The  Lord  knoweth  I  am  ignorant.  I  have  no  l^rning  to  boast  oC» 
Bnt  this  I  know,  that  you  are  yoid  of  all  true  learning  and  godlincM. 

Buck.  See  the  spirit  of  this  man. 

A«  I  have  matter  to  call  yoa  before  me  as  aa  ier^He, 

B.  That  shall  yon  never  do*  You  know,  my  former  jadfment  in  that 
matter.    Err  I  may ;  but  heretic,  by  the  grace  of  God,  I  will  never  be. 

Buck.  That  is  well  "said. 

T.  Do  yon  not  hold,  that  it  is  nnlawfnl  to  enact  a  law  for  piairtert  ta 
live  by  tithes,  and  that  the  people  be  required  to  pay  them  ? 

B.  My  lord,  such  laws  are  abrogated  and  nnlawful. 

T.  Thon  wouldst  have  the  minister  to  live  upon  something.  What  shoalf 
be  live  of? 

B.  Wholly  of  alms,  as  Christ  hath  ordained,and  as  he  and  his  apostlct  lived. 

T.  How  if  the  people  will  not  give  ? 

B.  Such  are  not  the  people  of  God. 

T.  But  what  shall  the^in^sliers  do,  in  the  n^ean  time? 

B.  Not  stand  as  ministers  to  snch,  neither  receive  the  goods  of  the  probne. 

T.  Where  canst  thou  shew  me,  from  scripture,  that  ministers  ought  not 
to  live  by  tithes  } 

B.  Heb.  yii.  12.,  Gal.  vi.  6.  In  the  one  place  tithes  are  abrogated  $  ia 
the  other,  another  kind  of  provision  is  made  for  ministers-  The  words  of 
the  former  text  are  these :  *'  For  the  priesthood  being  changed,  there  is 
made  of  necessity  a  change  also  of  the  law;'*  and  yoa  cannot  dei>y,  tliat 
tithes  were  a  part  of  that  law  2  as  Numb,  xviii. 

T.  Wouldst  thou  have  the  minister  tlien  to  have  all  my  goods  ? 

B.  No,  my  lord.  But  I  would  have  you  not  withhold  yoor  goods  from 
helping  him :  neither  rich  nor  poor  are  exempted  from  this  duty. 

T.  Ministers  are  not  now  caUed  priests. 

B.  If  they  receive  tithes,  they  are  priests.  They  are  called  priests  ia 
the  law. 

Load.  What  is  a  presbyter,  t  pray  thee  ? 

B.  An  elder. 

Lond.  What  in  age  only  ? 

B.  No.    Timothy  was  a  young  man. 

Lond.  Presbyter  is  Latin  for  priest. 

B.  It  is  no  Latin  word;  bnt  is  deriyed  from  the  C^reek,  and  rignlAeth 
the  same  as  the  Greek  word,  which  is  elder. 

Lond.  What  then  dost  thon  make  a  priest? 

B.  One  that  offereth  sacrifices ;  for  so  it  is  always  used  in  the  law. 

Chan.  Do  you  not  know  those  two  men  ?  pointing  al  the  bishop  aad 

B.  Yes,  my  lord,  I  have  cause  to  know  them.  < 

Chan.  Is  not  this  the  Bishop  of  London  ? 

B.  I  know  him  for  no  bishop,  my  lord. 

Chan.  What  is  he  then?  ^     ^ 

B.  His  name  is  Aylmer,  my  lord.  The  Lord  pardon  my  foalt,  that  I 
iid  not  lay  him  open  as  a  wofr,  a  bloody  persecutor,  and  an  apostate. 

Chan.  What  i4  that  man,  pointing  to  the  arehbishop  ? 

B.  He  is  a  monster ;  a  miserable  compound ;  I  know  not  what  to  maka 
•f  him.  He  is  neither  ecclesiastical  nor  civil»  bat  that  sccaad  baail 
ipoken  of  la  BfvelatiODi 

YOL.  IL  B 


G.  I  derailed  myself,  through  God's  mercy,  by  xe^^iM* 
ance.  (IVfeaning  when  he  renounced  his  episcc^pid  otaeif^ 
and  separated  from  the  established  church.) 

Q.  Is  it  lawful  to  use  the  Lord's  prayer,  publidy  otipA' 
yately,  as  a  prayer  ? 

G.  It  is  a  doctrine  by  which  to  direct  all  our  prayers ; 
but,  for  certain  reasons,  no  man  ca»  use  it  as  a  pubuc  or 
private  prayer. 

Q.  Is  it  lawfiil,  or  not  ?    I  will  hear  no  prattling'. 

G.  From  any  thing  I  can  see  in  scripture,  it  is  not  la^wftil. 
There  is  no  command  to  say  the  very  wo^;  and  Christ 
and  his  apostles  prayed  in  other  words,  according  to  their 

Q.  Is  it  lawful  io  use  any  stinted  forms  of  prayer,  ih 
purUyLc  or  private  ? 

G.  They  are  apocrypha,  and  may  not  be  used  in  public 
assemblies.  'Ithe  wordf,  and  the  graces  of  the  spirit  of  God, 
are  only  to  be  used  there. 

Q.  Answer  directly.  Is  it  lawfid  to  use  thetit  publicly 
or  privately? 

Gf.  Paul  saith,  <<  The  spirit  also  helpeth  our  infirmities^ 
for  we  know  not  what  we  should  pray  for  as  we  ought ;  but 
the  spirit  maketh  interces$idn  for  us. 

Q.  What  ssLy  you  }    Answer  directly^ 

G.  It  does  not  appear  lawful  to  use  stinted  jtfayers,  in* 
vented  by  men,  dther  publicly  or  privately,  from  any  thing 
I  can  see  in  the  scriptures. 

Q.  What  say  you  then  of  the  Book  ef  Common  Prayer  ? 
Is  it  suberstitions,  popish,  and  idolatrous? 

G.  1  beseech  you,  that  I  may  not  be  urged  by  your 
law.  I  have  long  been  a  close  prisoner,  and,  therefore, 
desire  you  will  shew  me  wherefore  I  am  treated  thus,  and 
not  entangle  me  by  your  law. 

Q.  Is  it  not  youf  law,  as  well  as  ours  ?  It  is  the  queen's 
law.    You  are  a  good  subject, 

G.  I  am  a  true.and  obedient  subject.  But  I  thought  we 
wa^e  reasoning  about  your  p<^ish  canons. 

T.  Where  is  the  place  ?    Shew  it. 

Wheu  Mr.  Barrow  tamed  to  Rev.  ziii.,  with  a  view  to  shew  the  treasurer^ 
the  archbishop  arose,  aod  in  anger  gnashiof;  bis  teeth,  he  said,  ''^Will 
5oe  suffer  him,  my  lords  V*  Itien  by  the  wardens,  Mr.  B.  was  immediataly 
pluclced  from  «ff  his  Icne^,  and  carried  away.  As  he  departed,  he  desirea 
of  the  treaserer,  that,  dnrinf  his  confinement  in  prison,  he  might  enjoy  the 
liberty  bf  the  air,  but  raeeirea  no  answer.  He  was,  therefore,  carried  to 
inriiton,  and  closely  confined  for  several  years,  and  met  with  the  mest  cruel 
usage."— £ara»tjfia^0n9  p/  Bffrrotr.  Greenw«oi{,  oni  Ftnry^  p.  S^^l. 


Q.  Is  not  the  CammQii  Prayer  Book  established  by  the 
queen's  laws  ? 

L.  C.  Justice.  Tell  us  what  you  think  of  the  Book  of 
Gommoa  .Prayer :  you  shall  have  liberty  to  call  back  .what 
you  will. 

G.  If  it  were  in  a  free  confer^ce^  as  we  have  often 
desired,  I  would  do  it. 

Bishop  of  Winchester.  Have  you  not  used  .these  words 
a  year  ago,  <<  It  is  popidi,  superstitious,  and  idolatrous  ?" 

G.  xea^  I  think  I  have.  For  it  was  taken  out  of  the 
pope's  portuis. 

Q.  Why  would  yon  not  answer  thus  befiyre  ? 

G.  Because  I  see  you  go  about  to  bring  me  within  the 
compass  of  your  law,  by  makiog  me  accuse  myself. 
'    J.  Anderson.  What  do  you  say  of  it  now  ? 

G.  That  there  are  many  errors  in  it;  and  the  fcrm  of  it 
is  disagreeable  to  the  scriptures. 

A.  Is  it  contrary  to  the  scriptures  ? 

G.  It  must  neeas  be  contrary,  if  it  be  disagfeeaUe. 

Winch.  Do  you  hold  it  to  be  popish,  superstitious,  and 

G.  I  have  told  you  what  I  think  of  it  I  hold  it  is  full 
of  errors,  and  the  form  of  it  disagreeable  to  the  scriptures. 

Q.  What  say  you  of  nuucriage?  Did  you  not  many  one 
Boman  and  his  wife  in  the  fleet  ? 

G.  No.  Neither  is  marriage  any  part  of  the  minister's 

Q.  Who  used  prayer  } 

G.  I  think,  that  I  used  prayer,  at  that  time. 

Q.  Who  joined  their  hands  together  ? 

G.  I  know  no  such  thing.  They  publicly  acknowledged 
their  consent  before  the  assembly. 

Stanhope.    I  will  make  them  do  penance  for  it. 

G.  There  are  others  who  have  more  need  to  shew  open 
repentance  than  they. 

Winch.  They  make  such  marriages  under  a  hed^.  It 
hath  been  an  order  long  received,  to  marry  by  a  nunister. 

G.  There  were  many  faithful  witnesses  of  their  mutual 
consent  And  if  it  were  not  lawful,  we  have  many  ancient 
lathers,  who,  by  your  judgment,  did  amiss. 

Q.  What  say  you  of  the  church  of  England  ?  Is  it  a 
true  established  church  of  God  ? 

G.  The  whole  conm&onwealth  is  not  a  church. 

Ander.  But  do  you  know  any  true  ertablished  church  in 
<he  land  ? 


G.  If  I  did,  I  woold  not  accuse  it  imio  ymi. 

Q.  But  what  say  you?  is  not  the  whole  Ittid,  as  nofr 
ordered,  A  tmb  establmhed  church  t 

Q.  No,  not  as  the  assemUies  geoMdIy  are.  If  it  pkasi 
you,  I  will  shew  you  the  reasons. 

Jus.  No,  you  shall  have  enough  to  shew  hereafter.  It  m 
not  to  be  stood  upon  now. 

Q.  What  do  you  say  of  the  church  of  England,  as  itJs 
governed  by  bishqps  ?  Is  it  antichristian  ? 

G.  According  to  the  bislKips,and  laws  it  is  now  govened 
by,  it  is  not  according  to  the  scriptures. 

Winch.  Thou  hast  the  scriptures  often  in  thy  moutli*  Is 
it  antichristian? 

G.  Yes,  I  hold  it  is  contrary  to  ChristVwofd^  > 

Q.  What  say  you  then  of  .the  sacraments  i  Ave  iliey« 
true  sacraments  ?  • 

G.  No.  They  are  not  rightly  administered,  aceovding  ii 
the  institution  of  Christ,  nor  have  they*  the  pioaiis^  of 
graces  because  you  keep  not  the  covenant. 

Q.  Speakplainly.    Are  they  true  sacramarts,  or  not  ? 

G.  No.  For  if  you  have  no  true  church,  you  can  luiv# 
no  true  sacraments. 

Q.  How  say  you,  are  we  baptiied  ? 

G.  You  have  the  outward  sign,  which  is  washing ;  but 
no  true  sacrament. 

Q.  How  can  that  bel 

G.  Very  well.»  * 

Q.  Is  it  lawful  baptism  ? 

G.  Yes. 

Q.  Need  we  then  be  baptiied  again  ? 

G.  No. 

Q.  'Should  we  be  baptized  at  all  ? 

G.  Yes.  For  if  we  contemn  it,  we  deny  the  possesion 
of  grace. 

Q«  Do  you  hold  it  lawful  to  baptize  children  ? 

G.  I  am  no  anabaptist,  I  thank  God. 

Q.  How  far  do  you  differ  from  them  ? 

G.  As  far  as  truth  is  from  error. 

Q.  You  have  a  boy  unbaptized.  How  old  .is  be  ?  » 

G.  A  year  and  a  half. 

Q.  What  is  his  name? 

G.  Abel, 

Q.  Who  gave  him  that  name  i 

«  Here  Mr.  Greenwood  attempted  to  aniga  reaioiii  for  wbat  Jie  laidt  bat 
wai  not  laffered  to  proceed. 

-    'omsENWoen.  at 

G.  Myfldf,  being  fiitber. 

Q,  miy  hadi  he  not  been  bttptUBed  ? 

6.  Because  I  have  bei»  in  priacm,  and  amnot  tell  irhert 
tp  go  to  a  refonooed  clHirch^  wbere  I  iniglit  have  kim  bap- 
tized ac^cording  to  God's  ordinance. 

Q.  Will  you  go  to  duiich,  to  St  Bridges? 

G.  I  know  of  no  such  church. 

Q.  Will  you  go  to  St.  Paul's  ? 

G.  No. 

Q.  Do  you  not  hold  a  parish  to  be  the  diurch  ? 

G.  If  dl  tte  pec^e  ivere  faithful,  haying  God*s  law  and 
ordinances  practised  among  them,  I  do. 

Q.  Do  you  then  hold,  that  the  parish  doth  make  it  no 
4hureha  *. 

G.  No.    But  the  profession  which  the  people  make. 
•  Q.  Do  you  hold  that  the'  diurch  ought  to  be  governed 
by  a  presbytery  ? 

G.  Yes,  eviery  coingr^atioQ  of  Christ  ought  to  be  go- 
verned 1^  that  presb^ery  whieh  Christ  hath  appointed. 

Q.  What  are  those  officers  ? 
./G;  A  pastor,  teacher,  and  dder. 

Q.  And  must  the  church  be  goremed  by  no  other 
officers  ? 

G.  No,  by  no  others  than  Christ  hath  appointed. 

Q.  May  this  people  and  presbytery  reform  such  things  as 
are  amiss,  without  the  prince  ? 

G.  They  ou^t  to  practise  God's  laws,  and  correct 
vice  by  fhe  censure  of  tne  word. 

Q.  What  if  the  prince/or&ttf  them  ? 

G.  They  must,  nevertheless,  do  that  which  God  com-' 

Q.  If  the  prince  otttaady  may  the  presbytery  ezcom*- 
srunicate  him  ? 

,  G.  The  whole  church  may  excommunicate  any  member 
of  that  church,  tf  the  party  continue  obstinate  in  open 

Q.  May  the  prince  be  excommunicated  ? 

G.  There  is  no  exception  of  persons ;  and  I  doubt 
not  that  her  majesty  would  be  ruled  by  the  word.  For  it 
m  not  the  men^  but  the  zDord  j>f  Body  that  bindeth  and 

Q.  May  fhe  prince  then  make  laws  for  the  government 
of  the  church  ? 

G.  The  scripture  balh  set  down  sufficient  laws  for  the 


wogdiip  of  God^  and  the  goreniae&t  of  the  i^uich;  se 
fbt  no  man  may  add  nnto  it,  nor  diminish  from  it. 

Q.  What  MtLj  joQ  of  the  prince's  snpremacy  2  Is  hef 
nsKsty  suprane  hnd  of  the  church,  in  all  causes^  ai' 
weu  ecdeuastical,  as  civU  ? 

G.  Sbe  is  sapreme  magistr^  o?er  all  peiaoni,  to  punish 
the  eyil,  and  d^end  the  good. 

Q.  Is  she  over  off  emcfef  ^ 

G.  No.  Christ  is  the  only  head  of  his  chnrch;  and  his 
laws  may  no  man  alter. 

Q.  But  the  pope  giyeth  this  to  princes,  doth  he  not  ? 

G.  No,  he  cloth  not.  He  setteUi  himsdf  above  princo^ 
and  exempteth  his  priesthood  from  the  magistrate's  sword. 

Q»  What  say  Vou  of  the  oath  of  suprranacy  i  Do  you 
apmore  of  it  ? 

G.  If  these  ecclesiastical  orders  mean  such  as  are  agree- 
able to  the  scriptures,  I  do.    For  I  deny  all  foreign  power. 

Q.  It  means  the  order  and  goyemment,  witii  aD  the  laws 
in  the  church,  as  it  is  now  established. 

G.  Then  1  will  not  answer  to  approve  c£  it.* 

From  the  above  examination,  the  reader  will  clearly  se^ 
that  Mr.  Greenwood's  judges  designed  to  make  him  accuse 
himself.  Though  he  positively  refused  to  take  the  oalh 
ex  officio^  they  certainly  intended  to  make  him  an  ofiender 
by  what  they  could  force  from  his  own  mouth.  Cruel 
inquisitors  I  What  would  they  have  thought,  if  the^  them« 
selves  had  been  treated  thus,  in  the  Moody  days  of  Qwen 
Mary  ?  Such  shocking  barbarities  will  be  a  stigma  upon 
the  ecclesiastical  rulers  of  this  protestant  counUy,  to  the 
latest  posterity. 

At  the  close  of  the  abovi  examination,  Mr.  Greenwood 
was  carried  back  to  prison,  where  he  remained  a  lon^  time 
under  close  confinement.  Here  he  had  many  companions  hs 
bondage,  as  appears  from  a  paper  now  before  m^  aitifle^ 
^^  The  names  of  sundry  faitbfid  Christians  imprisoned  bjr 
the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  and  the  Bishop  of  London, 
for  the  gospel  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ."  In  this  paper  it 
is  obiervea,  that  Mr.  Greenwood  and  Mr.  Barrow  had  been 
imprisoned  thirty  weeks  in  the  Clink,  for  reading  a  portion 
of  scripture  in  a  frierid's  house  on  the  Lord's  day,  but 
were  removed  by  an  habeas  carpus  to  the  Fleet,  where  tbeK 
by  upon  an  execution  of  two  hundred  and  sixty  poundb 

«  EsMBlBstiooi  of  Bsrrowi  Gret nwoo4,  ani  Penry,  p.  88— 8S. 


ci^iece«  Heniy  Thompfion  and  Georee  Collier  were  com« 
mitt^  to  the  Clink  by  the  Bishop  of  London,  for  hearing 
Mr.  Greenwood  read  a  portion  of  scripture  as  above  ob* 
served ;  and  had  remained  prisoners  nineteen  months  withoot 
bdhg  called*  to  answer.  Jerome  Sindiey  was  sent  to  the 
.Compter,  by  his  lordship,  for  refnsing  to  answer  interroea^ 
lories,  where  he  remained  Sfteen  months.  Christopher 
iloper  was  committed  close  prisoner  by  the  Bishop  of  Lon- 
don. fidw^H-d  Boys  was  nineteen  months  in  Bridewell,  and 
afterwards  close  prisoner  in  the  Clink.  John  Chamber  was 
committed  to  the  same  prison,  for  hearing  Mr.  Greenwood 
read  as  above,  where  he  died.  Roger  Jackson  was  sept 
«lose  {Hrisoner  to  Newgate,  where  he  died.  George  Bright, 
for  commendinff  a  faithful  christian  under  persecution,  was 
committed  to  Newgate,  where  he  died.  Maynard,  Roe, 
and  Barrow,  three  aged  widows,  were  cast  into  Newgate, 
by  the  Bisjiop  of  Lpndon,  for  hearing  Mr«  Greenwood  reaa 
a^rtion  of  scripture^  and  two  of  them  died  of  die 
infection  of  the  prison.  Quintin  Smyth  was  committed  ta 
Newgate,  confined  in  a  dungeon,  loaded  with  irons,  and  his 
Bible  itaken  from  him..  John  Piurdye  was  sent  to  Bridewell 
by  the  Archbishop  of  Canteibury,  where  he  was  confined  in 
a  place  called  LUile  Eascy  and  beaten  with  CMdgels,  for 
xwmng  to  {^tend  the  ^emrice  of  the  parish  chiUQc]^.  There 
are  many  4>thers  who  underwent  similar  barbarous  uswe  ;• 
but  these  are  given  as  a  specimen,  shewing  the  q)irit  of  the 
iiines,  and  the  crael  oppressions  of  the  lonilv  prelates. 

Suiing  these  inhuman  proceedings,  the  Bishop  of  London, 
and  others  of  the  high  commission,  appointed  forty-three 
ministers  to  confer  with  the  same  number  pf  Browni^  con- 
fined in  the  different  prisons  in  and  about  London;  (the 
names  of  whom,  as  well  as  the  prisoners,  are  now  before 
me ;)  and  delivered  unto  tbera  for  their  direction,  <<  A  Brief 
>of  the  Positions  held  by  the  new  Sectaries,  being  twelve  in 
iraiijber.''  These  twelve  positions,  as  charged  against  them 
by  their  adversaries,  are  full  oi  errQniM>i|3.  heretical,  and 
blasphembus  opiiMons ;  hut  they  contl^n  uttl^  n^pre  than 
misirepres^tatioi^.  Therdbre,  to  these  positions  they  pub- 
lisbea  a  reply,  entitled  <<  A  brirf  Answer  to  certain  slanderous 
sod  ungodly  Calumniations  spread-  abroad  by  the  Bishops 
imd  their  Adherents,  against  mvers  faithful  and  true  Chns- 
iians,'V  1590.  In  this  piiM^e,  they  absolutely  denied  the 
|W4  odious  chiuges  brought  against  them,  and  openly 

•  Baker'i  Mj^  Co.qsc.  Ypl.  ziy.  P*  911. 


deokred  what  thej  believed  in  all  the  twdve  particuIaTa; 
and  it  appears,  my  autlior  adds^  that  they  held  very  few  or 
none  of  those  false  doctrines  or  positions  with  which  they 
were  charged.* 

Mr.  Greenwood  and  Mr.  Barrow  united  with  about  sixty 
other  prisoners^  in  laying  their  case  at  the  feet  of  the  lora 
treasurer.  This  they  did  by  presenting  a  petition  to  this 
honourable  person,  called  <^  The  humble  Petition  of  many 

?oor  Christians,  imprisoned  by  the  Bishops  in  ^ndiy 
'risous  in  and  about  London."  In  this  petition,  they 
earnestly  beseech  this  great  statesman,  either  to  grant  them 
speedy  trial,  or  some  christian  conference ;  or,  in  the  mean 
time,  that  they  might  be  bailed  according  to  law :  or,  that 
he  would  move  their  cause  before  the  rest  of  her  majesty's 
most  honourable  privy  council.  They  then  state  their  case 
in  the  following  very  moving  language : — "  May  it  please 
<'  your  lordship  to  understand,  th^  we^  her  majesty's  loyal^ 
^<  dutiful,  and  true-hearted  subjects,  to  the  number  of  three- 
^^  score  pers(His  and  upwards,  have,  contrary  to  all  law  and 
'^  equity,  been  imprisoned,  separated  from  our  trades,  wives, 
'<  children,  and  families ;  yea,  shut  up  close  prisoners  from 
<<  all  comfort :  many  of  us  the  space  of  two  years  and  a 
^'  half,  upon  the  bishops*  sole  commandment,  in  great 
^^  penury,  and  noisome  prisons ;  many  ending  their  Iives^ 
<^  never  called  to  trial;  some  haled  forth  to  the  sessions; 
^*  some  put  in  irons  and  dungeons ;  some  in  hunger  and 
<<  famine.  All  of  them  debarred  from  any  lawful  audience 
^<  before  bur  honourable  governors  and  magistrates,  and 
<<  from  all  help  and  benefit  of  the  laws :  daily  defiuned  and 
^^  falsely  accused,  by  published  pamphlets,  private  sng^ 
^^  ffestions,  open  preaching,  slanders,  and  accusations  of 
<^  heresy,  sedition,  schism,  and  what  not.  And  above  aUy 
^  (which  most  toucheth  our  salvation,)  they  keep  us  from 
'^^  all  spiritual  edification  and  comfort,  by  doctrine,  maje^ 
^  or  mutual  conference'^  This  petition,  however,  did  not 
succeed  according  to  their  wishes. 

Boring  their  long  and  severe  imprisonment,  varioos 
pamphlets  were  published  against  them,  whereby  tiidr 
characters  were  foully  aspersMl,  and  their  sentiments  ex* 
eeedingly  misrepresented.  In  reply,  they  published  several 
pamphlets,  in  defence  of  themselves  and  their  opinions^  and 
endeavoured  to  set  forth  the  truth  in  its  proper  liffht.  Mr, 
Greenwood  and  Mr.  Barrow  were  supposed  to  be  we  authoQi 

•  MS.  Chronology  vol.  ii.  p.  4S5.  (8)  (3.) 
f  Strypc't  Anuals,  toI.  It.  p.  91*M. 


of  ihaie  publicatioiiS)  in  whidi  Uiej  expressed  tlieinsdyet 
with  (XMisiderable  freed<mi  against  the  bishops,  and  the 
established  church.  Therefore,  March  81,  1592,  thejr, 
together  with  Mr.  Saxio  Bcllot,  gent.,   Daniel  Studlejr^ 

Sirdler,  and  Robert  Bowie,  fishmonger,  were  indicted  al 
le  Old  BaUey,  upon  the  statute  of  23  Eliz.  <<  For  writing 
and  publishin^r  sundry  seditions  books  and  pamphlets^ 
lending  to  the  slander  of  the  queen  and  govemment ;"  when, 
in  filet,  they  had  written  and  published  only  against  the 
diurch.  Upon  their  trial,  they  behaved  with  great  con- 
-itaBcy  and  resolution,  shewing  no  token  of  recognition,  nor 
prarer  fi>r  mercy.  They  protested  their  inviolable  loyalty 
to  Uie  queen,  and  obedience  to  her  goyemment :  that  they 
never  wrote,  nor  so  much  as  ever  intended  to  write,  any 
thing  against  her  highness,  but  only  against  the  bishops 
and  the  established  church ;  which  was,  indeed,  sufficiently 
maniiest.  The  jury,  however,  savouring  too  much  of  tto 
spirit  of  their  judges,  brought  them  all  in  guilty.*  Bellot, 
with  tears,  desired  a  conference,  and  conferaed  with  sorrow 
what  he  had  done ;  and  Studley  and  Bowie  being  looked 
upon  as  accessaries  only,  though  they  continued  firm, 
dedarinsf  their  unshaken  loyalty  to  the  queen,  and  refusing 
to  aisk  for  mercy,  were  reprieved,  and  sent  back  to  prison, 
Studley,  after  four  years'  imprisonment,  was  banished  from 
the  country,  and  Bellot  and  Bowie,  not  long  after,  died  in 
Newgate.i-  In  the  mean  time,  Mr.  Greenwood  and  Mr. 
fianow  were  reserved  for  public  examples.t  Accordingly, 
sentence  of  death  was  passed  upon  them  March  S3d,  wnen 
Beva:al  divines  were  appointed  to  persuade  them  to  recant. 
But  remaining  steadfast,  they  were  carried,  on  the  last  of 
Harelip  in  a  cart  to  Tyburn,  and  for  some  time  e^osed 

«  8trype*t  Whitgift,  p.  414,  415, 

-¥  MS.  Remarks  on  Hist.  p.  454. 
.  t  Abcknt  this  time,  Mr.  Barrow  presented  a  petition  to  the  Attoney- 
Q^enX  l^rton,  in  which,  after  hambly  requesting  the  favour  of  aa 
iapartial  conference,  in  behalf  of  himself  and  his  brethren  then  confined 
Id  prifOD,  he  thus  addressed  him: — **  I  protest  to  your  worship,  in  the 
*f  light  of  God,  at  whose  judgment  I  look  hourly  to  stand,  that  I  hold 
*^  not  aay  thing  out  of  singularity,  or  pride  of  spirit;  but  am  certainly 
**  persuaded  by  the  grounds  of  Gnd*s  word,  the  profession  and  practice 
*'  of  the  reformed  churches,  and  learned  men  of  other  countries.  I,  for 
*f  my  own  part,  avow  unto  your  worship,  that,  through  God*s  grace, 
**  I  will  utterly  forsake  any  error  I  shall  be  proved  to  hold,  and  will 
^*  hambly  submit  In  all  matters  .proved  by  the  word  of  God. — By  this 
**  charitable  act,  your  worship  may  pot  an  end  to  the  present  controversies, 
**  reduce  all  wherein  we  err;  and  appease  many  christian  souls. — Signed 
'*  yoir  worship^s  humble  snppliiUit^  Heicrt  Borrow.'* 

Sfnopi't  Jmmlif  vol.  It.  p.  171. 



under  the  gallows  before  the  people,  to  see  whetheif.tbt 
terrors  of  death  would  not  frighten  them.  They,  neverthcr 
^fis,  continued  firm  even  in  the  immediate  prospect  of  deaths 
and  were  brought  back  to  Newgate.  April  6,  1593,  thej 
prere  carried  to  Tyburn  a  second  time,  ancl  there  executed.* 
At  the  place  of  execution,  they  eave  such  testimonies  of 
iheir  unfeigned  piety  towards  (lod,  and  loyalty  to  thi^ 
queen,  praying  so  earnestly  for  her  long  and  prosperous 
Teign,  that  when  Dr.  Uainolds,  whaattended  them,  reported 
their  behaviour  to  her  majesty,  she  repented  of  having  ccp<t 
jented  io  their  death.f  The  doctor  signified  to  her  majesty^ 
^'  that  he  was  persuaded,  if  they  had  lived,  they  would 
Iiuve  been  two  as  worthy  instruments  for  the  church  of  God, 
as  any  that  had  been  raised  up  in  that  age.*'  The  quedn, 
jftfterwards  riding  by  the  place  of  their  execution,  called  to 
mind  their  sufiering  death,  and,  desirous  to  obtain  some 
further  information  concerning  them,  demanded  of  the  Earl 
of  Cumberland,  who  was  present  at  their  death,  what  kind 
of  end  they  made.  He  answered,  "  A  very  godly  end, 
and  prayed  for  your  majesty,  state,  &c."  Also,  Mr.  Hiilips, 
a  most  worthy  a;rd  famous  preacher,  having  conferred  with 
Mr.  Barrow,  gnd  beheld  his  holy  preparatioii  for  death, 
said, ''  IJari'QW,  Barrow,  my  soul  be  ^itp  thine.''t  Apd  we 
learn  from  jtoe  famous  Mr.  Hugh  Broughton,  who  liye^  io 
jthe$e  times,  ^'  that  though  Barrow  and  Greenwood  were 
condemned  for  disturbance  of  the  state ;  this  would  have 
been  pardoned,  and  their  lives  spared,  if  they  would  have 
prcmiised  to  come  to  church."^  Thus  Uiey  suffered  for 
their  nonconformity ! 

Their  trial  for  offences  against  the  state,  when  they  had 
)vritten  againi^t  the  bisliops  and  the  chi^rch  qnly,  was 
undoubtedly  the  artful  pontrivance  of  Archbishop  Whitgift ; 
who,  by  so  doing,  cast  the  odium  of  their  death  mm 
himself  upon  the  ciyil  magistrate.  Indeed,  this  chargje  is 
fiiirly  brought  against  him  by  one  of  the  sufferers.  Ihfr* 
Barrow,  having  suffered  confinement  in  close  prison  several 
years,  exposed  to  all  the  severities  of  cold,  nakedness,  and 
famine,  at  length  presented  a  supplication  to  the  queen, 
earnestly  desiring  to  be  delivered  from  their  present  mise- 
ries, though  it  were  by  death.  The  paper  was,  however, 
intercepted  by  the  archbishqp,  who  ^deavour^  to  prevaa^ 

•  Heylin'8  Hist,  of  Presby.  p.  324,  325. 

•^  NeaPs  Hist,  of  Puritaps,  vol.  i.  p.  884.    Aiti^  Edit. 

1  Peirce's  VindicatioD,  part  i.  p.  147. 

(  Broughton*8  Works,  vol.  ii.  p.  731.    Sd it  1601. 


II  knowledge  of  their  sitiiatioii  firmn  comiiig  to  the  eals  all 
the  qpeen.  Mr.  Barrow^  thcfefcHre,  exposed  his  grace's 
behaviour,  in  the  following  smart  language : — ^<  The  arch* 
^bishop/'  sajs  he,  <<  haying  sent  so  many  men  to diven 
^  prisons,  as  Bridewell,  Newgate^  the  two  Compters,  tho 
**  white-lion,  and  the  Fleet,  now  posted  these  things  to  the 
**  dril  magistrate.  He  hath  destined  brother  Greenwood 
^  and  myself  to  death,  and  others  to  close  prison ;  their 
^  poor  wives  and  children  to  be  cast  out  of  the  city,  and 
^  th^ir  ^oods  to  be  confiscated.  Is  not  this,"  says  he,  '<  a 
^  christian  bishop  ?  Are  these  the  virtues  of  him,  who  takes 
<<  npcm  himself  the  caie  and  government  of  the  churches 
^  in  the  IsQoid,  to  tear  and  devour  Good's  poor  sheep,  to  rend 
^  off  their  ilesh  and  break  their  bones,  and  chop  them  in 
^  ineces  as  flesh  for  the  cauldron  ?  Will  he  thus  instruct 
^  a|id  convince  gainsayers  ?  Surely  he  will  persuade  but 
^'  feipv^  who  fear  God,  to  hjs  relirion,  by  this  evil  dealing. 
^^  Does  he  consult  his  own  credit,  or  the  hosour  of  his 
^  prince,  by  this  tyrannical  havock?  For  our  parts,  our 
'<  lives  ar^  not  dear  unto  us,  so  that  we  may  finish  our. 
^  testimony  with  joy.  We  are  always  ready,  through  the 
^  giraoe  of  Grod,  to  be  offered  up  upon  the  testimony  of  the 
^^  nith  that  we  have  made."*  When,  therefore,  their 
wlidle  case  is  impartially  considered,  we  think  there  was 
Bot  much  cause  for  Mr.  Strype  to  call. these  passumate 
and  angry  expressions.  These  unhappy  men  undoubtedly 
fdl  a  sacrifice  tp  the  resentment  oi  an  angry  prelate;  who 
hf  nevertheless,  dienominated  <<  a  very  worthy  man."f 

b  the  mean  time,  while  we  condemn  the  severity  with 
3Rr]ucli  Uiese  men  were  treated,  we  do  not  mean  to  palliate 
their  errOTs.  Their  rigid  and  narrow  sentiments  concerning 
disciplme ;  their  denying  the  church  of  England  to  be  a 
true  church;  their  maintaining  that  her  government  was 
so  wholly  popish  and  antichristian  as  to  render  all  hes 
ordinances  and  sacraments  invalid;  and  their  not  only 
lenouncing  OHnmunion  with  her,  but  with  all  other  reformed 
churphes,  excepting  such  as  were  according  to  their  own 
model,  are  sufficient  proofs  how  strongly  they  were  tinged 
with  bigotry.  The  true  grounds  of  religious  freedom 
wer^  at  this  period,  so  little  understood,  that  it  b  exceed- 
ingly probable,  that,  if  the  Browiiists  had  risen  in  power, 
they  would  have  exercised  it  in  a  very  unjustifiable  manner. 
The  condemnation  ^d  execution  of  Mr.  Barrow  and 

«  8trjpe*f  Whitgifl,  p.  41  a,  410. 
i  Gnuiser*8  B\og.  UHU  f  ol.  i.  p.  SOS. 


Graenwood,  were  ads  of  flagiant  injiuftice  and  cnidtjyttid 
will  stand  as  moniiments  of  diagnce  to  the  leign  ol  (j^een 
Eliffibetti,  as  durable  as  time.* 

.  Upon  this  part  of  oar  English  Ustory,  the  jadiclaos 
Rapin  observes,  <<  That  the  queen  hearkened  to  the  mk^ 
gestions  of  the  clergy,  who  represented  the  pniilaiis  at 
seditious  persons ;  who  rebelled  against  tlie  laws,  and,  by 
their  disobedience,  shook  the  foundations  of  the  gOT^mmeoti 
This  is  not  the  only  time,  nor  is  England  the  only  state, 
where  disobedience  in  point  of  rdigion,  has  been  <xm« 
founded  with  rebellion  against  the  sovneign*  There  is 
scarcely  a  christian  state,  where  the  prevafling  sect  wiU 
suffer-  the  least  division,  or  the  least  swervitig  from  the 
established  opinions;  no,  not  even  in  private.  Shall  I 
venture  to  sa^,  it  is  the  clergy  chiefly  who  support  this 
strange  principle  oi  non-tderation,  so  little  agreeable  to 
christian  charity?  The  severity  of  which,  from  this  time, 
began  to  boiexercised  upon  the  nonconformists  in  Englaand^ 
produced  terrible  effects  in  the  following  reigns,  and  occa* 
sioned  doubles  and  factions  which  ranain  to  this  day/ V 

Mr.  Greenwood  published  <^  A  Briefe  Refutation  of  Mn 
George  Gifford ;"  and  <<  An  Answer  to  George  Giffoid^ 
pretended  Defence  of  Read-Prayers  and  Devised  Liturgies;-* 
in  the  titles  of  which,  he  calls  himself  ^'  Christ's  poor 
afflicted  Prisoner  in  the  Fleet,  for  the  Truth  of  the 

William  Smyth  was  bom  about  the  year  1563,  and 
•dacated,  most  probably,  in  the  university  of  Cambridge. 
On  his  entrance  upon  the  sacred  function,  he  was  or- 
dained by  the  Bishop  of  Coventry  and  lachfidd,  and 
licensed  to  preach  by  the  Bishop  of  Sarum,  when  bt 
became  minister  at  Bradford  in  Wiltshire.  Having  oon* 
tinued  in  thb  situation  for  some  time,  he  went  to  Londflo, 
attended  the  private  assemblies  of  the  Brownists*  congrega- 
tion, and  probably  became  a  zealous  and  active  member  of 
the  church ;  for  which  he  was  cast  into  prison,  where  he 
lemained  a  long  time.  During  his  confinement,  he  was 
frequently  carried  before  the  inqmsitors  of  the  high  com* 
mission  and  the  star-chamber,  and  after  examination,  with 
a  view  to  make  him  confess  and  accuse  himself  and  his 
brethren,  he  was  sent  back  to  prison.    On  one  of  these 

•  Biog.  Brilan.  vol.  ii.  p.  021.    Edit.  1778. 
f  Rapin'i  Hist,  of  Eog.  vol.  U,  p,  UU 


ooesriotis,  April  5,  1598,  he  was  oooTened  belbre  tbe  Deaa 
of  Westmin^er,  Mr.  Dale,  Mr.  Barnes,  and  Mr.  Youngs 
wluen  be  underwent  an  examinatimi,  of  which  the  following 
jMurticiilais  are  preserved : — He  said  he  had  been  m  prisot 
ubmA  two  months,  committed  by  Dr.  Stanhope  and  othen^ 
on-  snqndon  of  being  privy  to  the  matters  concerning  the 
coffin,  (lefening,  -no  doubt,  to  the  cofEji  of  Mr.  lumx 
Qijicmi,)- carried  to  Mr.  Young's  door«  He  said  also  uat 
he  had  been  examined  first  before  Mr.  Young  and  Mr. 
Tofwnsend;  next  before  the  Bishop  of  Lmdon  and  others; 
andlasfly  before  the  Lord  Chief  Justice  and  Judge  Anderson^ 
but  never,  to  his  knowledge,  was  indicted.  He  ccmfessea 
that  he  had  been  at  an  assemUy,  in  the  house  of  Mr.  Lees^ 
near  Smithfield ;  but  when  he  was  asked  whether  he  be^ 
longed  to  that  church,  of  which  Mr.  Johnson  was  pastor,  he 
lefiwd  to  answer.^  Also,  when  it  was  demanded  wheAer 
he  had  ever  any  of  Barrow's,  Greenwood's,  or  Penry 's  books 
in  his  poGieBsion,  he  again  refused  to  answer.  Heacknow* 
ledged  that  he  came  up  to  Londcm  to  confer  with  Mr. 
JomisoB,  Mr.  Greenwooa,  and  others,  and  that  he  attended 
the  assembly  in  Lees's  house,  on  purpose  to  hear  and  see 
theiT  oiders  in  church  matters.  He  refused  the  oath  e» 
officio;  and  when  he  was  asked  whether  he  would  go  to  the 
parish  church,  he  refused  to  be  bound,  but  was  desirous  to 
hare  4  omference^*  Great  numbers  of  Brownists  were 
BOW  confined  in  the  different  prisons  in  and  about  London, 
many  of  whose  names,  and  flieir  crimes,  with  their  cruel 
iisaee,  are  now  before  me. ,  The  two  principal  crimes  with 
idiich  they  ware  charged  by  their  enemies,  were,  their 
having  seen  or  possessed  certain  books  supposed  to  hate 
ben  published  by  Barrow,  Greenwood,  or  Pehry ;  and 
their  having  joined  the  congregation  of  Brownists,  which, 
to  avoid  me  persecution  of  the  bishops,  assembled  iu 
private  houses,  in  the  fields,  and  in  woods.  For  these  sig* 
nifieant  dfenoes,  ihey  were  stigmatized  as  rebels,  and  com* 
mined  to  filthy  prisons,  where  many  of  them  died,  and 
others,  after  a'  miMrable  imprisonment  cS  fourth  fi^  yean^ 
weie  banished  ftmn  the  country.  Mr,  Smyth  vras  probably 
of  this  number.f 


•  Baker*!  MS.  Collec.  vol.  xt.  p.  Ill,  U«.  +  Ibid.  p.  50— UT. 


Thomas  Settle  was  bom  about  the  year  1555,  and  moil 
probably  educated  in  the  naiTemty  of  Cambridge.  He 
was  ordained  by  Bishop  Freak,  after  which  he  became 
minister  of  Bo^toi  in  SimMk,  and  a  sealoosnoDOonfiMmial; 
bat  was  roughly  used  by  Arohbishra  Whitgift.  In  Maj^ 
1586,  being  cited  before  his  ^nuse  at  Lambeth,  the  fellowi^ 
charges  were  ezhHiited  wamst  him : — ^^  That  he  did  aot 
observe  the  mrder  in  the  Book  of  Gommon  Prayer. — ^Th«t 
he  did  not  use  tlue  cross,  nor  admit  the  promise  and  rtmim 
baptism.^ — ^That  he  did  not  marry  with  the  ring,  and  aay, 
5  .With  this  ring  I  thee  wed.'«— That  he  frequented  oonfoi- 
tides. — That  he  doiied  the  lawfolness  of  private  bmtim 
by  women,  and  the  baptism  ot  ministeri  who  could  'M 
preach. — ^And  that  he  denied  that  the  soul  of  our  Saviour 
went  into  hell,  or  the  regions  ot  the  damned.'' 
*  Upon  the  exhibiticm  of  these  charges  against  Mr.  Settle^ 
iie  was  first  examined  upon  our  LcHrd's  descent  into  hell ;  when 
he  confessed  it  was  his  opinion,  that  Christ  did  not  desoend 
locally  into  hell,  aikl  that  Calvin,  Besa,  and  other  teamed 
men,  were  of  the  same  opinion.  This  put  the  ardibiaium 
-into  so  violent  a  passion,  that  he  called  him  ofs,  dot^fmif 
and  added,  they  are  Ban.*  Mr.  Settle  said,  <^  Yoo  o«^j^ 
-not  to  rail  at  me,  being  a  minister  of  the  gospd.*'  ^^  Mliat, -' 
replied  his  lorddiip,  <<  dost  thou  think  it  much  to  be  called 
ass  and  dolt  ?  I  have  called  many  of  thy  belteis  ao.'.' 
f^  True,"  observed  Mr.  Settle ;  ^<  but  the  question  is^  horn 
lawfully  you  have  done  that."  The  loidly  archbtabop 
ithen  said,  <<  Thou  shalt  preach  no  more  in  my  pmvince^v 
'Mr.  Settle  answered,  <<  I  am  called  to  {Hreadbi  the  goqpdl, 
and  I  will  not  cease  to  preach  it"  The  archbishop,  with  a 
stem  countenance,  replied,  <<  Neither  yoii,  nor  any  one  m 
England,  shall  preach  without  my  leave ;"  and  imuMdisriiidy 
commanded  him  to  be  carried  close  prisoner  to  the  Gttb* 
bouse.  Before  his  departure,  the  Dean  of  Westminstar 
asking  him  whether  he  had  subscribed,  Mr.  Settle  replied, 
.^  Yes;  I  have  subscribed,  and  am  ready  to  subsciibe 
again,  to  the  doctrine  of  faith  and  sacraments,  being  as 
much  as  the  law  requires:  but  to  other  rites'  and  ceremof 
Hies,  I  neither  can  nor  will  subscribe.'*  <<  Then,"  said.tbt 
angry  archbishop,  <<  thou  shalt  be  subject  to  the  ecclesiastical 

*  This  prelate  is  commeoded  as  a  wortliy  aod  pradent  govaraor  of  iOm 
charclii  and  his  mild  and  moderate  carriage,  it  irsaid,  was  well  worthy  of 
imitation  1  This  good  man  expired  in  David's  Idlness  of  days,  leaving  a 
name  like  sweet  perfume  behind  him  I  Ponfe'i  Lifi  0/  fTMigiftj  JPn/.-^ 
Mumsts  Mist,  of  Eng,  yoh  II  p.  t6i. 

•utWoriiy/'  Mr.  Settle  replied,  « I  thank  God,  y(m  cart 
use  no  violence  only  upon  my  poor  body."  So  Wbitgift 
<)Oitmiitted  him  close  prisoner  to  the  Gatehouse,  where  the 
gciod  man  continued  about  six  yeurs;*  till  the  year  1592|f 
whien  he  was  released. 

After  hi9  deliverance  from  this  cruel  bondage,  Mr.  Settle 

becttme  a  member  of  the  Brownists'.  congre^tion,  whidk 

assembled  in  private  places  in  and  about  London.     His 

troubles^  however,  were  not  ended :  bonds  and  afflictions 

were  still  awaiting  him.    For,  towards  the  close  of  the 

above  year,  he  was  apprehended  at  a  private  assembly,  held 

in  4ke  school-house  ^  Mr.  Gewge  Johnson,  in  Nicholas* 

lan^  and  oonmiitted  to  prison.    After  remaining  under 

tDonfinemeiit  for  fifteen  weeks,  without  either  examination 

or  indictment,  he  was  carried  before  the  high  commission^ 

vAfril  ^  159^  when  he  was  required  to  take  tlie  oath 

^'  offiAt^  but  he  absolutely  lefusexL    Though  he  would  not 

iMseilse  either  fain^elf  or  his  brethren ;    yfA.^  during  his 

^cttmination,  he  acknowledged  certain  things,  from  which 

m^  have  collected  the  following  particulars  :i— Me  confessed 

that  be  had  held  his  opinions,  and  separated  himself  irom 

Ae' established  church,  for  about  a  year;  but  had  not 

itMoeived  the  sacrament  in  the  parish  church  for  three  years. 

He  acknowledged  that  he  had  opposed  the  discipline  of  the 

church  ftwr  seven  years;  but  he  refused  to  say  by  what 

means  he  had  been  induced  to  imbibe  these  opinions. 

Wlieit  hef>?as  commanded  to  say  whether  he  possessed,  or 

had  ever  read,  any  of  Barrow's,  Greenwood's,  or  Penry't 

liookSi  he  refused  to  give  a  direct  answer,  but  said,  he 

^fould  not  be  his  own  accuser.    Being  asked  how  many  he 

bad  persuaded,  and  brought  over  to  his  opinions,  he  said; 

lie  was  firmly  fixed  in  what  he  professed,  and  was  desirous 

of  bringing  over  as  many  others  as  he  was  able ;  but  more 

he  would  not  answer. 

'  He^  mcHtever,  confessed,  that  he  was  present  at  the 
usaembly  in  a  house  in  Aldgate,  when  Robert  Stokes  was 
^excommunicated  for  his  apostacy ;  and  that  he  was  excom- 
mdnicated  l^  Mr.  Francis  Johnson  tlie  pastor,  when  the 
test  of  Ae  omcers  and  congregation  were  present,  and  con- 
^wmted  to  what  was  done.  He  said,  also,  that  he  had  never 
served  in  any  office  in  the  congregation;  but  had  occa- 
isionatly  taught  or  prophesied  in  the  assembly.  He  like^ 
wisje.confesi^,  that  he  had  received  the  Lord's  supper  in 

•  MS.  Refiiter,  p«  79S,  f  Stope*i  Aoaaliy  vol.  iv.  p.  9(1. 


their  congr^tito,  in  a  house  near  Smithfield,  but  he  knew 
not  whose  the  house  was.  He,  at  the  same  time,  refused  to 
attend  the  public  service  of  the  parish  churches ;  because^ 
he  thought,  they  had  not  a  true  ministry  .••^This  was  the 
rault  01  the  inquisition  of  his  spiritual  judges;  but  it  does 
not  appear  how  long  he  remained  in  prison :  most  probAMy 
he  was  released  upon  the  general  banishment  of 

^OHK  Penbt,  A.M.w.This  distinguidied  puritaa  was 
horn  in  Brecknockshire,  in  the  year  1559,  and  educated  first 
at  Cambridge,  then  at  St.  Albans-hall,  Oxford,  where  he 
took  his  degree  of  Master  of  Arts  in  1586.  <^  When  he 
first  went  to  Cambridge,^'  says  Wood,  <<  he  was  as  arrant 
m  papist  as  ever  came  out  of  Wales,  and  he  would  have' 
ran  a  felse  gallop  over  his  beads  with  any  man  in  Enj^andy 
and  help  the  priest  sometimes  to  say  mass  at  midnighLV 
Admitting  he  was  then  much  inclined  to  popery,  being  only 
about  eighteen  years  of  a^e,  we  need  not  wonder,  espe» 
cially  when  it  is  recollected,  that  the  country  whence  bi 
came  was  then  wholly  overspread  with  popish  darkness. 
However,  as  our  author  intimates,  he  soon  renounced 
popery ;  and,  after  taking  his  degrees,  became  an  esteemed 
preacher  in  both  universities,  where  he  was  accounted  '^  m 
tolerable  scholar,  an  edifying  preacher^  and  a  good  man;" 
This,  from  so  bitter  an  author,  is  certainly  a  very  high 
character  of  so  rigid  a  puritan.  <^  But,"  he  adds,  ^<  htwg 
full  of  Welsh  blood,  and  of  a  hot  and  restless  bend,  he 
.chained  his  course,  and  became  a  notorious  anateptisC^ 
and  in  some  sort  a  Brownist,  and  a  most  bitter  enemy  to  the 
church  of  England."f  He  was,  undoubtedly,  an  en^y  tfr 
the  hierarchy,  and  the  persecution  of  the  prelates,  wd  m 
zealous  promoter  of  a  further  reformation. 

Upon  Mr.  Penry's  leaving  the  university,  he  settled  fiir 
some  time  at  Northampton,  where  he  was  most  probacy 
employed  in  the  ministry.  About  the  year  1587,  Iw  enteied 
upon  nis  suffering  in  the  cause  of  nonconfonnity,  betdff 
conveimd  before  Archbishop  Whilgift,  Bishc^  Cooper,  and 
other  high  commissioners.  The  charge  brought  against 
him  was,  that  in  a  book  he  had  published,  he  hu  assertecL 
<^  That  mere  readers,  meaning  such  as  could  not^  or  irouU 
not  preach,  wor^-  no  ministers.    Reading :  homilies  onl^i  or 

PENRT.  48 

any  other  boobs/'  he  said,  "  was  not  preaching  the  word 
of  God,  and  so  the  ordinary  means  of  salvation  was 
wanting.*'  During  his  examination,  the  Bishop  of  London 
asking  aim  what  he  had  to  say  ngainst  nonresidents,  he  said, 
**  Ttey  aire  odious  in  the  sight  of  God ;  because,  to  the 
utmost  of  their  power,  they  deprive  the  people  of  the 
ordinary  means  of  salvation,  which  is  the  word  preached." 
When  the  bishop  demanded  whether  preaching  was  the  onlu 
means  of  salvation,  Mr.  Penry  replied,  "  It  is  the  only 
ordinary  means."  This  he  endeavoured  to  confirm,  from 
the  fdlo^ing  portions  of  scripture :  ^^  How  shall  they  heat 
without  a  preacher? — It  pleased  God,  by  the  foolishness 
of  preachii^,  to  save  them  that  beli(!ve. — In  whom  also  ye 
toasted,  after  ye  heard  the  word  of  truth."  Having,  for  a 
considerable  time,  discussed  Mr.  Penry's  assertion,  that  the 
word  is  the  only  ordinary  means  of  salvation,  the  Bishop 
cf  Winchester  arose,  and  said,  ''  I  assure  you,  my  lords,  it 
is  an  execrable  heresy."  "  An  heresy !"  replied  Mr. 
Peoxy,  "I  th^k  God  that  I  ever  knew  that  heresy.  It  is 
such  a  heresy,  as  I  will,  by  the  grace  of  God,  sooner  leave 
my  life  than  leave  it."  The  bishop  then  said,  <<  I  tell  thee, 
it  is  a  heresy ;  and  thou  shalt  recant  it  as  a  heresy.'' 
'*  Never,"  replied  Mr.  Penry,  "  God  willing,  so  long  as  I 
live. '  Thot^h  his  lordship  ailerwards  endeavourra  to 
defend  himseff  against  what  is  here  ascribed  to  him,  he 
seends  to  have  been  very  unsuccessful.*  It  also  appears,  ) 
that  Whil^nft  supported  his  brother  of  Winchester  in  his  V 
assertion,  that  Penry's  opinion  was  an  execrable  heresy,  -^ 
and  that  he  should  recant  it  as  such  ;  adding,  ^'  that  such 
heathenjsh  nntruth  is  to  be  pitied  rather  than  answered."t  :; 
Mn  Peary  was,  therefore,  committed  to  prison ;  and,  after\ 
about  a  month's  confinement,  was  discharged  without  any^ 
fiutim  proceeding.  But  presently  after  his  release,  they 
sent  their  pnrsiiivants  with  warrants  to  apprehend  him,  and 
ccmmiit  him  to  prison.  Walton,  one  or  their  pursuivants, 
went  immediately  to  Northampton ;  and  upon  enteruie  Mr. 
Peniy's  house,  ransacked  his  study,  and  took  away  all  the 
books  and  papers  which  he  thought  proper ;  but  Mr.  Penry 
was  not  to  be  foand.t 

Upon  the  publication  of  Martm  Mar-Prelate,  and  other 
satincal  pamphlets,  a  special  warrant  was  issued  from  the 
council,  in  1590,  under  several  hands,  of  which  Whit<]rift*s 
was  one,  to  seise  and  apprehend  Mr.  Penry,  as  an  enemy  to 

•  Strrpe*!  AdosIi,  toI.  Hi.  p.  57S,  674.     t  Strype*i  Whitgift,  p.  806. 
{  MS.  Chn>nolos7>  vol.  U.  p.  4ST.  (8.) 

TOIi.  U.  C 



tbc  state;  and  that  all  the  qneen's  good  subjects  iluNdd 
take  him  so  to  be.  But  Mr.  Penry,  about  the  same  time^ 
urent  into  Scotland,  not  merely  for  safety  firom  the  atonn, 
but  as  a  student  in  diyinity,  where  he  remained  tUI  the 
year  1593.  While  he  was  in  the  north^  he  made  nymy 
observaticms  rdatiye  to  religion,  for  his  own  private  we ; 
and,  at  length,  prepared  the  heads  of  a  petition  or  aaaddieii 
to  the  queen.  This  petition  was  designed  to  repremt  to 
her  majesty  the  true  state  of  religion,  and  how  jlgiigiBiit 
she  was  of  the  manv  abuses  in  tte  church.  LikiewJM  to 
intercede  with  her,  that  he  might,  by  her  aulhprity,  liafe 
liberty  to  go  into  Wales,  and  preach  the  gospel  in  hianuptife 
country,  where,  indeed,  it  was  nmch  wanted.  He  iiyteodeJ 
himself  to  deUyer  it  to  the  queen,  as  he  should  Sad 
opportunity.  The  heads  of  the  petition,  clothed  in  plain 
ana  smart  language,  were  as  follows : 

<<  The  last  days  of  your  reign  axe  turned  rather  against 
<'  Jesus  Christ  and  his  goqpd,  than  to  the  maintqiance  of 
f^  the  same. 

^^  I  haye  great  cause  and  complaint,  madam  f  fWj  ^ 
<<  Lord  and  bis  church  haye  cause  to  complahi  os  yo«f 
^  goyanment,  because  we,  your  subjects,  this  day,  ave  not 
^  permitted  to  serye  our  £rod,  under  your  goyenumcnt, 
^^  according  to  his  zDordj  but  are  sold  to  be  bondslaves,  not 
<^  only  to  our  affections,  to  do  what  we  will,  so  that  we 
^^  keep  ourselyes  within  the  compass  of  established  civil 
^^  laws,  but  also  to  be  servants  to  the  man  of  sm  (^  pcpe) 
^^  and  his  ordinances. 

^<  It  U  not  the  force,  that  we  seem  to  fear  that  wiQ  cope 
<^  upon  us,  (for  the  Lord  may  destroy  both  you  for  deioyiiig^ 
<<  and  us  for  slack  seeking  of  his  will,)  by  strai^ESts :  I 
^<  come  unto  you  with  it.  If  you  will  hear  it,  our  jcwpe 
^^  may  be  eased ;  if  not,  that  posterity  may  knpw  tha^  ym 
^  have  been  dealt  with,  and  that  this  age  may  know  fbat 
€c  there  is  no  expectation  to  be  looked  for  at  your  handB. 

<^  Among  the  rest  of  the  princes  under  the  gospel,  that 
^c  have  been  drawn  to  oppose  it,  you  must  think  yourself  to 
<<  be  one ;  for  until  you  are  this,  madamy  you  wst^  not 
<^  yourself;  and  they  are  but  sycophants  and  flatjtepen 
<<  whoever  tell  you  otherwise :  your  standi]^  is  and  has  bpcn 
f<  by  the  gospel.  It  is  little  beholden  to  you  for  any  ii^ng 
^^  that  appears.  The  practice  of  your  ffovemment  sheifPi 
^  diat  if  you  could  haye  ruled  without  me  gospel,  it  woqid 
^  have  been  doubtful  whether  the  gospel  should  be  estab* 
^JWiclil  or  not;  finr  oow  that  you  are  established  ioe  yom 

PENRY.  61 

«<  ihroqe  by  the  goqiel,  you  suffer  it  to  reach  no  further  than 
^  the  eii)d  of  your  sceptre  limiteth  unto  it. 
.  <<  If  ,^  hadhad  Queen  IMbiy 's  days,  I  think  that  we  should 
^  haVe  had  as  iBourishing  a  churcn  this  day  as  eyer  am ; 
^^  for  it  is  well^  there  was  then  in  London^  imder 
¥iiie  ^burden,  and  elsewhere  in  esUe,  more  flourishing 
^  churches  thw  any  now  tolerated  by  your  authority. 

^  Now,  whereas  we  shouM  hftye  your  help  both  to  joia 
^<  oundyes  with  the  true  churchy  and  reject  the  fidse,  and 
{^  all  the  ordinances  thereof;  we  are  in  your  kingdom  per* 
f^mitted  to  do  nothing,  but  accounted  sedUhuiy  if  we 
^  «flbm  either  the  one  or  the  other  of  the  former  points  i 
^  and  therefor^  madantj  you  are  not  so  much  an  adversary 
^^  to  us  poor  men.  as  unto  Jesus  Christ,  and  the  wealth  of 
^  his  kingdom. 

^  If  .we  cannot  have  your  fiiYOur,  but  by  oiinittinff  our 
<<  4Pty  to  God,  we  are  unworthy  of  it;  and,  by  uod'a 
i^  grace,  we  mean  not  to  purchase  it  so  dear. 

I<  Bu^  madamy  thus  much  we  must  needs  say,  that,  in  all 
!^  li)»dUhood,  if  the  days  of  your  sister  Queen  Muy,  and 
5^  her  persecution,  had  ccmtinued  unto  this  day,  that  the 
«  chiurdi  of  God  in  England  had  been  far  more  flourish- 
5^im  tJ^  at  this  day  it  is :  for  then,  madam^  the  church 
f^  cjrGqa  within  this  land^  and  elsewhere,  bei^  strangers, 
>f,q[yoyfi4  the  ordinances  of  God's  hdy  word,  as  flu  as 
^  then  they  saw. 

^<  But  since  your  nugeUy  came  unto  your  crown,  we 
f^  have  had  whole  Christ  Jesus,  God  and  man ;  but  we 
<^  inust  serve  him  only  in  heart 

,^  And  if  those  days  had  continued  to  this  time^  and  those 
.^lights  risen  therein  which  by  the  mercy  of  God  have 
f^  aince  shined  in  England,  it  is  not  to  be  doubted  but  the 
,«  church  of  England,  eren  in  England,  had  fieir  suifpassed 
/>  |dl  thejm^ormra  churches  in  the  world. 

^  Then,  fMdam^  any  of  our  brethrra  durst  not  have  been 
'<^  seen  within  the  tents  of  antichrist :  now  they  are  ready 
f^  to  de&na  them  to  be  the  Lord^s,  and  that  he  has  no  other 
^  .tabem)ic|e  upon  earth  but  them.  Our  brethren  then  durst 
'^.not  temporize  in  the  cause  of  Grod,  because  the  Lord 
,«  ruled  himself  in  his  church,  by  his  own  layrs,  in  a  good 
.  <' ,niB|i8uxe ;  but  now,  behdld  I  tliey  may  do  what  they  will, 
^<>  jRw  any  sword  that  the  church  lias  to  draw  against  them, 
'«  if  they  cimtain  themsdyes  within  your  laws* 

^^  This  peace,  under  these  conditions,  we  cannot  enjoy ; 
^  and  therefore,  for  any  thing  I  can  see,  Queea  Mary's  dayi 


lii^om  of  antichrist  can  in  no  wise  be  whole  and  Mfiie 
witnout  them.  And  if  it  be  not  lawful  for  the  memb^  ii 
Christ  to  be  subject  to  the  ceremonies  of  the  JeWs,  -mbith 
God  himself  once  appointed,  how  can  it  be  otherwise  than 
m  sreat  sin,  to  snUect  oUrselves  to  the  appointments  df 
totichrist,  the  Lord  s  great  adversary  ?  The  Lord  hatih 
not  delivered  us  from  the  yoke  o£  his  own  law,  (hat  iffi 
miffht  be  in  bondage  to  the  inventions  and  impcMsifiOi&B  of 

F.  Would  you  then  have  no  other  oflBces  in  the  chtkMk 
paw  in  time  of  peace  and  prosperity,  than  were  in  die  days 
of  the  apostles  under  persecution  ? 

P.  There  is  certainly  great  reason  we  should  not.  ttdt 
if  the  order  left  to  the  church  by  Moses  was  ikot  to  bs 
altered,  except  by  the  special  command  of  God ;  then  ikii^ 
neither  man  nor  anffel,  except  by  the  same  warraM,  aUd 
any  thing  to  that  holy  form  which  the  Son  of  God  fUSiih 
appointra  for  his  own  house :  As,  Heb.  ill.  3.,  Rev.  xzBl  it. 

F.  I  am  sure  you  allow  of  Luther.    What  office  hB^iti 

P.  He  wajs  first  a  monk,  and  so  anlember  of  the  kinjjdom 
fit  antichrist.  He  was  afterwards  degraded  and  dtepnVra. 
At  length,  he  was,  as  he  called  himself,  <<  A  preacHeif  idf 
Chtist*s  blessed  truth  and  ^pel."  And  I  think  he  had  thQ 
pastoral  office  in  the  church  at  Wertembnig ;  bulC  liheXbili 
ne  had,  or  had  not,  his  example  is  no  law  for  the  chidDCh. 
It  is  Jesus  Christ  ahnej  whom  we  must  hear  and  follow. 
We  must  walk  acconling  to  his  will  and  word ;  and  if  islfli 
angd  from  heaven  would  draw  us  aside,  we  date  ncA  ^ie 
car  unto  him :  As,  Gral.  i.  8,  9. 

F.  And  what  office  had  you  in  your  church,  which  ttMfli 
in  woods,  and  I  know  not  where  ? 

P.  I  have  no  office  in  that  poor  congregatixm.  Anddf 
to  our  meeting  in  woods,  or  elsewhere,  we  have  (te 
example  of  Jesus  Christ,  and  his  chtirch  and  servants  in  flu 
ages,  for  our  warrant.  It  is  against  our  wills,  thai  we  go 
Into  woods  and  secret  places.  As  we  ate  not  ashanoied  of 
the  gospel  of  Christ,  so  our  desire  is  to  profess  it  opody. 
We  are  ready,  before  men  and  angels,  to  shew  and  jnstoj 
our  meetings,  and  our  behaviour  in  them,  earnestly  detSs^g 
that  we  may  serve  God  with  peace  and  quietness ;  fltadf  ttta 
An  men  may  witness  our  upright  walking  towards  ma  Gb^ 
and  all  the  world,  especiafly  towards  onr  prinie  lUn 
government  We  know  the  meeting  in  woods,  ih  (^f^  M 
moontains,  &c.  is  apart  of  the  cross  of  fbegbtM^  d^im^ 
flie  iKtoial  imm  win  eanly  stnmfde;  Bbt tM  1^ 


Ihb  mom  eifote  for  the  Loid*8  sacred  troth.  The  qnestion 
ihcyiild  not  so  much  be^  wkere  we  meet,  as  what  we  do 
at  our  meetings;  whether  our  meeting  and  doinj^ntte 
wnranted  bj  the  word  of  God,  and  what  constnineth  ui 
to  meet  in  fliose  places* 

P»  We  will  speak  of  jour  unlawful  assemblies  afterward^ 
What  calling  have  you  to  preach  ?  Were  you  never  made 
a  minister  according  to  the  order  of  this  land  ? 

P.  Had  I  been  willinjg,  I  might  have  been  made  either 
deaoon  or  priest;  but,  rihank  the  Lord,  I  ever  disliked 
thdae  popiui  orders :  and,  if  I  had  taken  them,  I  would 
nttedy  refiuie  them»  I  have  taught  publicly  in  the  church 
€j£  Scotland,  bein^  thereunto  earnestly  desired,  and  called 
hy  the  order  of  &at  church.  I  never  had  anv  charge; 
and,  th€9tefi)re,  I  never  bare  any  office,  either  there  or  in 
any  o<^  church. 

P.  Did  ypu  not  preach  in  these  vpur  secret  meetings? 
IR^iat  warrant  had  yon  so  to  do^  if  you  never  had  anj 
pnbtic  ofllce  in  your  chnrchF 

P.  Whether  I  did  or  not,  I  do  not  at  present  tell  you* 
Bkit  tbn^  I  say,  that  if  tfie  same  poor  cot^re^ation*  dewed 
to  l|aye  the  use  of  my  small  gifts,  for  edification  and  conso- 
Uikt,  1  would,  being  thereunto  prepared,  most  willingly 
beilQW  my  poor  talent  for  their  mutual  edification  and 

i^.  And  mav  you  teach  publicly  in  the  church,  having  no 
pnUic  offioe  therein  ? 

P.  I  may,  because  I  am  a  member  thereof,  and  requested 
Aemniatp  bv  the  church,  and  judged  to  be,  in  some  measure^ 
endowed  with  suitable  gifts  for  handling  the  word  of  God, 
The  chnrdi  or  bod  v  of  Christ,  ought  to  have  the  use  of  all 
the  ^ifla  that  ate  m  any  of  its  members,  and  the  member 
cittttM  ddiy  unto  the  body  the  use  of  those  graces  with 
ifhififk  it  ill  fiimished,  without  breaking  the  laws  and  order 
of  the  body,  and  thus  become  unnatural :  As,  Rom,  xii«t 

•  Mr.  Pevfy  wmi  a  aanber  of  the  cinirdi  of  Browaiiti,  acetliy  ab««t 
li«aa>«,  MMetiMCi  Id  tlie  Aeldt  mad  woodi  in  the  dead  of  the  aighu  to  avoid 
IKH  fciy  of  tie  prelatci.  Daring  bii  conflnanent  in  priion,  he  wrote  a  moa 
^'-  -\  aihcCiooate,  and  eaooanigiiy  letter,  to  Mr.  Fnnicit  Johnson,  the 
j^and  the  rest  of  the  brethrea.    It  h  addressed  **  Tb  the  distressed 

lUtbfkil  CoiipesatioB  of  Christ  in  laadon,  aad  all  the  Menbcn 

HwaalL  whather  in  bonds  or  at  liberty.*'  Aad  he  condodes  by  sobscribiiig 
ftilttelf  •*  lleir  lovlnc  brother,  in  the  patience  and  snl^ioss  of  the 
fo^cl,  JoBii  PmaT.  ▲  witness  of  Christ  in  this  life,  and  a  partaker  of 
Iha  jfimy  that  thUi  ba  refcaM;"— JTorasiiaatifiittf  I^«mi0,  QrmtmUt 


ana  ft 


F.  Then  erery  one  that  will,  may  preach  the  word  in 
your  assemblies. 

P.  Not  so.  For  we  hold  it  imlawful  for  any  man  to 
intermeddle  with  the  Lord's  holy  truth,  beyond  the  bounds 
of  his  gifts;  or  for  him  who  is  endowed  with  gifisy  to 
preach  or  teach  in  the  church,  except  he  be  desired  and 
called  thereto  by  the  body  of  the  church. 

F.  May  any  person  then  preach,  who  hath  no  office  so 
to  do? 

P.  Yes,  that  he  may;  and  the  word  of  God  bindeth 
eyenr  one  to  preach  who  intendeth  to  become  a  pastor  or 
teacher  in  the  church  of  Christ,  even  before  he  take  upon 
him  this  office. 

F.  What  office  then  hath  he  all  this  time  i 
P.  No  other  office  than  the  other  members  of  ihe  body 
have^  who  are  bound  to  perform  their  several  operations  in 
the  body,  according  to  that  measure  of  grace  which  they 
have  received  from  the  Lord  Jesus.  And,  indeed,  it  is  a 
common  practice  id  our  colleges  and  universities,  for  those 
to  preach  who  have  no  office. 
F .  Yf  s,  it  is  in  the  schools. 

P.  If  this  exercise,  according  to  your  own  confemon,  be 
warrantable  in  the  schools  and  colleges,  it  is  certainly  much 
more  so  in  the  church  and  congregation. 

F.  Well,  then,  you  bear  no  office  in  your  church.    You 
will  not  tell  us  whether  you  taught  among  them;  but  you 
say  you  would  if  they  required  you. 
P.  True. 

F.  But  how  came  it  to  pass  that  you  were  not  made  an 
officer  amoi^  them  ? 

P.  Doubtless  I  was  desired  to  take  a  charge,  and  to  con- 
tinue among  them,  but  I  would  not ;  beoiuse  I  have  alwltyi 
purposed  to  employ  my  small  talent  in  my  poor  counter 
of  Wales,  where,  I  know,  the  poor  people  perish  finr  lack 
of  knowledge. 

F.  You  labour  to  draw  her  majesty's  subjects  from  their 
obedience  to  her  laws,  and  from  the  church  of  England, 
to  hear  you,  and  such  as  you,  teaching  in  woods. 

P.  Nay ;  I  persuade  aU  men  to  obey  my  prince  and  her 
laws.  Only  I  dissuade  all  the  world  &om  yielding  obedi- 
enee  and  subjection  to  the  ordinances  of  antichrists  and 
peffuade  them  to  be  subject  to  Jesus  Christ  and  his 
laws:  I  know  this  to  be  agreeable  to  the  laws,  of  her 

F.  WhatI  Is  it  meet  that  sulgeds  should  charge  tbeir 


prince  to  keep  coyenant  with  them  ?    Where  do  you  find 
this  warranted  in  scripture  ? 

P.  The  subjects  are  in  a  most  lamentable  state,  if  they 
may  not  allege  their  prince's  laws  for  what  they  do;  yea. 
andf  shew  what  their  prince  hath  promised  to  the  Lord,  ana 
to  them,  when  this  is  done  to  proye  their  own  innocency. 
It  IS  the  honour  of  princes,  so  to  hold  and  be  in  coyenant 
with  their  subjects,  that  they  will  preserye  them  from 
yiolence  and  wrong.  And  I  am  assured,  that,  if  her 
majesty  knew  the  equity  and  uprightness  of  our  cause,  we 
should  not  receiye  the  hard  treatment  we  now  sustain.  We 
and  our  cause  are  neyer  brought  before  her,  es^cept  in  the 
odious  names  of  sedition,  rebellion,  schism,  heresy,  &c.  It 
is,  therefore,  no  wonder  to  see  the  edge  of  the  sword  turned 
against  us.  « 

F.  Hath  not  her  majesty,  by  her  laws,  established  the 
offipes  and  order  now  in  the  church  of  England  ? 

P.  I  grant  her  laws  haye,  but  of  oyersight ;  taking  them 
fbr  the  true  offices  and  order  of  the  church  of  Christ. 
And  because  we  see  this  oyersight,  we  therefore  fly  to  her 
foimer  promise  and  act,  by  whidi  she  granteth  all  the  pri- 
▼il^seft  of  the  church  of  Christ. 

F.  Why  go  you  about  then  to  pull  down  bishops? 
P.  Alas!  be  it  far  from  us,  eyer  to  attempt  any  such 
thing.  We  only  put  her  majesty  and  state  in  mind  of  the 
wraUi  of  God  that  is  likely  to  come  upcm  the  land,  for 
udiolding  many  popish  inyentions.  We  labour  for  the 
aalyation  of  our  own  souls,  and  all  those  who  will  be  warned 
by  us,  by  ayoiding  all  corruptions  in  religion,  and  practising, 
so  for  as  we  know,  the  whole  will  of  God.  Further  than 
this,  we  cannot  go ;  and,  therefore,  dare  not  so  much  as  in 
thought,  attempt  to  alter  or  puU  down  any  thing  established 
liy  her  laws. 

F.  Whj  then  do  you  meet  in  woods,  and  such  secret 
and  suspicious  places,  if  you  purpose  no  insurrection  for 
punine  down  the  bishops  ? 

P.  I  told  you  the  reason  already.  Our  meetings  are  for 
the  true  worship  of  God,  and  there  is  not  so  much  as  ono 
word  or  thought  about  bishops  in  our  assemblies,  except 
in  praying;  for  them  as  we  do  for  our  own  souls.  Wc  hold 
odr  meetings  in  secret,  because,  as  I  before  told  you,  wo 
cannot  haye  them  in  public  wiUiout  disturbance.  We  do 
not.  wish  to  withdraw  ourselyes  from  the  sight  of  any 
pnatue;  but  we  are  bound  to  obserye  the  pure  w< 

<  ■  •  - 


df  God,  tboDgh  it  be  in  mods^  in  nfooMaSnl,  or  in 

F.  Then  yon  are  privy  to  no  practice  or  intent  of  any 
leditian  or  commotion  affsinst  her  majesty  and  the  statCy  <d 
fbrpnlling  down  the  bishops  ? 

P.  No,  I  thank  God,  I  never  was.  And  I  protest  hcAart 
keaven  and  earth,  that,  if  I  were,  I  would  disclose  and 
withstand  the  same,  to  the  utmost  of  my  power,  in  all  cases 

Young.  But  what  meant  jron,  Penry,  when  yon  tM  mi 
at  my  house,  that  I  should  Uve  to  see  the  day  when  thert 
should  not  he  a  lord  bishop  left  in  Eosland  ? 

P.  You,  shr,  do  me  great  injuiy,  but  I  am  content  to 
bear  it.  I  said,  <<  because  God  hath  jpromised  to  overthrow 
and  consume  the  remnants  of  the  kmedom  of  antichrist; 
you  may  live  to  see  all  the  offices,  caliings,  livings,  ana 
works,  belonging  to  tiiat  kingdom,  utterly  overtmowil*'* 
This  is  what  I  said,  and  I  beseech  and  charge  you,  as  yoa 
shall  answer  in  the  day  of  judgment,  n^  to  miarepoM 
my  speech. 

Y.  I  conceived  some  great  matter  erf*  your  speech,  I  tdl 

P.  In  this  you  did  me  the  gmiter  wrong.  I  pAiy  ybiu 
hiereofler,  take  my  words  according  to  my  meaning,  itnd 
their  natural  signification. 

F.  You  say,  that  these  offices  and  livings,  derive^ 
according  to  your  coAceiij  from  the  body  c?  anfichn^ 
shall  be  overthrown  by  ihe  Lotd :  we  would  know  how  thil 
will  be  accomplished. 

P.  The  work,  I  am  assured,  will  be  accomplished; 
because  tlie  Loid  hath  said  it  in  hb  word.  But  the  JDatanntir 
how,  and  the  time  when,  it  shall  be  done,  I  leave  to  &&I 
^'  who  worketh  all  things  according  to  the  counsel  of  Ui 
own  will,"  and  whose  ^^  ways  and  judgments  are  past 
indine  out" 

F.  What  you  now  do,  or  what  you  mean  to  do,  in  ytfitf 
assemblies,  we  cannot  tell ;  but  this  is  suHe,  that  tliB  pajMi 
ieem  to  taJi^e  encouragement  by  your  dealing.  Th^  art 
now  become  very  numerous;  and  they  say,  that  yooir 
separation  from  the  chUiH^h  is  a  great  stumUing^Uocli 
to  thenu 

P.  What  w<Bf  do  in  our  meetings^  and  what  are  Out  pnt^ 
pos^  I  Jiave  faithfully  told  you';  and  we  are  ready  to 
cppmve  otur  purposes  and  actions  to  be  in  all  good  cw^ 

FBNRt.  S§ 

ifdoee  towanlft  tlie  L(n^  crar  pfince,  w  Axui 

if  the  number  of  ignorant  and  idolatrous  priests  greatly 
Inksrtaae,  it  is  notMng  wohdisrihl,  seeing  there  are  so  many 
femnantB  of  poperj  left  unbaninhed  from  the  land :  these 
are  their  baits  and  encoiiragements. 

F.  What  are  the  baits  that  you  mean  ? 

P.  I  mean  the  popish  offices  and  livings  of  archbiribopai^ 
iMAlrishops,  deans,  archdeacons,  canons,  priests,  &c. :  th^ 
Mn&raance  of  which,  and  the  popish  corruptions  belonging 
id  them,  keepeth  the  pope  and  lus  sworn  subjects  in  mily 
IkMfe  of  replanting  the  airone  of  iniquity  in  the  land ;  but 
I  Irast  in  tibe  Lord,  they  will  be  utterly  disappointed.  fiT 
Aiete  Giffices  and  liyings  were  once  removed,  the  pope  and 
Us  emissaries  would  have  no  hope  left,  of  again  setting  up 
the  staiidard  of  the  man  6£  sin,  in  this  noble  kingdom.  1 
weodeir  not,  that  the  pat>ists  dislike  our  separation;  for 
tfiey  know,  that  of  all  the  men  under  heaven,  we  are  the 
liveaftest  enemies  to  popery :  we  would  leave  them  neither 
root  nor  branch ;  but  would  have  the  world  as  much  cleared 
ef  the  mnains  of  antichrist,  as  it  was  on  that  day  when 
fli6  Lotd  Jesus  ascended  up  on  high,  and  led  captivity 

¥.  Bat  why  do  you  reftise  a  conference,  that  you  may  be 
idhAilted  in'  those  things  in  which  you  err  ? 

P.  I  reftise  none.  I  most  readily  and  willingly  yield  io 
imy,  as  Mr.  Yourtg  halh  it  tender  my  own  ham  to  testify. 
OAj  iby  desiite  and  request  is,  that  some  equal  conditions 
filty  be  grtMdd  to  me  and  my  brethren.  But  if  this 
caidauot  be  obtained,  I  am  ready  to  yield  to  any  conference, 
tfuMkjdi  t&e  conditions  be  ever  so  unequal.  And  1  beseech 
f6%he  a  means  with  her  majesty  and  their  honours,  that 
tky  cftse  may  be  weighed  in  an  even  balance.  Imprison- 
ments, indictments  and  death,  are  no  proper  weapons  io 
Cony&iGe  mehfs  consciences.* 

Heife  fhe  examination  dosed.  We  leave  the  reader  ti 
ildtje  his  o\m  remarks  ubon  it,  and  proceed  in  the  history 
of  Ais  dbtmEuished  suflerer  for  Christ  It  was  at  first 
ditSs^ed  to  iuffitt  Mr.  Penry  for  the  books  published  in  his 
name ;  bat,  by  the  advice  of  counsel,  he  drew  up  a  paper, 
Miich  ptovedi  the  means  of  putting  a  stop  to  the  pro* 
eee^Unff.  This  paptty  dated  Ma^  10,  1593,  is  entitlecl 
^  Hr.  FioDihr^s  Declaration^  that  he  is  not  in  danger  of  the  hi# 
ftr  t^  books  puUUh^i  in  his  name.'*    In  this  declttatioiii^ 

•  BxudiHilioBt  of  Bh^roW,  GteaWood,  and  Penry,  p.  85— 88» 


be  observes^  that  the  statute  was  Dot  intended  to  include 
such  as  nrrote  against  tiie  ecclesiastical  eslablisbment  on/^. 
For,  in  this  case,  it  would  condemn  many  of  the  most 
learned  protestants,  both  at  home  and  abroad :  but  that  it 
relates  to  persons  who,  shall  defame  her  majesty's  rojfal 
person.  Wlierefis  he  had  always  written  most  dutifully  of 
licr  person  and  government,  having  never  encours^j^ 
sedition  or  insurrection  a^nst  her  majesty,  but  the  con- 
trary. Nor  had  he  ever  oecn  at  any  assembly  or  conven- 
ticle, where  any,  under  or  above  the  number  of  twelve, 
were  assembled,  with  force  of  arms  or  otherwise,  to  alter 
any  thing  established  by  law.  Nor  vras  it  his  opinion^ 
tliat  private  persons  should,  of  their  own  authority,  attempt 
any  such  thing:  he  had  always  spoken  and  written  the 
contrary.  Nevertheless,  if  he  had  been  guilty  of  aU  these, 
he  ought  to  have  been  accused  within  one  month  of  the 
crime,  upon  the  oath  of  two  witnesses,  and  have  been  in- 
dicted within  one  year;  otherwise  the  ^tute  clears  him^  in 
express  words.* 

When  he  came  io  the  trial,  the  court,  being  apprehensive 
that  his  declaration  would  occasion  an  argument  at  law,  set 
aside  his  printed  books,  and  indicted  and  convicted  him 
upon  the  contents  of  his  peiUion  and  pmaic  observations^ 
as  already  observed.  This  rendered  his  case  still  harder, 
as  he  himself  represented  in  a  letter  to  the  Lord  Treasurer 
Burleigh,  with  his  protestation  enclosed,  immediately  after 
his  CiHidemnation ;  m  iivhich  he  thus  expressed  himself:-— 
<<  Vouchsafe,  I  beseech  your  lordship,  n^ht  honourable,  io 
read,  and  duly  weigh,  the  enclosed  writmg.  My  days,  I 
see,  are  drawing  to  an  end,  and,  I  thank  God,  an  unde- 
served end,  except  the  Lord  God  stir  up  your  honour,  or 
some  other,  to  plead  my  cause,  and  to  acquaint  her  majesty 
with  my  guiltless  state. 

^  The  cause  is  most  lamentable,  that  the  private  obser- 
Tations  of  any  student,  being  in  a  foreign  land,  and  wishing 
wdl  to  his  prince  and  country,  should  bring  his  life  with 
Uood  to  a  violent  end ;  especially,  seeing  they  are  most 
private,  and  so  imperfect,  that  they  have  no  coherence  at  all 
in  them;  and,  in  most  places,  are  no  true  English. ' 

<*  Though  my  conscience  may  stand  me  in  no  stead 
before  an  earthlv  tribunal,  yet  I  know  that  I  shall  have  the 
leward  thereof  before  the  judgment^seat  of  the  great  Kiuff ; 
and  the  merciful  Lord,  who  relieves  the  widow  and  tne 

•  Slrypc'f  Whitsifl,  p.  412,419. 

PENRY.  61 

GillieiieBB,  will  reward  m^  desolate  orphans  and  friendless 
iridpWy  whom  I  leave  behind  me,  and  even  hear  their  cry^ 
for  be  is  merciful.  And  being  likely  to  trouble  your  lord'* 
ship  with  no  more  letters,  I  do  with  thankfulness  acknow* 
Ied|^  your  honour's  favour  towards  me,  in  receiving  the 
wniii^pj  which  I  have  presumed  to  send  unto  you  from 
time  to  time;  and  in  this  my  last,  I  protest  before  the  Lord 
Godj  that,  so  fiir  as  I  know,  I  have  written  nothing  but  the 

^  Thus  preparing  myself,  not  so  much  for  an  unjust 
verdict,  and  an  undeserved  doom  in  this  life,  as  for  that 
blessed  crown  of  glory,  which,  of  the  great  mercy  of  my 
God,  is  ready  for  me  in  heaven,  I  humbly  commit  your 
lordship  into  the  hand  of  our  righteous  Lord.  In  great 
liast^  from  close  prison,  this  SSd  of  the  iSfth  month. 
May,  1593. 

<<  Your  lordship's  most  humble  servant  in  the  Lord, 

"  John  Penry."* 

In  his  protestation,  enclosed  in  the  above  letter,  Mr. 
Femry  declaies,  <<  That  he  wrote  the  petition  and  private 
observatioiis  while  he  was  in  Scotland.  That  what  he  had 
written  was.  confused,  unfinished,  and  perfectly  secret. 
Thet  it  was  the  sum  of  certain  objections  made  by  others, 
against  her  majesty  and  her  government,  which  he  had 
intended  to  examine  at  some  future  period,  but  had  not  so 
mmsii  as  looked  into  them  for  the  last  fourteen  or  fifteen 
months.  And  that  even  in  these  writings,  so  imperfecL 
unfinished,  and  enclosed  within  his  private  study,  he  had 
'sibfeWn  his  duty  and  true  loyalty  to  the  queen,  nor  had  he 
ever  the  most  secret  thought  to  the  contrary."  Here  he 
also  expressed  himself  as  follows  :f 

*'  TKese  my  writings"  (meaning  those  from  which  the 
chaises  against  him  were  collected)  <<  are  not  only  the  most 
irapmect,  but  even  so  private,  that  no  creature  under 
heaven,  mvself  excepted,  was  privv  to  them,  till  they  were 
■eiaed.  Alin^  I  dare  not  acknowledge  them  to  be,  for  a 
thousand  worlds ;  because  I  should  thereby  most  wickedly 
iin  against  God  and  my  own  conscience,  by  bearing  false 
witness  against  myself.  I  never  conceived  that  any  man 
would  have  made  any  sense  of  them;  especially  against 
myself  by  whomsoever  they  might  be  intercepted. 

^^  Now  that  secret,  confused,  and  unadvised  observations 
are  brought  against  me,  even  to  the  spilling  of  my  blood; 

•.  8trype*t  Whltgift,  p.  413, 414. 

f  Scrjpe'i  WhUiift,  Appea.  p.  175-181 . 


I  hiuiihlj  cnye  OiMt  tbese  my  papers  may  abo  be  looked 
mion,  and  brought  to  light,  as  wdl  as  the  othen,  by  which 
my  adversaries  think  to  impeach  my  alkyiance;  which,  I 
thank  God,  neither  man  nor  angd  shalT  ever  be  aUe  to 
effect  Though  I  be  condemned  as  a  fi||on,  or  as  a  traitqp 
to  my  natural  sovraeign,  I  thank  God,  t|iat  heaven  and 
earth  shall  not  be  able  to  convict  me  of  it.  I  remember  not 
the  day  that  has  passed  over  my  head^  since,  under  her 

fivemment,  I  came  to  the  knowledge  of  the  truth,  wherqui 
have  not  commended  her  estate  to  .God.  And  I  thank 
God,  that  whensoever  tbe  end  of  m;^  days  comek  and  f, 
expect  not  to  live  to  the  end  of  tms  week,  I  shall  d^ 
Queen  Elizabeth's  most  fidthful  subject,  even  in  the  oon<i 
aciences  of  mine  enemies. 

^  I  never  took  myself  for  a  rebuker,  much  less  fc^  f 
reformer  of  states  and  kingdoms :  far  was  that  firom  ine. 
Yet,  in  the  discbarge  of  my  consci^ioe,  all  the  wnld  must 
bear  with  me,  if  I  prefisr  my  testimony  to  the  truth  of 
Jesus  Christ  before  the  fitvqur  of  any  crratiue.  The  pros- 
perity of  my  prince  and  the  state,  was  always  most  dear 
to  n^,  as  HE  knoweth,  by  whom  states  are  pWrved^ 
princes  bear  rule.  An  enemy  to  good  order  and  policy, 
whetiiier  in  church  or  commonwealui,  I  never  vras.  1  never 
did  any  thing  in  this  cause,  (Lord !  thou  art  ifritneaB^)  for, 
contention,  vai|i-glory,  or  to  draw  disciples  af^  me. 

<<  Whatsoever  i  have  written  or  made  known,  co^itaxf 
to  the  written  word,  I  have  warned  the  world  to  avoid.  Hj 
confession  of  faith,  and  allegiance  to  God  and  the  queen, 
written  since  my  imprisonm^it,  I  take,  as  I  shall  ansirar 
jbefore  Jesus  Christ  and  the  elect  angels,  to  omtain  nothing 
but  God's  eternal  truth.  And,  therefore,  if  my  blood  wero 
an  ocean,  and  every  drop  were  a  life  to  me,  I  ^ddd,  by 
ihe  help  of  the  Lord,  give  it  all  in,  defence  .of  the  same. 
Yet,  if  any  error  can  be  shewn  therein,  that  f.  ytSl  nqt 

<<  Great  things  in  this  life  I  never  sought  for.  Suffidenqr 
I  have  bad,  with  great  outward  trouble ;  but  tinort  content 
I  have  been  with  my  lot.  And  content  I  am  and  shall  be 
.Urith  mv  undeserved  and  untimely  d^ith,  beseeching  t^ 
Lord,  that  it  may  not  be  laid  to  the  charge  of  any  person  .^ 
the  land  •  For  I  do,  from  my  heart,  forgive  all  those  that  Jieq^ 
•my  life,  as  I  desire  to  be  forgiven  in  the  day  oif  strict  account; 
praying  for  tliero  as  for  my  own  soid,  thatthou^  we  qanngt 
accord  upon  earth,  we  may  meet  together  in  heaven,  to  our 
fternal  unity  and  naf^'  *\tm^  And  u  my  lieathica^  prpqure 

PENRT.  m 



an^  quietnesB  to  the  church  of  God,  and  the  state  of  mjr 
tinnce  and  Idngdom,  glad  I  am  that  I  hare  a  life  to  bestow 
in  this  service.  I  know  not  to  what  better  use  it  could  bo 
cmplojed,  if  it  were  preserved;  and,  therefor^  in  this  cause, 
I  mure  not  to  spare  it  Thus  have  I  lived  towards  the 
jUvd  and  my  ranee;  and,  b^  the  grace  of  God,  thus  I 
mean  to  die.  Many  such  subjects  I  wish  unto  my  prince; 
tbon^li  no  such  reward  to  any  of  diem.  My  earnest 
ne^pest  is.  that  her  majesty  may  be  acquunted  with  thesa 
tiMlig>  befoce  my  death,  or,  at  least,  after  my  departure. 
.  '^  Subscribed  with  the  heart  and  hand  that  never  devised 
fr  wrote  any  thiiL^  to  the  discredit  or  defamation  of  my 
•overeupo,  Queen  £lizab^. 

<(  This  I  take  on  my  death,  as  I  hope  to  live  hereafter, 

"  John,  Penb y.'* 

In  his  excellent  Confession  of  Faith,  referred  to  in  thft 
above  piotestatimi,  Mr.  Penry  openly  declares  his  religions 
sentimentB,  and  most  warmly  avows  his  loyalty  to  the  ^ueea 
md  government  Though  the  whole  is  too  long  for  inser- 
(Kod,  we  cannot  forbear  transcribing  a  part  of  it,  rarticularl^ 
that  relating  to  his  allegiance  to  her  majesty.  Because  this 
W9M  called  in  question,  ne  declares,  <^  I  am  not  at  this  day^ 
^  nor  evefT  was  in  all  my  life,  either  guilty  or  privy,  in  any 
^  purpose,  consultation,  or  intention,  of  any  sedition  against, 
^  or  dnsb^AMince  oi^  her  nuijesty's  royal  state  and  govern- 
^  ment.  And  if  I  were  privy  unto  any  such  ungodly,  undu- 
^  tifid,  and  wicked  actions  or  purposes,  as  might  any  way 
<<  impair  or  disturb  the  peaceable  state  of  my  Drince  and 
^  country,  I  would  reveal,  disclose,  and  withstand  the  same^ 
f^  to  the  utmost  of  my  power,  in  all  persons,  foreign  and 
*<  domestic,  of  what  prdfession  or  religion  soever  they 

^  Her  supreme  authority,  within  her  realms  and  dcmii- 
f<  nions,!  acknowledgeto  besuch,  over  all  persons,  and  in  all 
^  oauses,  as  no  person,  whether  civil  or  ecclesiai^cal,  may 
^  eaumpC  himself  or  his  cause  ftrom  the  power  and  censure 
*<  nf  her  laws  and  sword.  I  do  also  acknowledge,  that  hepr 
^  nunesty  hath  fuU  authority  from  the  Lord,  to  establish 
^  and  euct  by  her  rojral  power,  all  laws,  both  ecclesiastical 
^  and  civiL  among  lier  subjects:  in  the  making  of  which 
^  laws,  the  Lord  requireth  that  those  which  are  ecclesiastical 
f*  be  warranted  by  his  own  written  word,  which  coatajm 
f'  whatioevar  bekmceth  to  his  worship;  and  those  whijbii 
^  are  civil  are  fonnaed  on  the  rules  of  justice  and  equity, 
(<  TUs  ioveidlgit  pieroi^ye  «nd »   ^hority  of  her  hi^ess, 


^  I  am  most  willing  and  ready  to  defend  and  mamtauiy 
^  aeainst  all  the  persons  and  states  under  heaven,  to  the  loss 
<<  OT  my  life  ten  thousand  times,  if  it  were  reqbired.  Ani 
<<  I  take  the  Lord  to  record,  that,  to  my  knowled^  I  am 
^  sure  that  day  hath  not  passed  over  my  head,  smoe  tho 
<^  Lord,  under  her  gracious  rei^,  hath  brought  me  to  the 
^  knowledge  of  the  trufli,  wherem  I  have  not  prayed  for  the 
*^  blessine  of  God,  both  external  and  internal,  to  be  fully 
^  poured  forth  upon  her  right  excellent  majesty's  throoei 
<^  government,  and  dominions :  and  that  he  would  ccmvcf^ 
^  or  speedily  overthrow  all  his  and  her  enemies,  with  tilieir 
'^  ent^rises,  whether  they  be  domestic  or  foreign :  hereof  I 
^<  call  tne  S^cher  of  hearts  in  witness  of  the  truth  against 
^  my  soul,  if  I  either  dissemble  or  force  in  these  premises." 

After  giving  a  particular  account  m  his  religious  opinicwsy 
he  adds:  <^  E^th,  I  thank  God,  I  fear  not  I  know ^at 
<<  the  sting  of  death  is  taken  away.  And  <  blessed  are  the 
^^deadtlmt  die  in  the  Lord.'  Life  I  desire  not,'  if  1  be 
•<<  guilty  of  sedition,  or  defaming  and  disturUng  her  majesty's 
*^  quiet  and  peaceable  government.  Imprisonments,  indict- 
<^  ments,  arraignments,  and  death,  are  no  meet  weapons  to 
'^  convince  the  conscience  grounded  upon  God's  word. — 
^^  Subscribed  with  heart  and  hand,  by  me  John  PenbTi 
**  now  in  strict  bonds  for  the  testimony  of  Christ **• 

Mr.  Ferny,  during  his  imprisonment,  was  particularly 
desirous  to  obtain  a  conference  in  the  presence-  of  h^ 
majesty  and  the  council.  In  one  of  his  petitions,  addressed 
to  the  council,  he  therefore  says,  <<  A  conference  we  are  most 
willing  to  yield  unto.  Our  humble  reouest  unto  her  nmjesty 
and  your  honours,  is,  that  if  it  so  stand  with  your  ;^easure, 
we  may  have  but  this  equity  yielded  unto  us : — 1.  That  the 
questions  on  both  sides  be  set  down  in  writii^,  and  the 
reasons  briefly  annexed  to  them ;  that  the  answers  also,' with 
like  brevity,  be  returned  in  writing,  and  so  every  thing  will 
be  the  more  deliberately  set  down,  and  all  other  speeches  and 
matters  be  avoided. — 2,  That  such  of  us  as  are  scholan^ 
may  confer  together  (having  also  the  use  of  books)  about 
the  answers  and  replies  that  we  shall  make. — 3.  That  tihos6 
of  the  ecclesiastical  state,  with  whom  we  are  to  de^  ma/ 
only  be  parties  in  this  conference,  aiid  not  judses.  Ain 
that  some  of  the  civil  state  may  be  appointed  by  youi^ 
honours  (if  your  lordships  will  not  take  the  hearing  of  the 
cause  yourselves,  which  we  had  rather  and  earnestly  craye^l 

*  l^tulBalioni  of  BsrrofTi  Greenwood^  and  PeBry.p.  39—46. 

PENRY.  65 

to  see  that  both  parties  do  contain  themselves  within  bounds : 
lest  otherwise  the  holy  truth  of  God  should  not  be  so  dealt  in 
as  beconreth  the  same ;  or  so  holy  and  necessary  an  action 
slMmld  be  unprofitable  broken  up  by  the  infirmities^  ot 
other  giteter  wants,  of  either  party.  "• 

This  generous  proposal,  however,  was  wholly  rejected. 
His  wife^  Mrs.  Helen  Penry,  at  the  same  time  presented  a 
nxMt  moving  petition  to  the  Lord  Keeper  Puckering,  for 
access  ta  her  poor  distressed  husband ;  but  it  was  attended 
with  no  better  8uccess.f  All  Mr.  Penry's  intercessions,  and 
the  intercessions  of  his  friends,  proved  altogether  inefiectual. 
It  WW,  indeed,  never  known  till  this  time,  that  a  minister 
and  a  schdar  was  condemned  to  death  for  private  papers 
found  in  his  study;  nor  do  I  remember,  says  Mr.  N^e^ 
more  than  one  instance  since  that  time,  in  whose  case  it  was 

Siven  for  law,  that  to  write  has  been  construed  an  overt  act. 
ut  it  seems  Mr.  Penry  must  die,  right  or  wrong.  This 
his  enemies  appear  to  nave  fully  determined ;  and  herein 
their  wishes  were  soon  gratified.  Archbishop  Whitgift  was 
the  first  man  who  si^ied  the  warrant  for  his  execution, 
and  after  him,  Puckermg  and  Popham.  The  warrant  was 
immediately  sent  to  flie  sheriff*,  who,  the  very  same  day, 
erected  a  gallows  at  St.  Thomas  Waterings,  and,  while  the 
prisoner  was  at  dinner,  sent  his  officers  to  bid  him  make 
ready,  for  he  must  die  that  afternoon.  Accordingly,  he  wais 
cained  in  a  cart  to  the  place  of  execution ;  and  when  he 
came  there,  was  not  allowed  io  speak  to  the  people^  nor  to 
make  any  profession  of  his  faith  towards  God,  or  his  loyalty 
to  the  queen ;  but  was  hastily  turned  ofi^,  about  five  o^clock 
in  the  afternoon.  May  S9,  1593,  in  the  thirty-fourth  year 
cf  his  1^4  He  left  a  widow  and  four  poor  children,  the 
ddot  of  which  was  not  more  than  four  years  old,  to  feel 
and  bemoan  the  painful  loss. 

h'the  preface  to  Mr.  Penry's  ^^  History  of  Corah, 
Dstfaan,  and  Abiram,''  published  after  his  death,  it  is  said, 
"  That  Mr.  John  Penry  was  a  godly,  learned,  and  eealous 
man,  and  of  a  christian  carriage  and  courage.  That  he  was 
bom  and  bred  in  the  mountains  in  Wales ;  and,  with  all 
godly  care  and  labour,  endeavoured  to  have  the  gospel 
preached  among  his  countrymen,  whose  case  he  greatly 
seemed  to  pity,  wanting  all  the  ordinary  means  of  salvation. 
That,  being  used  by  God  for  a  special  instrument  in  the 
manifestation  of  his  truth,  he  was  hardly  used,  imprisoned, 

♦  Baker's  MS.  CoHcc.  vol.  xv.  p.  380.  f  Ibid,  p.  378. 

t  Wood's  AthcDSB  Oxon.  vol.  i.  p.  2S9. 
VOL.  II.  F 


condemned,  and  executed ;  and  so  suffered  martjrrdom  far 
the  name  of  Christ.  And  more  particularly,  that  he  waft 
adjudj^d  by  Sir  John  Popham,  and  the  rest  of  the  judges, 
on  th^25th  of  the  fifth  month,  and  executed  at  Stl  Thoma» 
Waterings,  near  London,  the  29th  of  the  same,  in  the  year 
1593.  That  he  was  not  brought  to  execution  imme- 
diately, as  most  persons  expected;  but,  when  they  iBuA 
looked  for  it,  he  was  taken  while  he  was  at  dinner,  and 
carried  secretly  to  his  execution,  and  hastily  bereaved  of 
his  life,  without  being  suffered  to  make  a  declaration  of  his 
faith  towards  God,  or  his  allegiance  to  the  queen,  thoogh 
he  very  much  desired  it."  And  in  the  postscHpt,  it  is  added, 
^<  That  he  was  apprehended,  adjudged,  and  executed  for 
writing  the  truth  of  Christ,  whatever  other  things  were 
pretended  against  him."*  He  was  undoubtedly  a  man  of 
great  learning  and  piety ;  but  these  excellent  qualifications 
could  make  no  atonement  to  the  prelates  for  his. zeal  in  the 
cause  of  nonconformity,  and  for  expressing  his  disapproba- 
tion of  the  constitution  and  corruptions  of  the  established 
church.  ''  By  his  death,  with  the  condemnation  of  Jol^p 
Udal  and  Henry  Barrow,"  says  the  Oxford  historian,  ^  the 
neck  of  the  plots  of  the  fiery  nonconformists  was  hroken, 
and  their  brags  were  turned  into  prayers  and  tears,  as  the 
only  means  for  christian  subjects."f  Another  author  of  the 
same  spirit,  says,  ''  The  pressing  of  the  law  thus  close, 
struck  terror  into  the  party,  and  made  the  dissenters  of  aU 
sorts,  less  enterprizing  against  the  government,  "t  These, 
surely,  are  pitiful  triumphs  among  professed  protastants ! 

Mr.  Peary  was  author  of  several  learned  pieces  cm  con*. 
troversy,  particularly  against  Dr.  Some.    In  one  of  tbem 
he  endeavours  to  prove  "  that  there  is  no  church  a^  aD  in  ' 
popery,  and  that  all  popish  priests  are  out  of  the  churdi," 
by  a  direct  appeal  to  the  conduct  of  all  protestants  in  ibek  ^ 
separation  from  the  church  of  .Rome.    '^U  there; be  a 
church  in  popery,  or  if  all  popish  priests  be  not  out  cSibt 
church,"  says  he,    ''  then  those   ma^strates   and   their  • 
subjects  who  have  separated  from  the  Romish  religioii,  to. 
say  the  least,  are  schismatics.    It  is  schism  to  make  this 
separation  from  the  church.     We  may  detest  the  corraptkms 
.  thereof;  but  we  ought  not  to  make  such  separation  fixmi  the 
church,  unless  we  would  be  accounted  schiunatics.     But 
those  magistrates  and  their  people  who  made  this  separation 

♦  Hcylin's  Hlit.  of  Pres.  p.  325,  326. 
+  Wood's  Athens  OxoD.  iro1.ii>  p.  229. 
t  Collier's  Eccl.  Hist.  vol.  ii.  p,  640. 

PENRY.  67 

lire  not  schismatics.  Therefore  the  foundation  of  popery 
k  overthrown,  and  consequently  there  is  no  church  in 
popery.**  To  prove  that  ministers  who  do  not  preach,  are 
not  ministers,  he  reasons  thus : — ^'  They  are  no  ministers," 
says  he,  U  because  their  ministry  is  evil  and  profane ;  and 
11^  ministry  is  evil  and  profane,  because  there  is  no 
mention  made  of  it  in  the  word.  A  ministry  not  mentioned 
in  the  word,  is  no  ministry,  but  a  profune  constitution. 
The  .Lord  hath  expressly  set  down  every  ministry  of  the 
New  Teetoment,  that  should  be  in  the  church  unto  the 
world's  eikl.  But  he  hath  not  once  mentioned  the  ministry 
of  nupte  readers;  because  it  is  not  a  preaching  ministry,  and 
thei«fore  no  ministry  at  all."* 

Di:.  Some,  it  is  said,  wrote  with  great  vehemence  against 
him.  According  to  my  author,  ^^  He  called  this  worthy 
man,  proud  Penry.  Penry  had  a  dignity  to  which  Some 
iirps  a  stranrar.  His  dignity  stood  in  a  superior  habit  of 
thinking :  Some's  in  gown,  title,  and  bluster.  Some  wrote 
like  a  man  who  meant  to  bring  Penry  into  hemp,  and 
liimself  into  lawn.^f 

Mr.  Penvy  felt  deeply  concerned  for  the  conversion  and 
ralvaticHi  of  his  countrymen ;  on  which  account  he  was 
ancdonsly  desirous  to  have  a  learned  ministry  in  Wales. 
His  landable  desires  and  endeavours  to  promote  this  great 
object,  are  applauded  even  by  Dr.  Some,  his  great  antago* 
nist}  He  is  supposed  to  have  been  the  first,  since  the 
commencement  of  tlie  reformation,  who  preached  the 
goqpd  in  Wales.  Some  suppose  that  he  laboured  in  the 
ministry  chiefly  in  his  native  country,  and  that  he  went 
thith»  upon  his  leaving  the  university.  This,  however^ 
appears  very  improbable.  Mr.  Thomas  intimates,  that  he 
wa^  probably  the  first,  since  the  reformation,  who  openly 
and  publicly  preached  adult  baptism.  '^  And,"  says  he,  <<  I 
am  iniClined  to  think,  that  he  was  the  first  who  administered 
ibsai  ordinance  by  immersion,  and  upon  a  profession  of  faith, 
in  and  dbout  Olchon,  in  the  principality.  §  Though  Wood 
dencHninates  him  a  notorious  anabaptist^  it  does  not  appear 
from  his  Confession  of  Faith,  or  from  any  other  source  of 
infiMmation  we  have  met  with,  that  he  ever  espoused  the 
sentiments  of  the  baptists.  Nevertheless,  if  what  the  writer 
aboye  cited  observes,  be  correct,  Mr.  Penry  was  of  the 

^  •  Some's  Defence  p.  175, 183.     Edit  1588. 
f  Life  of  Aintworth,  p.  68. 
t  Smne'sGodJyTreatlBe,  p.  33.     £dit.  1588, 
S  Tliofliai*8  BIS.  Hiitory,  p.  43. 


denomination  of  particular  baptists.  Mr.  Stiype  writes  of 
Mr.  Penry  with  very  great  acrimony.*  Mr.  Foulis,  with 
great  injustice  and  falsehood,  says,  ''  He  was  a  man  'so 
much  guilty  of  his  own  yillanies,  that,  with  Cain^  he 
feared  death  firom  every  man^s  hand ;  and,  therefore^  was 
forced  to  skulk  and  ramble  amongst  bis  friends  for  proteo 
tion.^'f  These  accounts  of  so  learned,  laborious,  and  pious 
a  man,  remind  us  of  the  case  of  some  of  the  primitiTe 
christians,  who,  being  dressed  in  bears'  skins,  were  cast 
among  wild  beasts  to  he  torn  in  pieces.  Mr.  Penry  was  the 
author  of  several  learned  works ;  but  it  was  never  proved 
that  he  had  any  hand  in  the  writings  under  the  title  of 
lifartin  Mar-Prelate..  Though  most  of  the  high  churchmen 
ascribe  them  to  him  and  several  others,  it  is  well  known 
the  real  authors  were  never  found  out ;  consequaitly,  the 
charge  is  without  foundation.  The  following  is  supposed 
to  te  a  correct  list  of  his  writings,  though  we  dare  not 
warrant  them  all  to  have  been  his. 

His  Works. — 1.  A  Treatise  containing  the  Equity  of  an  HmnUc 
Sopplication  which  is  to  be  exhibited  unto  her  Gracious  Majesty  and 
this  High  Court  of  Parliament,  in  the  behalf  of  the  Country  of  Wales, 
.that  some  Order  may  be  taken  for  the  Preaching  of  the  CSoroel 
among  those  People,  1697. — 2,  A  View  of  some  part  of  such  PaMie 
Wants  and  Disorders  as  are  in  the  Serrice  of  God,  withia  ha 
Majesty's  Country  of  Wales ;  with  an  Humble  Petition  to  the  IHipk 
Court  of  Parliament  for  their  speedy  Redress,  1588.—^.  A.  Defence 
of  that  which  hath  been  written  in  the  Questions  of  the  Ignonyit 
Ministry,  and  the  Communicating  with  them,  15%S. — 4.  ExhgrtvlioB 
unto  the  Gt>vemors  and  People  of  her  Majesty's  Country  of  WMl 
to  labour  earnestly  to  haye  the  Preaching  of  the  Gospel  jpfauntM 
among  them,  1688.-76.  Dialogue ;  wherein  is  plainly  laid  open  tte 
Tyrannical  Dealings  of  the  Lords  Bishq>s  against  God's  ChildreD, 
1589. — 6.  Treatise,  wherein  is  manifestly  proved,  that  RefcHrmatioD, 
and  those  that  sincerely  favour  the  same,  are  unjustly  chai^ged  to  be 
Enemies  to  her  Majesty  and  the  State,  1690 — 7.  The  State  of  ftm 
Church  of  England. — 8.  Petition  of  Peace. — 9.  His  Apology. — Vk 
Of  public  Ministry. — 11.  History  of  Corah,  Dathan,  and  Abiran, 
applied  to  the  Prelacy,  Ministry,  and  Church-Assemblies  of  England, 

Thomas  Gatakcb,  A.  B. — ^He  was  descended  ftom  ft 
very  ancient  and  respectable  family  at  Gatacre-haU^  in 
Shropshire.  His  parents,  who  were  zealous  papM^ 
designed  him  for  the  law ;  for  which  purpose,  he  was 

uierea  a  stuaent  at  the  Temple.    While  in 

♦  Strype's  Whitgift,  p.  34ff— 360.— Annah,  Tol.  iii.  p. 
t  Foulig'a  Hist,  of  Plots,  p.  61. 

611-^1  Ob 

T.  GATAKER,  Sew.  W 

he  oodisiiHially  visited  his  friends  and  relations  at  court,  and 
was  <^en  present  at  the  examinations  of  the  pious  confessors 
of  truth^  under  the  barbarous  severities  of  popery.  The 
shocking  spectacle  had  the  happiest  effect  on  his  mind* 
For,  while  he  beheld  the  constancy  of  the  sufferers,  who, 
nith  invincible  patience,  and  for  the  testimony  of  a  good 
conscience,  endured  the  most  relentless  and  cruel  usage ;  the 
tragic  scene  proved  the  happy  means  of  awtikening  his 
mind,  and  of  leading  him  to  reject  popery  and  embrcice  the 
protestant  religion.  His  parents,  apprehensive  of  the 
4change  in  his  opinions,  sent  him  to  Louvain,  in  Flanders ; 
and,  to  wean  him  effectually  from  his  new  thoughts  about 
religion,  settled  upon  him  a  considerable  estate:  but  he 
^xmnted  all  worldly  allurements  and  advantages  as  nothing  in 
•Cdmparison  of  Christ.  His  father  at  length  perceiving  him 
to  be  immoveable,  called  him  home,  and  revoked  his  grant ; 
.which,  however,  could  not  take  effect  without  his  son's 
consent.  Young  Gataker  counted  the  cost.  He  had 
already  learned  the  hard  lesson  of  self-denial,  and  of 
fiMBaking  all  for  Christ  and  a  good  conscience ;  therefore, 
lie  voluntarily  gave  up  that  which  had  been  the  bait  of  his 
^moBtacj.  This  was  in  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  Queen 

.  lor.  Gataker  being  cast  off  by  his  unnatural  parents,  was 
ienabl^  to  put  his  trust  in  the  liord,  who,  in  a  very  remark- 
able manner,  raised  up  friends,  by  whom  he  was  sent  to 
the.  university  of  Oxford,  and  supported  by  their  great 
ffeneioglty.  After  having  spent  eleven  years  in  that  seat  of 
kamiog,  he  entered  at  Magdalen  college,  Cambridge,  where 
.he  oontintied  about  four  years.  In  the  year  1568,  he 
entered  upon  the  ministerial  function,  and  was  ordained 
both  deacon  and  priest  by  the  Bishop  of  London ;  and,  in 
J576,was  admitted  vicar  of  Christ's  church,  London,  which 
lie  resigned  in  1578,  probably  on  account  of  his  puritanical 
princqiles.  He  became  rector  of  St.  Edmunds  in  Lom- 
tMund-street,  June  21, 1573,  but  resigned  it  by  death,  previous 
to  June  S,  1593,  when  the  next  incumbent  entered  upon  the 
benefice.f  He  was  a  minister  of  puritanical  principles, 
iniiiished  with  excellent  parts,  a  zealous  preacher,  a  most 
conscientious  divine,  firm  m  his  attachment  to  the  protestant 
TeligioQ,  and  some  time  domestic  chaplain  to  the  Earl  of 
.Leicester.  Though  he  left  behind  him  only  a  small  fortune, 
lie  left  many  friends,  particularly  among  the  great  men  of 

•  Clark's  Lives  umexed  to  Martyrologie,  p.  848,  949« 
fiViwmwuttB  Sc^  Repert.  fol.  i.  p,  344. 


the  law,  with  whom  he  had  been,  iii  the  earlier  part  of  hu 
life,  a  fellow-student;  and  who,  on  that  account,  weie 
afterwards  ready  to  testify  their  respect  to  his  memory,  by 
affording  their  countenance  and  expressing  their  kindness  to 
.his  son.*  His  son  was  the  celebrated  Mr.  Thomas  Grataker, 
another  puritan  diyino,  who  was  first  chosen  lecturer  at  the 
Temple,  then  minister  at  Rotherhithe,  near  London. 

.  Arthur  Wake. — This  excellent  person  was  son  of 
John  Wake,  esq.  and  descended  from  a  very  ancient  and 
honourable  family.  He  was  canon  of  Christ^s  Church  in 
■Oxford,  and  a  most  popular  and  useful  preacher.  In  the 
year  1565,  he  was  preferred  to  the  benefice  of  Great- Billing, 
m  Northamptonshire  ;f  and  several  times  he  preached  tne 
serinon  at  Paul's  cross.  In  one  of  these  sermons,  delivned 
in  the  year  1573,  he  boldly  defended  the  sentiments  of  Mr. 
Cartwright  in  his  reply  to  Whitgift,  and  openly  declaied 
his  objections  against  the  estwlished  church.  Bishop 
Sandys,  of  London,  the  very  next  day,  sent  a  pursuivant 
to  apprehend  him ;  but  he  had  left  the  city,  and  returned 
to  Oxford,  where  his  lordship's  authority  could  not  reach 
him.  The  bishop,  meeting  with  this  sore  disappointment, 
wrote  to  the  Lord  Treasurer  Burleigh  and  the  ESaii  of 
I^eu^ster,  the  latter  being  at  that  time  Chancellor  of  Oxford, 
urging  them  to  take  the  case  into  consideration. t  It  does 
not  appear,  however,  that  the  two  honourable  persons  were 
at  all  disposed  to  comply  with  his  lordship's  solicitations* 

Though  Mr.  Wake  escaped  the  snare  of  the  Bishop  of 
London,  he  fell,  the  same  year,  into  the  hands  of  Scamoler, 
Bishop  of  Peterborough,  when  he  received  the  ecclesiastical 
censure.  He  was  rector  of  the  above  place ;  and  being 
cited  before  the  bishop's  chancellor,  he  was^rst  suspended 
for  three  weeks,  then  deprived  of  his  living.  Mr.  Eusebins 
Pa^et,^  cind  several  other  worthy  ministers,*  were  suspended 
and  deprived  at  the  same  time.  They  were  all  laborioiH 
and  useful  preachers.  Four  of  them^were  licensed  by  the 
university,  as  learned  and  religious  divines ;  and  ibi^  of 
them  had  been  chosen  moderators  in  the  religious  exerciies. 

The  reason  of  Mr.  Wake's  deprivation,  and  that  of  his 
brethren,  was.  not  any  error  in  doctrine,  nor  any  depravitj 
of  life ;  but  because  they  could  not,  witli  a  good  ccmscienoe^ 

•  Biog.  Britan.  toI.  W.  p.  2155,  S156.     Edit.  1747. 

'f  Bridget's  Hist,  of  NortbamptooshiTe,  toI.  i.  p.  407. 

t  Str>pe'i  Whitgift,  Appen.  p.  19.  S  See  ArtBoielitas  Fttg^ 

WAKE.  71 

subicribe  to  two  forms  devised  by  the  commissioners.  In 
one  of  these  forms,  called  forma  promissioms^  they  were 
leqniised  to  subscribe  and  swear,  ''  That  they  would  use  the 
Book  of  Common  Prayer,  and  the  form  ot  administration 
of  the  sacraments,  invariably  and  in  all  points  to  the  utmost 
of  their  power,  according  to  the  rites,  orders,  forms,  and 
ceiemonles  therein  prescribed;  and  that  they  would  not 
iiereafter,  preach  or  speak  any  thing  to  the  degradation  of 
the  said  book,  or  any  point  therein  contained.^' — In  the 
other  form,  c^eA  forma  abjuratioms^  they  were  required  to 
subscriber  and  swear,  ''  That  the  Book  of  Consecration  of 
Archbishops  and  Bishops,  and  of  the  ordering  of  priests 
and  deacons,  set  forth  in  the  time  of  King  Edward  Vh  and 
confirmed  by  authority  of  parliament,  doth  contain  in  it  all 
things  necessary  to  such  consecration  and  ordering,  having 
in  it,  according  to  their  judgment,  nothing  that  is  either 
rapentitious  or  ungodly;  and,  therefore,  that  they  who 
•iTere  consecrated  m^  ordered  according  to  the  said  book, 
ireteiliily,  orderly,  and  lawfully  consecrated  and  ordained. 
vAnd  that  they  acknowledge  their  duty  and  obedience  to 
•ihtit  ordinary  and  diocesan  as  to  a  lawful  magistrate  under 
the  queen's  majesty,  as  the  laws  and  statutes  do  require ; 
l^bich  obedience  they  do  promise  to  perform,  according  as 
the  laws  shall  bind  them.  In  testimony  whereof  they  do 
hereunto  subscribe  their  names.''* 

Mr.  Wake  and  his  brethren,  refusing  to  be  tied  by  these 
fetters,  offered  to  use  the  Book  of  Conmion  Prayer  and  no 
other,  and  promised  not  to  preach  against  it  before  the  meet- 
ing of  the  next  parliament ;  but  they  apprehended  both  the 
.subscription  and  the  oath  to  be  contrary  to  the  laws  of  God 
and  the  realm.    In  these  painful  circumstances,  being  all 
deprived  of  their  livings,  they  appealed  to  the  Archbishop  of 
JDlEaiiterbury,  but  he  rejected  their  appeal.     Upon  this, 
having  suffered  deprivation  about  two  years,  they  presented 
a  supplication  to  the  queen  and  parliament ;  in  which,  after 
presenting  an  impartial  statement  of  the  tyrannical  oppres- 
sione  under  which  they  laboured,  they  give  the  following 
•seasons  for  refusing  the  subscription  and  the  oath : — '^  That 
.th^.  should    thereby    have    allowed,    contrary   to  their 
.consciences,   that  it  was    lawful  for  women    to   baptize 
children: — That  they  would. have  exposed  themselves  to 
much  danger : — ^That  any  man,  though  ever  so  unable  to 
preach  the  word,  might  be  made  a  minister,  according  to 

»  MS.  Hrfiitefy  p.  198. 


the  said  book: — And  that  they  should  have  given  their 
coo^ent  to  the  unlaM^ful  form  of  ordination,  wherein  are 
these  words,  Receive  the  Holj/  Ghost,  &c."  They  crnicludc 
by  expressing  their  concern  for  their  bereaved  flocks,  and 
how  aesirous  they  were  of  being  restored  to  their  forma 
labour  and  usefiilQess,  earnestly  soliciting  the  favour  of  the 
queen,  and  the  lords  and  commons  in  parliament.* 

Though  the  case  of  these  pious  divines  was  deserving  the 
utmost  compassion^  they  could  not  obtain  the  least  rearess. 
They  had  wives  and  large  families  of  children,  now^ 
reduced  to  extreme  poverty  and  want,  and,  as  they  expressed 
in  the  above  supplication,  if  God  in  his  providence  did  ndt 
interfere,  they  should  be  obliged  to  go  a  begging;  yet  they 
could  procure  no  relief.  The  distress  of  these  zealous  and 
laborious  servants  of  Christ,  was  greatly  increased  by  the 
ignorance  and  insufficiency  of  tneir  successors.  They 
<i^i^ld  scarcely  read  so  as  to  be  understood,  and  the  peopk 
were  left  in  a  great  measure  untaught.  Instead  of  two 
sermons  every  Lord's  day,  which  each  of  them  had 
JTegularly  delivered,  the  new  incumbents  did  not  preach 
•more  than  once  in  a  quarter  of  a  year,  and  frequently  not  so 
<rften.  The  numerous  parishioners  among  whom  they  had 
laboured,  signed  petitions  to  the  bishop  for  the  restoration 
of  their  former  ministers ;  but  all  to  no  purpose.  They 
must  subscribe  and  take  the  oath,  or  be  buried  in  silence.-f- 

It  does  not  appear  how  long  Mr.  Wake  remained  under 
,the  ecclesiastical  censure,  or  whether  he  was  ever  restored 
to  his  benefice.  He  was  living  in  the  year  1593,  and  at 
that  time  minister  at  St.  John's  Hospital  in  Northampton^ 
He  was  a  divine  of  good  learning,  great  piety,  and  a  zealous, 
laborious,  and  useM  preacher.  He  was  father  to  Sir  Isaac 
'Wake,  a  learned  and  eloquent  orator  at  Oxford,  afterwards 
^amba^ador  to  several  foreign  courts,  and  a  member  ef 

WiLi^iAM  Whitakbr,  D.  D. — This  most  celebrated 
divine  was  born  at  Holme,  in  theparish  of  Bundey,  in  Lanca^ 
•shire,  in  the  year  154:7,  and  descended  from  an  ancient  and  a 
respeptable  family.  His  mother  was  Elizabeth  NoweU, 
sister  to  Dr.  Alexander  Nowell,  Dean  of  St.  Paul's,  who 
married  Thomas  Whitaker,  in  1590,  and  stirvived  her 

•  MS.  Register,  p.  t02.  +  Ibid.  p.  198, 199. 

1  Bridges's  Hist,  of  Northamptonshire,  toI.  i.  p.  457. 
S  Wood's  Athensi  Ozon.  vol,  i.  p.  491* 

W.  WHITAKER.  t4 

maniage  t&e  wonderful  period  of  seventy-six  yean.* 
"Early  in  the  reign  of  Qneen  Elizabeth,  young  Whitaker 
ifaasent  for  to  London  by  the  dean  his  uncle.  He  was  by 
this  means  taken  from  his  parents,  by  whom  he  had  been 
nursed  in  the'  superstitions  of  popery,  and  trained  up  in  the 
public  school  founded  by  Dr.  Colet,  who  was  NowelFs 
pious  predecessor.  There  he  so  profited  in  good  literature^ 
and  gave  such  presages  of  his  excellent  endowments^  that 
at  the  age  of  eighteen,  his  pious  kinsman  sent  him  to  the 
vniversi^  of  Cambridge,  and  he  was  admitted  into  Trinity 
coll^fe ;  where  his  further  progress  being  answerable  to  his 
beginning,  he  was  first  chosen  scholar,  then  fellow  of  the 
lioiiae.  He  soon  procured  high  esteem  and  great  fame  by 
Ins  learned  diq)utations  and  other  exercises,  which  were 
performed  to  the  great  admiration  of  the  most  eminent 
persons  in  that  seat  of  learning,  f  He  was  a  person  of 
eztiaoffdiiiaiy  talents  and  uncommon  application,  and  it 
wta  his  general  practice,  and  that  of  several  other  eminent 
persons  of  his  time,  to  stand  while  employed  in  study-t 

As  a  proof  of  his  great  proficiency,  and  as  a  token  of 
.natitude  to  his  generous  kinsman,  he  translated  Nowell^s 
tSatecbism  into  Greek,  which  he  performed  with  the 
greatest  accuracy,  and  presented  it  to  him.  He,  at  the 
same  time,  translated  into  Latin  the  English  Liturgy,  and 
Bishop  Jewel's  Reply  to  Harding,  bv  which  he  obtained  a 
distinginshed  reputation.^  Indeed,  nis  great  fame  was  not 
caa&SeA  to  the  learned  in  Cambridge ;  but  having  taken 
his  varions  d^ees  with  great  applause  in  that  university, 
he  was  incorporated  doctor  in  divinity  at  Oxford. { 

Upon  the  preferment  of  Dr.  William  Chadderton  to  the 
'bishopric^  of  Chester,  our  learned  divine  succeeded  him  in 
•the  ^office'  of  regius  professor  in  the  university  of  Cam* 
bridge*  He  was,  inoeed,  very  young  for  such  a  place; 
yet,  on  account  of  his  great  literary  accomplishments,  be 
was  unanimously  chosen  to  this  high  office,  though  s(Hne 

*  Charton*!  Life  of  NoweU,  p.  64.— Dean  NoweU  was  prolocutor  of  the 
lower  bome  ef  cooTocation,  in  1562,  when  the  articles  of  rell^oD  were 
agreed  opon.  In  1564,  when  the  debates  ran  high  aboat  the  use  of  the 
clerical  garments,  he  discovered  great  moderation.  He  consented  to  the 
ose  of  them,  but  with  a  protestation  that  he  wished  them  taken  away,  for 
-the  fbUowlng  reasons : — 1.  *'  For  fear  of  the  abuse  they  might  occasion. — 
9m  To  express  more  strongly  a  detestation  of  the  corruptions  aB4 
.superstitions  of  the  papists. — 3.  For  a  fuller  profession  of  christian 
libelrty.— 4.  To  pnt  an  end  to  the  disputes  among  brethren." — BUg^ 
BrUtmi  v«l.  ▼..  p.  9268.    Edit.  1747. 

f  Knight's  Life  of  Colet,  p.  397.     Edit.  1724. 

t  Granger's  Biog.  Hist.  toI.  i.  p.  99.        §  Clark's  Eccl.  Hist.  p.  814^ 

I  Wood's  AthoBK  Oxoot  toI.  i.  p.  T44. 


were  much  vexed  to  see  a  man,  nvhom  they  deemed  unfit 
for  the  situation,  preferred  before  those  who  were  more 
advanced  in  years.  He  no  sooner  entered  upon  his  official 
duties,  in  the  delivery  of  public  lectures,  than  he  gave  the 
most  perfect  satisfaction  to  all  his  hearers.  There  was  in 
him  nothing  wanting  which  could  be  found  in  the  best 
divine,  and  the  most  accomplished  professor.  He  al  once 
discovered  much  reading,  a  sharp  judgment,  a  pure  and 
easy  style,  with  sound  and  solid  learning,  by  which  his 
fame  spread  in  every  direction,  and  multitudes  resorted  to 
Ills  lectures,  and  reaped  from  them  incalculable  advantage.* 

To.qualify  himself  for  these  public  exercises,  he  directed 
his  studies,  with  uncommon  application,  to  all  the  .useful 
branches  of  human  learning.  He  was  a  great  proficient  in 
tile  knowledge  of  philosophy.  With  uncommon  diligence 
he  studied  the  sacred  scriptures,  to  which  he  invariably 
appealed,  not  only  in  matters  of  faith,  but  in  the  detemina- 
tion  of  all  doubts  and  controversies.  He  turned  over  mott 
of  the  modern  commentators  and  faithful  interpreters  of  the 
word  of  God.  With  incredible  industry,  and  in  the  space 
of  a  few  years,  he  read  over  most  of  the  fathers,  both  Greek 
and  Latin.  He  attended  to  his  studies  with  the  greatest 
regularity,  and  appointed  himself  every  morning  what 
exercises  he  should  pursue  during  the  day ;  and  if  he  was 
at  any  time  interrupted  in  his  engagements,  he  always 
protracted  his  studies  to  a  late  hour,  and  so  deprived 
himself  of  his  natural  rest  and  sleep,  in  order  to  finish  his 
appointed  task.  By  this  course  of  labour  and  watching  he 
very  much  increased  in  learning,  but  greatly  impaired  his 
health,  which  he  never  afiter  perfectly  recovered. 

In  the  public  exercises  in  the  schools,  his  great  learning 
and  singular  aloquence  rained  the  admiration  of  all  hu 
auditors.  When  he  read  in  rhetoric  and  philosophy,  he 
seemed  to  be  another  Basil ;  when  he  catechised,  anc^er 
Origen ;  and  when  be  preached  his  Conceo  ad  CUrrnn^  it 
abounded  with  sanctity  and  all  kinds  of  learning.  In  the 
office  of  professor,  he  delivered  public  lectures  first  upon 
various  select  parts  of  the  New  Testament,  then  he  entered 
upon  the  controversies  between  the  papists  and  pio- 
testants.  He  first  encountered  the  vain-glorious  Campian, 
who  set  forth  his  ten  arguments,  proudly  boasting  that  he 
had  utterly  ruined  the  protestant  religion.  Wmtaker  so 
learnedly  and  so  completely  refuted  the  haughty  Jesnjjt^ 

•  Clark's  £ccl.  Hiit.  |p.  8U. 


W.  WHITAKER.  75 

4hat  all  his  boasting  vanished  into  smoke.      Afterwards 
came  forwards  Duiy,  another  Jesuit,  who  undertook  to 
answer  Wbitaker,  and  to  vindicate  Campian.    As  Campian 
had  set  {orth  his  work  with  great  ostentation  and  youthful 
confidence ;  so  Dury  carriea  on  the  controversy  with  much 
•railing  and  scurrility.     Whitaker  admitted  his  opponent  to 
.lutve  the  pre-eminence  in  calumny  and  abuse;    but  he 
leluted  all  his  arguments,  and  discovered  all  his  fallacies, 
nith  such  good  sense  and  sound  judgment,  that  it  is  said, 
*^  the  truth  was  never  more  fully  cleared  by  any  man." 
His  next  antagonist  was  Nicolas  Saunders,  who  boasted  thaf 
by  forty  demonstrative  arguments,  he  had  proved  that  the 
pope  was  not  antichrist.     Whitaker  examined  these  argu- 
ments, and  answered  them  with  great  learning  and  solidity, 
letOrtiiig  many  of  them  upon  the  author  himselfl    After 
this,  Rainolds,  another  apostate,  pretended  to  reply,  and, 
with  siibtilty  and  malice,  represented  the  English  divines 
iolie  at  variance  among  themselves ;  and  by  this  means,  he 
enddEivoured  to  expose  protestantism  to  the  greater  hatred 
and  contempt.  But  our  learned  Whitaker  at  once  perceived, 
and  with  great  judgment,  exposed  his  crafty  insinuations 
andfisdsehoods ;  yet,  he  declared  that  the  book  was  so  vain 
and  foolish,  that  he  scarcely  thought  the  author  worthy  of 
an  JEuiswer.* 

Dr.  Whitaker  was  afterwards  preferred  to  the  mastership 
of  St.  John's  college,  Cambridge,  though  not  without  much 
opposition  from  the  ill-affected  in  the  university,  of  which 
Funer  gives  the  following  curious  account : — "  He  was 
appointed  by  the  queen's  mandamus;  and  Dr.  Cap-coat,  the 
▼ice-chancellor,  went  along  with  him,  being  attended  by  a 
goodly  company,  solemnly  to  induct  him  to  his  place,  when 
ne  met  with  an  unexpected  opposition.  They  could  not 
gain  admittance.  The  gates  were  shut,  partly  manned  and 
partljir  boyed  against  him.  The  vice-chancellor  retreated  to 
Trinity  college;  and  after  consulting  the  lawyers,  he^ 
according  to  ^ir  advice,  created  Dr.  Whitaker  master  (n 
SU  John  s  in  his  own  chamber,  by  virtue  of  the  queen^s 
mandate.  This  done,  he  re-advanceth  to  St.  John's,  and 
with  a  POSSE  AcADEMiiE,  demands  admission.  The 
Jobniaiu  having  intelligence  by  their  emissaries,  that  the 
property  of  the  pierson  was  altered,  and  Dr.  Whitaker 
invested  with  the  mastership,  and  knowing  the  queen  would 

♦  CUrk'i  Eccl.  WnU  p.  Mh-M.  ^ 


maintain  tier  power  from  her  crown  to  her  foot,  took  wit  im 
their  anger,  and  received  hun/'» 

Notwithstanding  the  above  opposition,  the  new  master, 
by  his  clemency,  nis  equity,  and  his  goodness,  presently 
overcame  their  exasperated  minds,  and  turned  tl^ir  enmi^ 
and  prejudice  into  love  and  admiration*  He  alwayt 
governed  the  college  with  great  prudence  and  moderatiQi^ 
and  sacrificed  his  own  interest  for  the  advantage  of  the 
public,  as  appeared  by  his  own  frugality  and  the  testimony 
of  those  who  lived  with  him.  In  the  choice  of  scliolan 
and  fellows,  he  was  always  impartial  and  unMameable,  aii3 
would  never  suffer  any  corruption  to  creep  into  the  electioiis* 
If  he  found  any  who  by  bribes  had  endeavoured  to  buy 
aoffrages,  they,  however  deserving^  in  other  respects,  of  afi 
i^ers,  should  not  be  chosen.f  This  account  of  his  great 
integrity,  and  his  particular  care  in  the  government  of  hii 
college,  affords  a  complete  refutation  of  the  great  n^Ied, 
with  which  he  is  charged  by  the  insinuation  of  another 

Under  the  mastership  of  Dr.  Whitaker,  all  worthy 
scholars  and  fellows  received  the  encouragement  due  to 
their  character  and  desert.  He  distributed  the  rewards  of 
learning  with  an  impartial  hand;  but  all  indiscreet  and 
improper  measures  were  justly  discountenanced.  There 
was  only  one  way  to  prefemient,  and  that  was  founded  upon 
merit  and  real  worth.  This  made  the  coU^e  flourish  in 
sound  learning,  and  swarm  in  the  number  of  its  members. 
There  were  no  less  than  thirty-eight  fellow-conmioners  in  fte 
house  at  one  time,  which,  upon  a  moderate  computation, 
are  said  to  have  been  more  than  at  any  other  period  since 
the  foundation,  or  than  probably  ever  will  be  a^ain.  This, 
for  the  purpose  of  their  accommodation,  led  to  several 
considerables  enlar^ments  of  the  coUe^.  His  learning  was 
not  confined  to  nimself :  it  was  diffusive.  It  spread 
itself  through  the  whole  society ;  and,  by  his  example, 
instruction,  and  encouragement,  he  raised  so  much  emulation! 
amonff  the  fellows,  as  to  make  others  learned  as  Well  as 
liimsdrf.  Indeed,  die  society  in  his  time  was  looked  iipcm 
|M  something  more  than  a  private  college.  He  himseli^ 
who  was  no  boaster,  used  to  style  it  a  little  university.^ 

Bellarmine,    tfae    Bomish   disputant^   growing  ^mous 

«  FuUer's  Hist,  of  O^b.  p.  96, 97.  f  CUrVi  £ccl.  Hist.  p.  819, 

J  Fuller's  Hist,  of  Camb.  p.  97. 
Baker*!  MS.  CoUec.  T9l.  i.  p.lSlT— 819* 

W.  WHITAKEB.  77 

about  (his  time,  and  bein^looked  upon  by  his  own  party  as 
an  invincible  champion,  Dr.  Whitaker  undertook  to  defend 
the  bulwarks  of  protestantism  against  the  assaults  of  the 
popish  adversary ;  and  it  is  observed,  ^'  that  he  cut  off  tho 
head  of  his  antagonist  with  his  own  weapons."    The  first 
pait  of  this  controversy  was  concerning  the  holy  Scripture ; 
theiir  about  the  Church,  the  Councils,  the  Bishop  of  Rome^ 
the  Ministers,  departed  Saints,  the  Church  Triumphant,  the 
Sacraments,  Baptism,  and  the  Lord^s  Supper;    some  of 
which  lie  pubUshed ;  but  he  had  not  leisure  to  print  them  alL 
During  tne  whole  controversy,  he   treated    his  Romish 
opponent^  not  with  keen  reproach,  or  under  the  influence  of 
passion,  but  as  one  who  sought   to  promote  the  truth. 
BeUarmine  being  completely  siknced,  Thomas  Stapleton,  a 
superstitious  oldman,  and  professor  at  Louvain,  undertook 
to  answer  Whitaker,  which  he  performed  in  a  volume 
sufficiently  large,  but  in  most   abusive  and    scurrilous, 
language.    Therefore,  lest  die  angry  and  bigotted  old  man 
should  seem  wise  in  his  own  eyes,  Whitaker  answered  him 
accotdine  to  his  deserts,  and  in  keener  language  than  usual.* 
Dr.  Whitaker  was  a  man  of  the  greatest  celebrity,  and 
wa%  fox  many  years,  concerned  in  most  of  the  public  trans- 
actions in  the  university  of  Cambridge.    His  name  is  often 
menti<med  by  historians,    especially    by    an   invaluable 
collector  of  scarce  and  curious  information,^  as  taking  a 
most  flealous  and  active  part  in  promoting  the  peace  and 
pioq^ty  of  this  seat  of  learning.    In  the  year  1580,  he 
was  presented  by  the  queen  to  Uie  chancdlorship  of  St 
Panl^  -London,  which  he  resiff  ned  in  1587 ;  but  on  what 
account  we  cannot  learn4    Iii  the  year  1591,  Dr.  Goad^ 
provost  of  King's  coU^,  Cambridge  presented  a  request 
to  Dean  NoweU,  in  beludf  of  Dr.  Whitaker,  that  he  might 
be  preferred  to  some  more  valuable  benefit.     The  venerable 
deajK  anxious  to  serve  his  friend  and  kinsman,  forwarded 
Dr.  Goad's  letter,  the  day  he  received  it,  together  with  one 
of  his  own,  to  the  lord  treasurer ;  reminding  his  lordship  of 
Dr.  Whitaker's  great  learning,  well  known  at  Cambridge  by 
the  producticHis  of  his  pen  in  Greek  and  Latin ;  and  not 
unknown  to  his  lordship,  to  whom  several  of  his  works  had 
hem  dedicated.    His  fitoess  for  presiding  over  a  learned 
society  had  paitlv  appeared,  from  the  quietoess  and  sood 
order  which  had  been   established  in  St.  John's  coTl^ 
since  he  became  master ;  and  as  to  his  circumstances,  they 

•  Clark'i  Ecd.  Hist.  p.  SIS.  f  Balber'i  MS.  CoUectioos. 

t  Gffmi^er'i  Blof .  Hilt.  fol.  L  p.  SIS. 


were  so  far  from  being  affluent,  that  the  dean,  in  considen(« 
tien  of  his  poverty,  ha(^  now.  for  two  years  past  taken  upon 
himself  the  maintenance  of  one  of  his  sons.  Ihisapplica* 
tion,  however,  in  behalf  of  Dr.  Whitaker,  whatever  might 
be  the  reason  of  it,  proved  unsuccessful.* 
'  Some  of  our  historians  affirm,  that  this  celebrated  divine 
was  not  a  puritan;  for  which,  indeed,  they  produce  very 
little  evidence,  or  rather  no  substantial  evidence  whatever. 
That  which  is  commonly  pleaded  for  evidence  in  this  case^ 
is  Dr.  Whitaker's  letter  to  Dr/  Whitgift,  in  which  he  gives 
his  s^itiments  with  great  freedom,conceming  M r.Cartwrigfat 
and  his  opinions,  as  follows : — "  I  have  read,^*  saith  he,  ^^  a 

Seatpart  of  that  book  (Cartwrighf s  second  Reply)  which 
r.  Cartwright  lately  published.    I  pray  Grod  I  live  not,  if 
ever  I  saw  any  thing  more  loosely  and  ahnost  more  childishly 
written.    It  is  true  that  for  words,  he  hath  great  store,  and 
those  both  fine  and  new :  but  for  matter,  as  Tar  as  I  can 
judge,  he  is  altogether  barren.     Moreover,  he'dotb  not  only 
think  perversely  of  the  authority  of  princes,  in  caused 
ecclesiastical,  but  also  flieth  into  the  holds  of  the  papists, 
from  whom  he  would  be  thought  to  dissent  with  a  mcurtal 
hatred.    But  in  this  point  he  is  nof  to  be  endured  :  and  in 
other  parts  also  he  borroweth  his  arguments  from  the  papists. 
He  playeth  with  words,  and  is  lame  in  his  sentences,  and  h 
altogether  unworthy  to  be  confuted  by  any  man  of  learning.'* 
Our  author  adds,  that  Dr.  Whitaker  wr€^  this  letterabout 
the  time  that  he  began  to  write  against  Campian.f    And 
what  does  the  whole  of  it  prove  ?  It  is  designed  to  reproach 
Mr.  Cartwright,  his  book,  and  his  sentiments,  and  to  prove 
Dr.  Whitaker. to  have  been  no  puritan,  of  which  it  certainly 
contains    no    suljstantial   evidence.     For,  admitting-  the 
letter  to  be  genuine,  it  only  contains   Dr.   Whitalj^er's 
opinion  of  mr.  Cartwright  and  his  publication,  and  no 
evidence  either  for  or  a^inst  the  puritanism  of  the  writer. 
But  there  is  some  reason  to  suspect  that  the  letter  is  a 
forgery,  and  devised  only  to  blacken  the  memory  of  the 
puritans.    It  rests  upon  the  sole  authority  of  Dr.  BaQCipfli 
one  of  the  bitterest  and  most  violent  of  all  their  enemies; 
and  is  said  to  have  been  written  near  the  time  when  Dj. 
Whitaker  united  with  other  learned  divines  in  soliciting 
Mr.  Cartwright  to  undertake  an  answer  to  the  Rhenad» 
translation,  in  which,  among  other  commend^ticms,  they 
addressed  him  as  follows : — "  It  is  not  for  every  one  rashly 

•  Cborton'sLifeofNowel],  p.  322,323.    f  BMcroft'sSiinr«y,p«S79,38a. 

W.  WHITAKER.  79 

to  be  tbilist  fbrth  into  the  Lord's  battles ;  but  such  captain* 
aie  to  be  chosen  from  amongst  David's  worthies,  one  of 
which  we  acknowledge  you  to  be,  by  the  former  battles 
undergone  for  the  wms  of  our  cUv^  the  church.  We  doubt 
not,  if  you  will  enter  this  war,  but  that  you,  fighting  for 
cxinscience  and  country,  will  be  able  to  tread  under  foot  the 
fiNTces  of  the  Jebusites,  which  set  themselves  to  assault  the 
tower  rf  David."» 

The  former  battles  which  Mr.  Cartwright  is  here  said  to 
haye  undergone  for  the  walls  or  discipline  of  the  church,  and 
for.  which  he  received  so  high  a  commendation  from  Dr. 
Whitaker  and  his  brethren,  were  the  controversies  he  had 
with  Dr.  Whitgifl:  but  when  the  same  controversies  are 
described  by  the  unworthy  pen  of  Dr.  Bancroft,  Dr. 
Whitaker  is  made  to  speak  the  language  of  keen  reproach^ 
both  of  Mr.  Cartwright  and  of  his  former  battles.  How 
can  the  two  things  be  reconciled  ?  Shall  we  conclude  that 
Whitaker  was  guilty  of  such  palpable  inconsistency  ?  Thi» 
was  no  trait  in  his  character.  Did  he  then  completely 
change  his  opinion  of  Cartwright  and  his  controversy^ 
during  the  short  interval  of  joining  in  the  address  to  this 
divine,  and  writing  the  foregoing  letter  to  Whitgift  ?  This 
would  be  contrary  to  numerous  facts,  as  will  presently 
appear.  Did  he  address  Whitgift,  now  Archbishop  of 
CiBuiterbiiry,  merely  to  flatter  him,  and  procure  his  favour  ? 
He  never  lost  his  ravour,  and  no  one  was  ever  less  guilty  of 

In  the  year  1589,  an  assembly  was  held  in  St.  John's 
coUeae,  Cambridge,  of  which  Dr.  Whitaker  was  master. 
Mr.  Cartwright  and  many  others  were  present  on  this  occa- 
sion, and  the  meeting  was  designed  io  promote  a  purer  form 
of  discipline  in  the  church.  At  the  same  time,  ^^  divers 
imperfecti<Hi8  in  the  Book  of  Discipline  were  corrected, 
altered  and  amended ;  and  they  did  not  only  perfect  the 
said  book,  but  did  then  and  there  voluntarily  agree,  that  as 
nuuiy  as  were  willing  should  subscribe  the  said  Book  of 
Discipline."f  Therdbre,  among  the  learned  divines  who 
subscribed,  was  the  renowned  Dr.  Whitaker.t  He  is  also 
said  to  have  united  with  other  puritan  divines  in  promoting 
tbe  reformed  discipline,  and  to  have  assembled  with  them 
finr  this  purpose  in  their  private  associations.^ 

The  year  following,  this  learned  divine  was  charged  with 
holding  or  forming  a  presbytery  in  his  college,  and  with 

•  See  Art.  Cartwright.  f  Bancroft's  Survey,  p.  67. 

t  Nesl'i  Poritaiii,  toI.  i.  p.  i^.      S  Baker's  MS.  CoUec.  vol.  zv.  p.  79. 


other  nnjast  accusations,  when  he  went  up  to  London^  and 
'wrote  the  following  letter  to  Lord  Burleigh,  chancellor  of 
the  university.* 
^^  My  hnmUe  duty  to  your  honourable  lordship. 

^^  I  wiU  not  complain  to  your  lordship,  of  those  thfit 
<^  have  complained  of  me ;  who,  seeing  me  resolved  to  come 
<<  up  about  my  necessary  defence,  and  fearing  that  the 
**  complaint  made  concerning  a  preshi/ten/  would  be  easilr 
<^  disproved,  have  devised  other  matters,  which  eith»^  toucii. 
<<me  nothing  at  all,  or  else  are  most  frivolous;  and  ye^ 
<'  being  thus  heaped  together,  seem  to  be  of  Some  weirat, 
^<  Although  I  foresee  the  inconvenience  of  a  new  visitatiosi^ 
<^  which  is  the  only  thing  they  shoot  at ;  yet  I  fear  not  any 
^^courseof  justice  whatsoever;  and  I  do  willingly  submit 
<^  mvself  to  what  order  your  lordship  shall  take  for  diM 
^^  tnal  of  these  matters.  In  one  thing  for  a  taste,  your 
<<  lordship  may  judge  of  the  rest.  I  am  charged  that  I  lay. 
**  at  my  orolher  Chadderton's,  the  night  before  J  came  up,. 
<<  Indeed  the  truth  is,  I  lay  in  the  colle^,  as  I  ever  do :  but: . 
<<  this  was  only  a  slight  to  bring  in  some  menticm  of  joij 
<<  brother,  whom  they  hate  as  much  as  me.  If  it  may  stand 
^<  with  your  honour's  good  pleasure,  to  let  me  have  that 
^^  writing  that  was  eiiuibited  against  me,  I  will  set  down 
^<  mine  answer  to  every  particular  point,  and  return  the 
^<  same  again  to  your  lordship.  Thus  I  humbly  take  mr 
<*  leave.    From  the  Dean  of  Paul's  house,  October  % 

"  Your  lordship's  to  serve  in  Che  Ijord, 

"  William  Whitaker." 
We  have  not   been  able   to  learn  what  answer  Dr. 
Whitaker  gave  to  the  accusations  of  his  enemies,  norliow* 
long  his  troubles  continued ;  but  he  most  probably  obtained' 
his  release,  and,  without  much  interruption,  returned  t6  hii 
wonted  exercises  in  the  university.    He  was  a  divine  who 
had  a  correct  view  of  the  genuine  principles  of  protestantism^ , 
and  would  appeal  to  the  authority  of  the  holy  scripttumii 
alone,  in  the  decision  of  all  religious  controversy.     "  We  . 
may  warrantably  enough,"  says  he,   "reject  all  hunum 
testimonies,  and  insist  upon  some  clear  scripture  testimony,  . 
For  this  is  the  constant  sense  of  the  catholic  fathers,  that 
nothing  is  to  be  received  or  approved  in  religion,  which  .ir 
not  bottomed  on  the  testimony  of  scripture,  and  caniiot  fie. 
proved  and  confirmed  out  of  those  sacked  writinga:  and 

•  Baker's  MS.  CoUec.  toI.  zil.  p.  56S. 

1  W.  WHITAKER.  81 


1  very  deservedly,  since  the  scripture  is  the  absolute  rule  of 
f  iruihJ'**  From  these  generous  principles,  he  was  induced^ 
;  with  several  other  excellent  divines,  to  write  against  the 
sujperstitious  and  ridiculous^practice  of  bowing  at  the  name 
or  Jesns.f  Upon  the  same  generous  principles,  he  was  no 
frigid  to  episcopacy,  but  a  decidea  advocate  for  the 
eldership,  wnich  the  puritans  sought  to  have  established. 
<«  Episcopacy,"  saith  he,  "  was  invented  by  men  as  a 
remedy  against  sin ;  which  remedy  many  wise  and  holy 
men  have  judged  to  be  worse  than  the  disease  itself,  and  so 
it  luUh  proved  by  woeful  experience.''^  In  his  answer  to 
Campian^s  ten  ar^^uments,  he  says,  '^  A  presbyter  and  a 
bishop  are  by  divme  right  the  same ;  and  if  Arius  was  an 
heretic  for  saying  so,  Jerome  certainly  was  akin  to  the  same 
heresy/'^  And  m  his  reply  to  Dury,  he  avows  the  same 
sentiment,  saying,  "  Presbyters  being  by  divine  right  the 
same  as  bishops,  might  warrantably  set  other  presbyters 
€f^et  the  churches."!  He  was  decidedly  of  opinion,  that 
.  all  ecclesiastical  persons  should  confine  themselves  to  their 
ecclesiastical  functions,  without  the  exercise  of  any  tempo- 
ral iaiithority.l  On  these  accounts,  Mr.  Strype  very  justly 
observes,  that  though  he  Mas  a  learned  and  pious  man,  a 
public  professor  of  divinity,  and  a  good  writer  against  the 
€hurch  of  Rome ;  yet  "  he  was  no  friend  to  the  church  of 

Br.  Whitaker,  Dr.  Fulke,  Dr.  Chadderton,  Mr.  Dod,  and 
other  learned  puritans,  held  their  private  meetings  in  the 
aniyersity,  with  a  view  to  their  own  improvement  in  a 
knowledge  of  the  holy  scriptures.  Our  divine  married  for 
his  first  wife,  the  pious  sister  of  the  two  famous  preachers,  ^ 
Mr.  Samuel  and  Mr.  Ezeklel  Culverwell,  and  Dr.  Lawrence 
Chadderton  married  another  sister.  For  his  second  wife,  he 
married  the  grave  and  pious  widow  of  Mr.  Dudley  Fenner ; 
and  by  both  of  them  he  had  eicht  children,  to  whom  he 

EYe  a  religious  education.+t  "  It  must  be  confessed,"  say» 
r.  Baker,  <^  he  had  somewhat  of  the  old  leaven,"  meaning 
liis  puritanism.  '^  His  marriage  into  the  families  of  the 
Gulyerwells  and  Fenners,  and  his  acquaintance  with 
Cturtwright,  Fulke,  Chadderton  and  Dod,  might  give  him 

.*  CalftBy*!  DffeDGe  of  Noncon.  vol.  i.  p.  197.     Edit.  170S. 
-t  Pk'jme*!  Cnnt.  Doome,  p.  469.— Wood^s  Athene  Oxon.  vol.  i.  p.  348. 

fLeif^toii**  Sioo*8  Plea,  p.  18  :  fi-om  Whitaker. 
FMitioo  of  Prelates  filzamined,  p.  15.     Edit.  1641. 
n  Colmmy's  Defence  of  Noncon.  vol.  i.  p.  71. 
^  BAker*t  MS.  Collec.  vol.  xz.    Tbii  vol.  is  not  paged. 
•  •  8Crjpe*i  Whitflfl,  p.  SJUk  +  +  Clark's  Eccl.  Hlit.  p.  817. 

▼OL.  II.  G 


an  insensible  bias  that  way  ;  jct  the  meetings  he  held  witli 
these  persons,  were  not  intended  to  introduce  8  new.dii^' 
cipline,  but  to  expound  the  scripture/'* 

In  the  year  1595,  there  were  many  warm  disputes  about 
points  of  christian  doctrme.  The  fire  of  contention  broki; 
out  in  the  university  of  Cambridgei  in  which  Dr.  Whitdber 
was.  deeply  involved.  He  shewed  himself  the  sealou 
advocate  of  the  supralapsarian  sentiments,  and  was  wannlT 
opposed  by  Dr.  Baro  and  others  of  the  same  party.  To 
put  an  end.  to  these  disputes,  the  heads  of  the  univeniijr 
sent  Dr.  Whitaker  and  Dr.  Tyndal  up  to  Lambeth,  for  the 

Suipose  of  consulting  with  the  archbishop,  and  other  leaimd 
i vines,  upon  these  points ;  when  they  concluded  upon  nine 
propositions,  commonly  called  the  Lambeth  ariides^  to 
which  the  scholars  in  the  university  were  enjoined  an  exact 

Dr.  Wliitaker,  during  his  journey  to  Lambeth,  fell  i&du 
.occasioned  by  his  unusual  fatigue  and  want  of  sleep,  ana 
died  soon  aner  his  return  to  Cambridge.  Throu^  the 
whole  of  his  affliction,  he  discovered  great  submission  to  the 
divine  will.  With  holy  and  happy  composure,  he  said, 
^'  O  .Lord  my  God,  though  thou  kill  me ;  j^y  I  am  Mune^ 
•that  with  these  eyes  I  shall  see  thee ;  for  in  thee  do  I  hope." 
To  a  friend,  who  asked  him  one  morning  how  he  dici^  he 
replied,  ^'  O  happy  night !  1  have  not  token  so  sweet  it 
.sleep  since  my  disease  fcU  upon  me.''  His  friend  afterwaids 
finding  him  in  a  cold  sweat,  and  telling  him  that  sisns  of 
death  were  upon  him,  he  immediately  answered,  ^' Life  or 
death  is  welcome  to  me,  which  Qod  plea^th ;  for  deitk 
shall  be  an  advantage  to  me.    I  desire  not  to  live,  but  only 

*  Baker*8  MS.  Collec.  vol.  i.  p.  814.  toI.  xz, 

f  These  articles  were  the  foUowing : — *'  God  hath,  froa  etcntty» 
predestinated  certain  persons  to  life ;  and  hath  reprolmted  certain  p«fiMi 
unto  death. — ^Tbc  moving  or  efficient  cause  of  predestination  uoto  life,  h 
not  the  foresight  of  faith,  or  of  perseverance,  or  of  good  worki,  or  oftMj 
thing  that  I3  in  the  persons  predestinated :  but  only  the  good  will  afld 
pleasure  of  God. — ^There  is  pre-determined  a  certain  number  of  the  pre*- 
de^tinate,  which  can  neither  be. augmented  nor  diminished. — ^Thoiewbt 
are  bot  predestinated  to  salvation,  shaU  inevitably  be  eondemDed  for  thrif 
■ins. — A  true,  lively,  and  justifying  faith,  and  the  spirit  of  God  JnitifyiBf  1 
is  not  extinguished,  doth  not  utterly  fail,  doth  not  vanish  away.  In  the  elect, 
either  Snally  or  totally. — A  true  believer,  that  is,  one  who  is  ODdusd  jrith 
justifying  faith,  is  certain  with  the  Aill  assurance  of  foith,  of  the  renissiofr 
of  his  sins,  and  of  his  everlasting  salvation  by  Christ. — Saving  grace  19  BOt 
given,  is  not  granted,  is  not  communicated  to  all  men,  by  which  they  Bty 
-be  saved  if  they  will. — No  man  is  able  to  come  unto  Christ,  nofeiB  It  be 
given  him,  and  unless  the  Father  draw  him  :  and  all  men  are  not  dimwfi  hj 
the  Father,  that  they  may  come  to  the  Son. — it  is  not  in  the  will  or  MWfr 
of  every  man  to  be  saved.'*-— Furfer'*  Church  Hist.  b.  iz«  p.  i^90-^Htt!. 

.    W.WHITAKER.  8» 

so  far  as  I  may  do  Grod  and  his  church  service  ;''•  and  soon 
after  quietly  departed  in  the  Lord,  December  4, 1595,  ia 
the  forty-seventh  year  of  his  age,  having  filled  the  professor's 
cbair  about  sixteen  years,  and  that  of  master  almost  nine. 

'Dean  Nowell,  in  his  last  will  and  testament,  made  the 
SMomine  bequest:  ^'  To  his-  cousin.  Dr.  Whitakcr-of 
CSainbric^e,  he  gives  twenty  books  of  his  own  choosing  •»*. 
bpt  Ihe  venerable.dean  survived  him  some  years.f  In  the' 
dboye  year  he  was  preferred  to  a  prebendary  in  the  church; 
of  Ginteibnry.  He  certainly  deserved  greater  preferment^ 
aqdhe  stood  in  need  of  it;  for  he  died  poor,  considering; 
ti^  jgunily  he  left  behind  him.  It  was  some  reproach  to  the 
UB&m^  that  the  two  greatest  men  that  ever  nlled  the  pio« 
Soamk^n  chair  in  the  university  of  Cambridge,  should  have. 
beep  no  better  provided  for :  these  were  Dr.  Whitaker,  and 
tb^'  celebrated  Martin  Bucer,  who  was  forced  to  borrow 
IBoney  with  his  last  breath.^  Dr.  Whitaker's. library  was 
very  dioice  and  valuable,  which  the  queen  designed  to  obtain 
bi  lienel^  and  Archbishop  Whit^in  wished  to  procure  his 
aimierous  and  valuable  manuscnpts.  At  his  death,  the 
college  Gonfisrred  upon  him  the  honour  of  a  public  fjoneral^ 
an  account  of  which  is  still  preserved  amon^  the  recoids  ci 
the  society,  where  so  much  is  put  down  for  his  funeral  feast, 
sp  much  for  his  tomb,  and  so  much  for  the  other  necessary 
ezpenaesk    Mr.  Bois  delivered  a  funeral  oration  at  his 

Sve,  and  the  vice-chancellor  and  public  oratqr  or  his 
nity  at  St.  Mary's  church.^  His  corpse  was,  with  veiy 
gieat  aolemnity  and  lamentatiqn,  carried  to  the  grave,  and 
IWiaterred  in  the  chapel  of  St.  John's  college.  Near  th^ 
^ace  of  his  interment  was  a  costly  monumental  inscription 
elected  to  his  memory,  of  which  the  following  is  a  transla- 

,   . .  ,  This  Monument  is  erected 

/  to  the  memory  of  Doctor  Whitaker, 

•  fontieriy  the  royal  interpreter  of  Scnpture. 
'  His  interpretations  were  adorned  with  elegance  of  language ; 

bis  judgment  was  acute, 

his  method  beautiful^ 

hb  memory  strong, 

his  labours  and  perseyeranee  invincible; 

and  his  life  most  holy. 

With  these  very  rare  endowments  of  raind^ 

his  capdouTy  virtue^  and  humility, 

•  ClaikS  l^cl.  Hist.  p.  819.     f  ChortoD*s  Life  of  Nowell,  p.  354,  S56. 
i  Baker*s  MIS.  Collec:  toI.  i.  p.  234.  h  Ihid.  p.  SSI . 

B  KnigbtV  Life  of  Colet,  p.  398.   < 



shone  with  the  greatest  splendour. 
He  was  a  prudent  Master  of  this  College 

more  than  eight  years, 

being  a  firm  defender  of  all  that  was  right, 

and  an  avenger  of  whsLteyer  was  wrong* 

Dr.  Whltaker,  through  the  whole  of  his  life,  botii  is 

Sablic  and  private,  discovered  great  piety  and  holines. 
fe  was  most  patient  under  insults,  and  easily  lecoiiciled  to 
those  who  injured  him.  He  was  very  bountiful  to  the  poor; 
especially  to  pious  and  industrious  students.  He  was 
idways  modest  in  giving  his  judgment  upon  mens*  optninls 
and  actions.  Among  iiis  friends,  he  was  courteous  and 
pleasant;  faithful  in  keeping  secrets;  prudent  and  grave j 
and  always  ready  to  assist  them  with  counadi  or  inonejr. 
He  was  of  a  grave  ai^pect,  a  ruddy  complexion,  tBLttaaig 
constitution,  a.  solid  judgment,  a  liberal  mind,  and  'an 
afiable  disposition;  but  that  which  added  the  greakit 
lustre  to  his  character,  was  his  great  meekness  and  hmnifity** 
^<  He  was  one  of  the  greatest  men  his  collie  ever  prodiuMd; 
and,"  says  Wood,  <^  the  desire  and  love  of  tne  preseBt 
times,  and  the  envy  of  posterity,  that  cannot  bring  fortli  s 

Sarallel."f  «  The  learned  Whitaker,"  savs  Leiffh, "  was  Uis 
onour  of  our  schools,  and  the  angel  of  our  church ;  than 
whom  our  age  saw  nothing  more  memorable.  What  dear- 
ness  of  judgment,  what  Sweetness  of  style,  what  jgravity  of 
person,  what  gra!cefulness  of  carriage,  was  in  the  maB!" 
"Who  ever  saw  him  without  reverence!"  said  Bnbop 
Hall,  "  or  heard  him  without  wonder  ?*'t  He  iria 
Myled  <<  the  oracle  of  Cambridge,  and  the  mirade  of'fte 

It  was  a  maxim  with  this  celebrated  divine,  ^  Aat 
refreshing  the  memory  was  a  matter  of  great  importaaoeia 
every  kind  of  learning,  but  especially  m  the  most  asefid 
parts  of  it.  He  therefore  read  over  his  granunar  taA 
logic  once  every  year.§  He  was  the  greatest  champion  in  flie 
cause  of  th^  protestants,  even  by  the  confession  or  Gatdinal ' 
Bellarmine,  who,  though  he  had  been  so  often  baffled  b^ 
him,  procured  his  picture  from  England,  and  preserved  it 
in  his  study.  When  his  friends  were  introduced  to  him,  he 
used  to  point  to  the  picture  and  say,  tibat  tibough  Whiti^ 

«  Clark*s  Eccl.  Hist.  p.  819,  890.— FoUer's  Abel.  Red.  p.  406. 

f  Baker*8  MS.  Collec.  vol.  i.  p.  213.— Wood*!  AtlieiUB,  ?ol.  i.  p.  744. 

%  Leigh  on  Religion  and  Learning,  p.  36S»  364; 

S  Granger's  Biog.  Hist.  toI.  I.  p.  813.  ^ 

ALVEY.  85 

tvas  an  heretic,  <<  he  was  the  most  learned  heretic  he  ever 

Wm  Works.— 1.  Translation  of  "Noweirs  Catechism  into  Greek.--- 
ft.  Translation  of  the  English  Liturgy  into  Latin.— 3.  Translation  of 
Bishop  Jewers  Dispute  against  Harding  into  Latin.— 4.  Answer  to 
Sdnrand  Campian  his  Ten  Reasons. — 5.  A  Defence  of  bis  Answer 
Maiast  John  Ihprey. — 6.  A  Refutation  of  Nicolas  Saunders  his 
J^QBonstration,  whereby  he  would  prove  that  the  Pope  is  not 
Awtkihrist— 7.  A  Collection  thereto  added  of  ancient  Heresies 
tiked  up  again  to  make  up  the  Popish  Apostacie. — 8.  A  Thesis  pro- 
ifemioa  and  defended  at  the  Commencement  in  1582,  that  the  Pope 
is*flM  -Antichrist  spokeiwof  in  Scripture.«^9.  Answer  to  William 
BMnolds  against  the  Preface  to  that  against  Saunders  in  English. — 
W.  A  l^sputation  concerning  the  Scripture  against  the  Papists  of 
taese  times,  especially  Bella^rn4ne  and  Stapletopw — 11.  ^  Dcfjpnce  of 
iSbm  Authority  of  the  Scriptures,  against  Thomas  Stapleton  his 
IMsBoe  of  the  Authority  of  the  Church. — 12.  Lectures  on  the 
Csptvovefsios  concerning  the  Bishop  of  Rome. — 13.  Lectures  on  the 
.yoB^innrenie  opnceming  the  Church. — 14.  Lectures  on  the  Contro- 
nysie  oonceming  Councils.-^!  5.  A  Treatise  of  Original  Sin,  against 
Mqpleton's  three  former  books  of  Justification.  The  fbur  articles  last 
'hiSlifiOiied  were  published  after  the  author's  death  by  John  Allenson. 
•*4flk"A  liOetftfe  on  the  first  of  Timothy,  ii.  4.  read  on  February 
Mf  )fiM;  befinre  the  Earl  of  Essex,  and  other  Honourable  Persons. — 
,^*  Leotorcii  oonceming  the  Sacraments  in  general,  and  the  £u- 
dMurist  and  Baptism  in  particular.  This  last  was  taken  down  by 
Iblli  AOensoii,  and  published  by  Dr.  Samuel  Ward.t  His  '<  Works'' 
were  afterwards  collected  and  pnblbhed  in  Latin,  at  Croneya,  in 
4lPO  Tobimes  folio,  in  ^6l0.{ 

.  Hbney  Alyet,  B.  D.<^This  zealous  puritan  was  a 
Journcd  divine,  and  fellow  of  St.  John's  college,  Cambridge^ 
.whene  lie  most  probably  received  his  education.  He  was 
tator  to  the  celebrated  Mr.  Thomas  Gataker,  junior,  and 
other  excellent  divines.  During  the  contention  about  the 
..vinlation  of  the  university,  he  subscribed  to  the  following 
npoteitation,  dated  February  SO,  1587,  and  found  in  the 
;9'>*bpp  of  £ly's  risgister*office:— ^^  I,  Henry  Alvey,  do 
inwtest^  with  autiful  obedience,  that,  in  respect  to  the  oath 
which  I  have  taken  to  the  college,  I  dare  not  acknowledge  the 
jiviwdiction  of  any  but  of  our  appointed  visitors :  and  that 
Dj  my  personal  appearing  and  answering,  I  do  not  renounce 
that  ri^t  or  benefit  that  I  may  have  by  them ;  but  that  it 
may  be  lawfiUi  whensoever  just  occasion  shall  be  found^ 
to  appeal  unto  them.    Which  protestation  reserved  unto 

•  Wood'i  AthenaB  Oxoo.  vol.  i.  p.  303. 

-f-  Fanfr^i  Abel  Red.  p.  407,  408. 

t  Wood*!  AthcDCB  Ozon.  ?ol.  i.  p.  744. 


9ie  ia  all  and  etery  point,  I  am  most  ready  end 
answer."* — The  year  following,  upon  the  severe  ppoQet^ 
ings  against  Mr.  Francis  Johnson,  another  zealous  puritan, 
)se  united  with  upwards  of  sixty  others,  all  learned  mitn  and 
fi^llows  of  the  university,  in  presenting  a  supplicalion-to 
Chancellor  Burleigh,  in  behalf  of  this  persecuted  flervant 
of  Christ.f 

Mr.  Alvey  united  with  his  brethren'  in  their  endeavottfi 
to  promote  a  more  pure  ecclesiastical  discipline ;  and  when 
they  were  apprehended  and  carried  before  their  spiritdal 
judfges,  he  was  one  of  those  who  took  tlie  oath  esp  offim^ 
and  discovered  the  associations.  In  the  year  1595,  wfacii 
Barret  was  called  to  an  account  for  his  dangerous  sentimmt;, 
he  was  one  of  the  learned  divines  of  St.  John's  cdlegei 
^ho  openly  declared  their  disapprobation  of  his  opiDiOttSi 
and  their  dissatisfaction  with  his  pretended  recantatioD.| 
Towards  the  close  of  this  year,  .complaints  were  broug^ 
against  him  and  several  others  of  the  fellows,  concenniig 
their  nonconformity.  These  complaints,  or  rather  slaoder- 
bus  and  false  accusations,  were  laid  before  Arcbbiahop 
Wliitgift;  against  which,  he  justified  his  conduct,  luia 
vindicated  his  character,  at  considerable  length.^  Thoiu^ 
}t  does  not  appear  what  further  troubles  he  endured,  he 
probably  found  it  necessary  to  leave  the  university ;  for  he 
wais  soon  after  chosen  provost  of  Trinity  college,  Dublin; 
in  which  office  he  succeeded  the  celebrated  Sfr,  Walter 

/  Mr.  Alvi^y  is  calll^d  a  Worthy  benefactor  to  SL  JdBii's 
college,  Cambridge.  B^  his  last  will  and  teslanient,  he 
gav(*^  out  of  a  house  m  Jesus-lane,  four  nobles^  to  be 
annually  paid  to  a  Nottinghamshire  scholar,  living  iiiidel"t 
fellow ;  and  in  default  of  such  scholar,  the. four  nmileB  to  be 
given  to  the  college  one  year,  and  to  the  tenant  another, 
alternately.  He  also  made  some  other  bequest^  of  a  sinflai 
kind,  for  the  encouragement  of  learning  and  the'adviurtq[t 
of  learned  men  in  the  university .i 

•  Baker*!  MS.  Coliec.  toI.  lii.  p.  92.        +  See  Art.  FrtBcii 
1  Baker*!  MS.  CoUec.  vol.  ii.  p.  97, 88« 
4  Ibid.  TOl.  ili.  p.  810—813. 
I  MS.  Chroaolo|7,  toI.  Hi.  A.  D.  1656.  (78.) 
.    1  £aker*i  MB,  OoUec.  vol.  ziU.  This  vol.  it  not  psfcd. 


r  4oHV  Peime,  B.  D. — He  vas  born  at  Oxford,  received 
jbift'^.gnuniQar  learning  at  Wickham  school,  and  afb^rwards 
ie^ferel  at  Nev  CoU^e,  Oxford,  where  he  took  his  de^rers, 
kfulwaa  chosen  fellow  of  the  house.  Upofi  his  entrance 
utd  the  sacred  function,  he  became  a  zealous  and  pbpulkr 
taeacher  in  the  city  of  his  nativity,,  being  much  favoured 
py  Dt.  Cooper,  bishop  of  Winchester.  Afterwards^  he 
became  vicar  of  Adderburjr  in  Oxfordshire,  where  he  was 
mnch  followed  for  his  edifying  way  of  preaching.  The 
jPzfoicI  historian  denominates  him  a  noted  puritanical 
prefbcher.*  He  died  at  Adderbury,  in  the  prime  of  life, 
Apnl  IS,  1596,  and  his  remains  were  intenm  in  his  own 

Us  WonKS.-^l.  A  short  Treatise  of  Sacraments  generally,  and 
ftl..  special  of  Baptism  and  of  the  Supper,  1682.— 2.  A  IVeatise  of 
'Matqie  and  Grace,  1683.-— 3.  A  Sermon  briefly  comparing  the  State 
Jot  Khui  Solomon  and  his  Subjects,  together  with  the  condition  of 
l^oeen  JBUcabeth  and  her  People,  preached  at  St.  Mark's  in  Oxon* 
NofJ  17, 1685,  on  1  Kings  x.  9.— 1685. — 4.  An  Exposition  on  the 
flahrttin%  1687.— 6.  The  Consolations  of  David  applied  to  Queen 
Wnbetlp,  in  a  Sermon  at  St.  Mary's  in  Oxon.  Not.  17,  1688,  on 
}f^m  vnl  4.--1688. 

\  Richard  Allev. — He  was  minister  at  Ednam  in  Lin- 
bplnshiie^  a  good  preacher,  and  much  beloved,  but  greatly 
fisufaaBeti  for  nonconformity.  In  the  year  1583,  upon  the 
publication  of  Whitgift^s  three  articles,  he  was  suspended 
mm  his  ministerial  exercise,  for  refusing  the  imposed  sub- 
acrii^oh*  There  were  upwards  of  twenty  others,  all 
mfnisteiB  in  Lincolnshire,  suspended  at  the  same  time. 
Having  received  the  ecclesiastical  censure,  they  presented  a 
amplication  to  the  lords  of  the  council,  earnestly  wishing 
to^procuie  their  favourable  tnediation;  but,  probably, 
VlfDout  any  good  effect:  the  ruling  prelates  usually  re« 
dttiiied  inflexible.  In  this  supplictition,  they  express  Uiem- 
adves  as  follows : 

^'  For  as  much,  right  honourable,  as  we  whose  names  are 
widerwritteii,  whpm  the  Lord  in  rich  mercy  hath  placed 
over  some  of  his  people  in  Lincolnshire,  as  pastors  lo  feed 
Ihem  with  the  word  of  truth,  do  humbly  beseech  your 
iKNiaurs  to  r^ard  the  pitiful  and  woeful  state  of  our  con* 
gte^ionB  ill  those  parts ;  which  being  destitute  of  our 
miniitiy,  by  nieans  pf  the  subscription  now  generally  and 

«  Wood's  Athene  Qxoiu  vol.  1.  p«  847, 


fltricily  urged  by  the  bishops,  do  mourn  and  lament.  Itli 
well  known  to  ail  your  honoois,  that  an  absolute  subaciip' 
tion  is  required  through  the  whole  province  of  Canterbury, 
to  three  articles.  As  to  the  first  and  third,  relating' to 
her  majesty's  supreme  authority  and  the  articles  of  religioD^ 
we  most  willingly  offer  our  subscription,  as  always  herembii 
we  have  done ;  but  cannot  be  accepted  without  an  dbscdiite 
subscription  to  the  other,  to  which  we  dare  not  condesoeodf^ 
being  all  of  us  unresolved  and  unsatisfied  in  our  conscience 
about  many  points  in  the  Common  Prayer.  May  it  faittHr 
please  your  honours  favourably  to  consider,^that,  in  refuring 
an  absolute  subscription,  we  do  it  not  out  of  arroganey^-IHr 
singularity,  but  because  we  are  in  doubts  about  mvers 
weighty  matters:  and  fearing  to  subscribe  as  we  were 
urged,  we  are  all  suspended  uom  exercising  the'  funotiqii 
of  the  ministry  among  our  people,  to  the  great  dami^iif 
their  souls,  and  our  great  injury.  Wherefore,  being  panp 
suaded  that  our  cause  is  the  cause  of  Christ  and  his  chuic^ 
we  humbly  beseech  your  honours,  that  with  favour  it  mw 
be  considered.  And  seeing  we  cannot  be  impeached  « 
false  doctrine,  nor  of  contempt  of  her  majesty's  laws,  an 
of  refusal  to  use  the  book  of  prayer,  nor  of  breeding  con- 
tention or  sedition  in  the  church,  we  crave  that  we  may^be  ' 
restored  to  our  flocks ;  and  that  with  all  peace  of  con8cieiio& 
we  may  go  forwards  in  the  Lord's  work,*  in  our  seveai 
places.    Signed  by 

"  Richard  AiiLEN,  John  Prior, 

John  Daniel,  Charles  Bingham, 

Thomas  Tripler,  John  SuMMBRscAlaUi  ' 

Mr.  Shepherd,  Anthony  Hunt, 

Henry  Nelson,         '         Reinold  Grome^ 
Matthew  Thompson,  William  MunninO) 

Thomas  Bradley,  John  Wintle, 

Thomas  Fulbeck,  Humphrid.  Stratbrsji- 

Hugh  Tuke,  Rich.  Housworth,    . 

.      Joseph  Gibson,  Rich.  Kellet."* 

James  Worship, 
Though  it  does  not  appear  bow  long  Mr.  Allai  remaihed 
under  the  episcopal  censure,  he  was  at  length  restored  to 
his  ministry,,  and  was  preacher  at  Louth,  in  the  abovri 
county ;  but  in  the  year  1596,  he  was  brought  into  fresh 
troubles  by  Judge  Auderson.  tiaying  sometimes  omitted 
part  of  the  prayers  for  the  sake  of  the  sermon^  he  was 

•  MS.  Register,  p.  SSI. 

F.  JOHNSON.  89 

indictedl  at  the  assizes,  for  not  reading  them  all.  He  was 
ofaiiMd  to  hold  up  his  hand  at  the  bar;  when  Andersoa 
.  ■tanding  up,  addressed  him  with  a  most  fierce  countenance. 
The  angry  judge,  after  insinuating  that  he  was  guilty  €f 
aoine  most  grievous  crimes,  though  he  mentioned  non^ 
•Aentimes  called  him  knave^  ana  rebellious  knaves  and 
ireated  him  with  many  other  vile  reproaches,  not  allowing 
Ifai  to  speak  id  his  own  defence.  Under  this  opprobrious 
ll«ilment,  Mr.  Allen  behaved  himself  with  all  humility  and 
aabmisflion  ;  not  rendering  railing  for  railing,  but  the  Con- 
tery.  Anderson  in  his  charge  said,  that  he  would  hunt  all 
fbe  puritans  out  of  his  circuit. 

In  Mr.  Allen's  arraignment,  one  thing  was  very  re- 
markable. During  his  trial,  some  point  ccMning  under 
consideration,  Vfherein  judgment  in  divinity  yras  required, 
flie  good  man  referred  himself  to  his  ordinary,  the  bishop, 
then  sitting  on  the  bench ;  but  the  judge,  with  marvellous 
MBnation,  interrupted  him,  sayims:,  I  am  your  ordinary 
mtdoiihop  too^  in  this  place,  and  challenged  any  one  to  take 
liis  part.  He  was,  indeed,  so  enraged  against  the  good 
iiuin^  that  when  Sir  George  Sampol  signifira  verv  softly  to 
the  judge,  that  Mr.  Allen  was  an  honest  man  and  of  a  good 
noDvenation,  his  lordship  could  not  help  manifesting  his 
displeasure.*  It  does  not  appear  what  followed  this  pro- 
secution, or  whether  Mr.  Allen  was  released.  We  may  see^ 
however,  from  this  instance,  as  well  as  many  others,  that  the 
puritan  ministers  were  set  on  a  level  with  the  vilest  criminals, 
to  the  jpeat  disgrace  of  their  office,  and  the  loss  of  their 
leputabon  and  usefulness. 

FftAifcis  Johnson. — This  celebrated  puritan  was  fellow 
of  Christ's  college,  Cambridge,  a  verjr  popular  preacher  in 
the  university,  and  afterwards  a  leading  person  among  the 
Brownists  in  London.  In  the  year  1588,  for  a  sermon 
which  he  preached  in  St.  Mary's  church,  Cambridge,  which 
was  saia  to  contain  certain  erroneous  and  aangerous 
doctrines,  he  was  convened  before  the  vice-chancellor.  Dr. 
Nevfl,  and  the  heads  of  colleges,  and  committed  to  prison. 
The  '  varbus  proceedings  of  these  ecclesiastical  rulers 
engaged  the  attention  of  the  imiversity  for  a  twelvemonth ; 
torn  "while  some  warmly  approved  of  the  rigorous  measures, 
others  severdj  censured  them,  as  reproachml  to  si  protestant 

«  Strypc'i  Annalii  vol.  iv.  p.  865,  S66. 


country.  His  text  was  1  Pet  v.  1—^.  <^  The  elden 
"Which  are,  I  exhort,  who  am  also  an  elder,'^  ftci. 
That  the  reader  may  have  a  clear  and  correct  view  of  th^ 
whole  proceedings,  it  will  be  proper  to  state  those  erroneous 
and  dangerous  positions,  said  to  be  collected  from  his 
sermon,  which  were  the  following  : — 1.  ^^  That  the  chutch 
of  God  ought  to  be  governed  by  elders. — 2.  That  a 
particular  form  of  churcli  government  is  prescribed  in  the 
word  of  God. — 3.  I'hat  no  other  form  ought  to  be  allowed. 
—4.  That  the  neglect  to  promote  this  government  is  one 
chief  cause  of  the  present  ignorance,  idolatry,  and  dis- 
obedience.— 5.  That   we    have   not   this  government.— ? 

6.  That  ministers  ought. to  live  upon  their  own  cures. — 

7.  That.there  ought  to  be  an  equality  among  ministers^ 
which  the  popish  hierarchy,  and  all  who  belong  to  it,  do 
not  like. — 8.  That  we  have  an  Amaziah  among  us,,  who 
forbiddeth  Amos  to  preach  at  Bethel :  they  do  not  ezhprt  to 
feed  the  jQock,  but  hinder  tliose  who  would."* 

,  Admitting  that  these  articles  were  impartially  collected 
from  bis  sermon,  they  do  not  appear  to  be  of  any  very 
dangerous  tendency,  and,  therefore,  not  deserving  of  any 
rerv  severe  jpunishment ;  but  of  this  every  candid  reader 
will  judge  tor  himself.  Mr.  Johnson  was  commanded 
to  answer  them,  and  declare  what  he  had  deliver^  in  hii 
sermon,  upon  his  oath ;  which,  because  he  was  unwilling  to 
ficcuse  himself,  he  absolutely  refused.  He  underweqt 
several  examinations,  and  was  cast  into  prison,  where  he 
remained  a  long  time.  Mr.  Cuthbert  Bainbrigg,  another 
zealous  puritan,  and  prosecuted  on  a  similar  accouni,  wai 
his  fellow-prisoner.  These  two  persecuted  servants  dT 
Christ,  after  suffering  a  long  and  painful  im])risonment, 
laid  their,  case,  at  the  feet  of  Lord  Burleigh,  chancellor 
of  the  university,  a  particular  account  of  which  is  given 
in  another  placet 

Though  Mr.  Johnson  refused  to  answer  upon  his  oalh} 
lest,  as  observed  above,  he  should  prove  his  own  accuser,  he 
delivered  his  answer  to  each  of  the  articles  in  writing.  /Lb 
ihfise  articles  are  now  before  me,  it  will  be  proper  to  SiVt^yr 
the  reader  with  a  sight  of  them.  '^  That  which  I  spake 
in  my  sermon,"  says  Mr.  Johnson,  <^  was  the  following  i 
.  1.  ^<  I  proved,  by  divers  reasons,  that  as  the  churcJi  to 
which  Peter  wrote,  and  the  other  churches  tbeia  fuU^ 
established,  had,  for  their  instruction  and  govenunenty  this 

«  Baker's  MS.  CoUec.  Yol.  yI.  p,  196.-^tr7pe's  Whitgifly  P*  990»tHI»^ 
t  See  Art.  Cuthbert  Bainbrigc. 

F.  JOHNSON.  91 

^iie  unifbnn  and  prescribed  order"  of  teaching  and  ruliog 
elders ;  so  the  same,  by  the  word  of  Grod,  are  still  necessary 
to  the  right  instruction  and  government  of  his  churches. 
.  8.  <'  The  Apostle  Paul  having  spoken  of  the  ordinancei 
and  officers  of  the  church,  as  of  prophesy  and  others,  he 
oancludes^  If  any  man  think  himself  to  be  a  jorophet^  or 
ipiriiualj  let  him  acknowledge  that  tne  things  ttiat  I  write 
unAoyou^  are  the  commanaments  of  the  Lord,  Uponthis, 
i  said)  i£  they  be  the  commandments  of  the  Lord,  then, 
till  repealed,  we  are  to  hold  them. 

3.  "  When  further  speaking  of  elders,  seeing  God  hath 
fet  them,  in  his  church,  I  asked,  Who  hath  authority  to 
put  them  out,  and  set  others  in  ?  For  they  were  appoir^ed, 
not  only  for  a  few  years,  but  to  be  continued  to  the  end  of 
the  worvl.  This  we  see  in  the  apostle's  charge,  1  Cor.  xii. 
88,  1  Tim.  yi.  13,  14.  Also  our  Saviour  gave  his  commis« 
fiok  fmd  promise  io  all  his  faithful  ministers,  to  the  end  of 
^  wprldt    Matt,  xxviii.  \Q^  20,  Acts  xiii.  36. 

4.  ^  When  speaking  of  the  necessity  of  elders,  I  said,  I 
diKibt  not  that  the  want  of  them,  seeing  they  are  appointed 
of;  God,  is  the  occasion  of  ignorance,  atheism,  idolatry, 
{irqfiinatiQn  of  the  sabbath,  disobedience  to  superiors,  &c 
ail  we  find  too  lamentably  proved  by  experience. 

5.  <<  I  said,  it  would  be  objected,  that  there  is  not  a 
snfficient  number  fit  for  this  office.  To  which  I  answered, 
that  many  who  are  fit,  are  not  employed.  And  inquiring 
where  the  fault  was,  I  said,  it  was  not  in  the  Lord,  who  is 
most  ready  to  set  watchmen  upon  the  walls  of  his  church, 

'which  is  his  city ;  and  to  give  pastors  unto  his  flock,  to  feed 
it  with  knowlolge  and  understanding.  Shall  we  think 
that  Grod  is  not  able  and  willing  to  qualify  men  for  the 
ministry  of.  the  gospel,  as  he  was  Aholiab  and  Bezaleel  fi>r 
the  work  of  tlie  tabernacle,  and  Hiram  for  the  templet 
Doubtless  he  is  the  same  God,  able  and  willing :  but  the 
^ult  is  in  ourselves.  If  you,  indeed,  desire  tnat  sinners 
phonld  be  awakened  and  arise  from  the  dead,  labour  by  all 
peans  of  petition  to  God,  and  supplication  to  those  in 
enlhority,  that  Christ  Jesus  may  be  heard  in  our  con* 

ol  <^  Having  proved  that  elders  ought  to  be  with  their 

mm  flocks,  and  to  feed  them,  I  said,  that  Christ  would  call 

ikol^  elders  to  give  an  account     In  the  application,  I 

.exhorted  those  who  have  particular  flocks  committed  to 

tliem,  and  still  live  in  th^  university,  tp  retire  into  their 


chambers,  and  examine  their  hearts  before  the  Lord,  and  t9 
act  according  as  the  case  required. 

7«  <<  I  said,  that  if  Peter  had  possessed  snch  anthoritr  as 
the  papists  ascribe  to  him,  he  might  have  commanded  these 
elders  to  do  that,  which^  as  a  fellow-elder,  he  exharU  them. 
But  he  was  so  fiir  frcmi  thinking  himself  the  chief  of  the 
apostles,  that  he  accounts  himself  a  fellouheUer  with  the 
ordinaiy  elders  of  other  congr^ations.  Yet  the  popish 
hierarchy  accounts  otherwise,  both  of  his  superiority  oyer 
the  rest  of  the  apostles,  and  of  themselves  as  bishops  of 
bishops :  but  we  are  to  like  a  godly  equality. 

8.  ^'  I  shewed,  that  as  it  was  the  duty  of  all  christians,  so 
also  of  all  the  ministers  of  God's  word,  to  exhort  and  stir 
up  one  another.  And  that  this  practice  of  the  apostle  con- 
demned those,  who  are  so  far  from  exhorting  others  ip  feed 
the  flock,  that  they  hinder  those  who  would  feed  them.*> 

His  answers,  however,  gave  not  the  least  satLs&etion. 
After  repeated  examination,  and  remaining  a  long  time  ip 
jprison,  he  was  enjoined,  October  19,  15o9,  to  make  the 
following  recantation : — <<  Whereas,  January  6th,  last  post, 
^^  I  taught  that  our  uniformity  and  prescribed  order  by 
<<  teaching  and  ruling  elders,  by  the  word  (^  God,  hi 
<<  necessary  for  the  te^hing  and  ecclesiastical  govennnent 
<<  of  the  church  of  God,  and  is  the  commandment  of  the 
^<  Lord,  and  to  be  kept  until  the  appearing  <^  our  IxmA 
<<  Jesus  Christ :  and  seeing  God,  as  the  apostle  saitb,  hatis. 
^  set  them  to  be  elders  in  the  church,  who  hath  authoritjr 
<<  to  set  them  out  or  others  in  ?    I  therefore  being  given 'fo 
<<  understand,  that  the  said   speeches;  of  mine  wane  so 
^<  construed  by  some,  as  though  I  had  thereby  greatly 
^  derogated  from  her  majesty ^s  authority  in  causes  ecclesi" 
^  astical,  do  now  more  |)lainly  exjuress  my  meaning,  that  I 
^^  do  not  think,  that  there  is  set  down  by  the  word  oiGcd^ 
<<  any  stinted  and  precise  form  of  external  government  m 
*^  the  church,  which  must  of  necessity  be  observed  in  all 
<<  times  and  places  wit)iout  exception :  but  am  persuaded, 
<<  that,  for  the  better  government  of  particular  congregirtioiis, 
*^  her  majesty  may  establish  such  orders,  as,  by  ner  godfy 
^<  wisdom,  with  the  advice  of  her  godly  and  learned  jMrekUtai 
<<  she  shall  find  most  expedient  for  the  state  of  her  couniliTy 
*^  according  to  her  majesty's  pre-eminence  in  the  draor^ 
^  established  by  the  laws  of  the  realm,  and  expreaaed  fat 

•  8trjpe*t  Aooi^ls,  toU  ill.  Appen*  p.  8Q1[-«-SiO% 


*^  ber  most  just  title,  which  is  most  agreeaUe  to  the  word  of 
f^  Gody  and  conformable  to  the  example  of  most  anci<?nt 
**  diurcbesy  which  have  been  ruled  by  christian  magistrates. 
.  ^*  And  whereas  I  did  affirm  the  want  of  elders  (being  the 
^  cwdinary  means  appointed  by  God)  to  be  the  cause  of 
^  ignorance,  atheism,  idolatry,  profanation  of  the  sabbath^ 
<(  and  disobedience  to  superiors ;  and  these  words  of  mine 
^  seeined  to  some,  injurious  to  the  present  state  of  the 
f^  church  and  conunonwealth  of  the  land  and  magistrates 
'<^^  of  them  both,  as  not  having  care  so  to  cstabUsh  the 
^^  government  as  might  root  out  such  ffreat  enormities :  for 
^^  the  better  explanation  of  my  mina  on  this  subject,  I 
^  cannot  say  of  my  certain  knowledge,  that  these  vices  are 
^more  abounding  here  in  our  churches  than  in  such 
^  churches  where  elders  are  at  this  day  placed.  And  I  am 
<<  of  opinion  that  her  majesty,  and  such  as  are  in  authority 
^^ndd&t  her,  have  by  wholesome  laws  provided  against 
*J  such  evils."* 

Ifr.  Johnson  was  required  to  make  the  above  ridiculous 
lecanlaiioQ  in  the  pulpit  of  St.  Mary's  church ;  and  because 
lie  peiffiopned  it  ^^  in  mincing  terms,  and  did  not  fully 
terolfe  his  opinions,''  according  to  the  form  given  him,  he 
was,  October  30th,  in  the  above  year,  expelled  from  the 
nnivendty :  and  because  he  did  not  depkrt  from  the  place^ 
bewasy  December  the  18th,  a^in  cast  intoprison.f  By 
the  recommradation  of  Burlei^  the  chancellor,  he  made 
an  appeal  to  the  university  against  these  illegal  and  cruel 
proceedings,  and  wrote  a  long  and  excellent  letter  to  the 
chancellor,  of  which  the  following  is  a  copy : 

^^  To  the  right  honourable  the  Lord  Burleiffh. 

'^  I  came  hither  to  Cambridce,  as  I  was  by  your 

lotdahip  advised,  to  follow  my  appesS  to  the  university.     1 

.went  in  a  quiet  manner  to  Mr.  Vice-chancellor  and  to  Dr. 

Bjinfi.  to  desire  that  either  some  law  mi^ht  be  shewed  to 

cut  on  my  appeal,  or  else  my  appeal  not  hindered,  further 

ihan  was  alleged  by  your  lordship ;  which  I  then  answered, 

I.  there  hath  been  no  one  clause  of  law  shewed  me,  sufficient 

'to.ddtxur  me  from  the  benefit  of  appeal.     I  requested  the 

proctor  to  prosecute  my  appeal,  and  to  procure  delegates  to 

^bediosen  according  to  the  statute,  which  was  all  I  could 

here  do.    And  now  not  only  have  I  profited  nothing:,  but 

'bring  called  before  Mr.  Vice-chancellor  and  the  heads,  the 

18th  of  the  present  month,  I  was  there,  (for  any  thing  I 

•  Biker's  MS.  Collec.  vol.  ?K  p.  187.  +  Ibid. 


•  • 

heard,)  by  the  sole  authority  of  the  vice-chancellor^  charged 
the  next  day  to  depart  the  university,  except  I  would  theiifc 
desire  some  longer  respite  for  the  ridding  away  of  my  stu£ 
Whereunto  I  making  answer,  that  I  waited  for  the  prosecu- 
tion of  my  appeal  made  to  the  university,  which  depettdin|;'| 
I  was  by  law  to  remain  in  state  as  before.  I  was  agam 
required  to  answer  whether  I  would  depart  the  next  day,  or 
ask  respite  for  the  removal  of  my  stuff:  whereunta  t 
answering  that  I  was  not  so  minded  to  let  fall  my  tfppcia^ 
and  was  by  the  vice-chancellor  committed  to  close  prison, 
without  baU  or  mainprize,  until  such  time  as  I  would  yiela 
to  let  fall  my  appeal,  and  give  over  my  title  to  the  univeraitr^ 
and  to  my  fellowship ;  where  I  did  continue  three  days  in 
the  Tolbooth,  in  a  close  and  cold  comer,  straitly  kept,  that 
none  of  my  friends  might  come  at  me,  nor  comfort  come  to 
me  from  them.  And  now,  because  of  the  extremity  of  the 
weather,  I  am  removed  to  the  bailiff  of  the  Tolbooth's 
house,  with  most  strait  charge,  that  none  at  all  are  suBfeied 
to  come  unto  me. 

^<  Neither  doth  this  most  violent  dealing  only  fall  upon  me. 
But  I  beseech  your  lordship  also  to  consider,  whether  Ae 
sovereign  authority  of  our  gracious  queen  (whom  G9d  long 
continue  among  us  with  much  glory)  be  not  impugned,  by 
making  themselves  without,  nay  against  law  and  statute, 
supreme  judges  and  governors  not  to  be  appealed  from;  the 
honourable  protection  of  your  lordship  over  us  trampled 
under  their  feet,  by  most  straitly  imprisoning  me,  for  that 
which  your  lordship  permitted  and  advised  me  to  do ;  and 
the  express  statute  of  our  whole  university  by  all  vipIemS 
broken  and  disannulled,  for  the  maintaining  of  then"  own 
indiscreet  and  unlawful  proceedings.  And,  touching 
myself  and  my  cause  at  this  time,  I  most  humbly  beseech 
your  lordship  also  to  consider,  what  injustice  it  is  to  wring 
from  me  by  violence  and  forcible  imprisonment,  in  more 
strait  manner  than  is  usual  to  felons,  and  likfe  malefectors, 
that  which  by  law  I  might  rightluUy  maintain. 

^'  To  God,  who  judgeth  ri^ht,  1  commit  my  cause,  beink 
in  myself  persuaded,  and  rejoicing,  that  1  have  receivm 
honour  to  suffer  for  the  truth  of  the  eternal  God ;  which  at 
first  and  now  still,  they  persecute  in  me  the  unworthiest 
of  the  servants  of  God.  O,  my  God !  look  down  from 
heaven :  stay  the  fury  of  men :  strike  thy  fear  into  their 
hearts,  that  they  may  consider  their  last  end. 

^^  Now  to  ^""'  "*nlship,  I,  a  poor  prisoner,  overthrow}! 
by  Iversaries  in  a  just  cause,  being  put 

p.  JOHNSON.  95 

but  of  doubt  that  here  I  shall  find  no  more  justice,  the 
ptqCtor  being  checked  for  dealing  in'  my  appeal,  and 
thi^tened  to  be  called  to  his  answer,  do  most  instuitly  in 
God*8  behalf,,  and  for  righteous  dealing,  beg  and  beseech 
jfou'to  take  my  cause  to  your  lordship's  hearing,  and  to 
fiescae  me  from  this  grievous  imprisoiunent,  Which,  un- 
deservedly, the  Lord  of  heaven  knowcth,  I  sustain.  I  do 
^ppf^l  linto  your  lordship's  wisdom,  justice  and  authoritvy 
'  tti  being  honourable  chancellor  of  this  our  university.  The 
Loid  give  me  favour  in  the  sight  of  your  honour,  and  th^ 
Lord  move  your  honour's  heart  to  have  compassion  on  my 
i6idamity.  Unto  his  will  and  wisdom  I  humbly  submit 
myself,  and  my  cause,  making  my  humble  prayer  to 
Aunighty  God,  to  endue  your  lordship  with  ^odly  wisdom 
and  zeal  for  his  ^lory,  both  in  this  and  all  other  causes. 

''  Your  honour's  humble  supplicant, 
.*  "  Francis  Johnson.  . 

**  Cambrid^,  December  22, 1589.^ 

Two  supplications,  subscribed  by  sixty-eight  scholars,  all 
^dlows  of  the  university,  were  at  the. same  time  presented 
to  Burleigh^  in  behalf  of  Mr.  Johnson  and  his  appeal.     In 
the  krtier,  dated  December  33,  1589,  they  observe,  that  the 
{privileges  granted  by  the  queen's  majesty,  and  the  statutes 
of  the  university,  were  violently  torn  from  them,  by  those 
'yfbo  ought  tQ  have  shewn  them  a  better  example ;  and  then 
add, — ^  Mr.-  Francis  Johnson,  a  man  whose  cause  and 
estate^  bjrreason  of  his  long  trouble  and  other  grievances, 
.are  w^ll  known  unto  your  lordship,  being  prohibited  by  Mr. 
Yice-chancellor  and  some  others  from  presenting  his  lawful 
appeal  to  the  university,  made  and  intimated  to  the  proctor, 
.according  to  statute,  from  the  sentence  of  expulsion  given 
.by  the  late  vice-chancellor;  and  not  finding  any  means 
here  to  help  himself,  repaired  unto  your  honour  for  succour, 
.andwasy  as  we  understand,  remitted  to  the  university,  to 
.which  .he  had  appealed.     Now  since  his  last  return,  Mr. 
.Tice-chaQcellor  that  now  is,  citing  him  before  the  head^, 
,  charged  him  to  depart  the  university ;  but  he  still  challeng- 
ing the  benefit  of  his  appeal,  was  by  the  vice-chancellor 
committed  to  close  prison  w  ithout  bail  or  mainprize.     We 
doubt  hot  that  your  lordship  soon  perceiveth  how  unequal  it 
is  that  the  parties,  from  whom  tlie  appeal  was  made,  should 
be  judges  whether  the  appeal  be  lawlul  or  not:  as  alsohoV 
the  statute  of  appeal  is  utterly  made  void,  if  for  appealing 

•  BiUcer*!  MS.  Collec.  toI.  W.  p.  8S,  86. 


the  Tice-cbttncellor  may  commit  to  prison  him  that  tesMk 
not  in  his  sentence.  For  of  the  close  prison,  withoat  bafl. 
Vft  say  nothing,  leaving  it  to  your  loroship^s  wisdom,  aas 
to  the  laws  of  the  land :  we  do  not  deny  that  our  hearts  ava 
greatly  moved  with  this  strange  example  of  extraordinaiy 
violence  and  extremity.  Our  great  grief  and  distress  oi 
heart  hardly  suffereth  to  make  any  end  of  complaining,  audi 
what  to  ask  of  your  lordship  we  well  know  not ;  but  we' 
beseech  the  Lord  our  God  to  affect  your  honour's  heai^ 
with  a  tender  compassion  of  the  great  affliction  of  this  Ottf 
dear  brother  and  faithful  servant  of  God,  Mr.  Johnson."* 

Among  those  who  subscribed  the  two  su{pplication%  aip 
the  names  of  William  Perkins,  Thomas  Brightman,  and 
Anthony  Wotton,  all  divines  of  great  celebrity  in  their  day. 
Indeed,  the  most  pious  and  learned  men  in  the  univerril^ 
disapproved  of  the  above  ill^al  and  inhuman  proceedingss 
and  L>r.  Goad,  provost  of  King's  collqee.  Dr.  Whitana^ 
master  of  St  JoWs  collie,  and  Dr.  Chadderton,  maiMr' 
of  ESmanuel  cdlege,  all  protested  against  them.f  We  ds 
Hot  find,  however,  that  time  supplications  and  protestatkiif 
were  at  all  efiectual.  How  long  Mr.  Johnson  lemaiBeK 
^mder  his  barbarous  confinement,  we  have  not  been  afak#' 
leani ;  but,  as  he  fiiilad  to  obtain  redress,  be,  being  weaikl 
by  the  fatigue  ot  the  prison,  most  probably  consented  la 
leave  the  university*  A  divine  of  his  name,  and  probaU^ ' 
the  subject  of  this  narrative,  subscribed  the  ^  Book  m 

The  tyrannical  and  cruel  persrcnlion  of  the  porilaM^ ' 
instead  of  bringii^  them  to  conformity,  only  drove  thai 
further  from  the  eataUished  church.    They  could  not  in 
conscience  comply  with  such  measorvs,  nor  much  kssooali 
(Key  approve  dP  a  church  fighting  with  such  wcaposk 
TherdAwe^  at  this  period,  many  pionB  and  learned  pesna 
w^NN^  driven  to  a  total  separation  from  the  ecdrnailirti 
e^tabli^nMnt^amongwhom  was  Mr.  Johnson,  who  csponssi; 
(he  stnliiuents  of  the  Brownkls^  and  joined  their  lougicgi  ^ 
ihm  whieK  assembled  DnvatelT  in  and  abosrt  Londonr' 
AUmiI  (he  y«ar  1593;  ttke  members  of  thb  congicgationi 
haviiiir  become  rather  nuwetons^  fbtmed  themselves  imia 
a  chmchi:  when  Mr.  JohnsMn  was  chosen  pnslor  br  As 
snieitMee  of  (he  bnithevWwoNL  Mr.  John  Greenwood,  docta 
«r  lemSMHT^  MewnRk  Bansian  and  Lee^  duscnns  and 
SlMillly  and  Kinsslon^  teUms.    The  whole  of  this 

1 8»Mrf%yiMrtM^^^^».4Ma> 


waft  fMiformed  in  one  day,  at  the  house  of  Mr.  Ebx  ia 
Nicfaoia^Iane.  At  the  same  time,  seven  persom  werer 
l^imtiiedy  without  godfathers  or  godmothers,  Mn  Johnson- 
only  washing  their  faces  with  water,  and  pronouncing  tto 
fiurm,  ^<  I  ibaptize  thee  in  the  name  of  the  FiUher,  ftc. 
The  liord's  supper  was  also  administered  in  the  following 
QMuuiar:  five  white  loaves  being. set  upon  the  table,  the 
pastor  implored  the  blessing  of  God ;  and  after  breaking, 
the  bp^ead,  be  delivered  it  to  part  of  the  company,  and  the 
deacons  to  the  rest,  some  standing  and  others  sitting  around 
the  taU^  using  the  words  ol  the  apostle,  1  Cor.  xi.  84^ 
Taie^  eaiy  Sec.  In  like  manner  he  gave  the  cup,  sayings 
Vkis  cup  is  the  New  Testament^  &c.  At  the  close,  they 
Ming  an  hymn,  and  made  a  collection  for  the  poor.  Afier- 
waids,  when  any  one  entered  into  the  church,  he  made  this 
single  protestation  or  promise,  ^'  That  he  would  walk  witb 
flieniy.splong  as  they  walked  in  the  way  of  the  Lord,  and  as 
fiif  as  might  be  warranted  by  the  word  of  God."* 

f^bis  congregation,  of  which  Mr.  Johnson  was  pastor, 
was  obliged,  in  order  to  avoid  the  bishops^  officers,  to  meet  in 
difiinent  places,  and  sometimes  in  Xhv  dead  of  the  night;  but 
wps  at  length  discovered  on  a  Lord's  day  at  Islii^ton,  in^ 
the  very  juooe  in  which  the  protestant  congregation  mi^^rm. 
the  lei^  of  Queen  Mary.     About  fifty-six  persons  were 
taken  mto  cu^ody,  and  sent,  two  by  two,  to  the  different 
piisons  about  Lonidon,  where  several  of  their  friends  had* 
been  confined  a  considerable  time.    Upon  their  examina* 
tion^  they  acknowledged  that  they  had  met  in  the  fields,  in> 
the  summer  season,  by  five  o'clock  on  a  Lord's  day  morning,, 
and  ia  winter  in  private  houses ;  that  they  continued  all  the 
day  in  prayer  and   expounding   the    scriptures,  dined 
togirther,  and  afterwards  made  coUection  for  their  food,  and 
SG^  the  remainder  of  the  money  to  their  brethren  in  prison ; 
ai|d  that  they  did  not  use  the  Lord's  prayer,  apprehending 
that  our  Saviour  did  not  intend  it  to  be  used  as  a  form,  after- 
th&piaring  out  of  the  Spirit  on  the  day  of  Pentecostf  Alsp, 
dming  their  imprisonment,  their  adversaries  having  charged' 
them  with  holding  many  extravagant  opinions  concerning 
baptism,  marriage,  lay-preaching,  and  other  particulars, 
Aey  yiiidicated  themselves  in  a  very  solid  and  judicious- 
jhr,  shewing  how  fiir  they  were  falsdy  accused.^ 
Chough  it  does  not  appear  whether  Mr.  Johnson  was 
appfdiended  and  cast  into  prison  at  the  same  time  withtht* 


•  8trvpe*i  Anoals,  vol.  it.  p.  175.  ^  Ibid.  vol.  UL  p.  57S. 

{  MS.  RepMer,  p.  S60--SS6. 

VOL.  II.  K 


congregation;  yet,  during  the  present  year,  both  h^  ttnd 
Mr.  Jonn  Greenwood,  were  seized  by  Archbieiiop  Whitgift's 
parsuiyants,  without  warrant,  at  a  certain  citizen's  house  in 
Ludgate-hill ;  and  in  the  midst  of  the  night,  after  the  pur- 
suivants had  searched  all  the  chests,  boxes,  and  mier 
private  places  in  the  house,  they  were  carried  to  the 
Compter,  and  the  next  day  Whitgift  and  the  other  high 
commissioners  committed  them  to  close  prison.* 

Mr.  Johnson  underwent  many  examinations  before  his 
ecclesiastical  inquisitors ;  and  though  he  absolutely  refused 
the  oath  ex  officio^  he  confessed,  April  5, 1393,  "  That  he 
was  first  taken  in  an  assembly  in  St.  Nicholas^lane,  and 
committed  to  the  Compter  in  Wood-street;  that  afterwards 
lie  was  apprehended  in  Mr.  Boys's  house,"  (as  mentioned 
above,)  '^  and  committed  to  prison  by  the  Archbishop  (^Can- 
terbury and  others ;  and  that  he  had  been  twice  examined 
before  the   Lord    Chief  Justice   and    Lord   Anderacm;" 
Being  asked  how  long  he  had  held  the  opinions  of  the 
Brownists,  he  said,  he  conld  not  definitely  answer,  but 
signified  that  he  had  been  committed  to  prison  four  yean 
bSbre,  for  a  sermon  delivered  in    St.    Mary's    churdi, 
Cambridge.'  He  confessed,  that  he  had  baptized  divns 
(Children  in  the  congregation  ;  but,  as  to  marriage,  he  did 
not  account  it  an  ecclesiastical  service,  or  at  all  beloDgiag 
to  the  ministerial  function.     He  observed,  that  it  was  not 
indispensably  requisite  to  use  the  very  words  of  the  Loid'» 
prayer;  and  that  the  Lord's  supper  was  not  to  be  confined 
to  any  particular  time,  but  might  be  received  at  any  time  of 
the  day  or  night,  when  the  congregation  is  assembled  and 
prepared  for  it.    R^ing  required  to  shew  in  what  places 
Uiey  had  assembled,  Jie  refused  to  answer ;  and  being  asked  • 
whether  he  possessed  or.had  possessed  any  of  Barrow's, 
Greenwood's,  or  Penry%^  books,  be  also  desired  to  be  excused 
making  any  reply.     WJien  he  was  asked  whether  he  had 
not  persuaded  others  to  tihe  assembly  of  the  coogregatioa  of 
which  he  was  pastor,  and  how  many  he  had  so  peisoa^ted; 
he  said,  he  had  done,  and  must  do,  that  whieh  God, 
according  to  his  holy  wohl,  required  of  him ;  but  refiiaisd 
any  further  answer.    And  toeing  asked  whciber  he  woiild 
rdbrm  himself,  and  attend  vipon  the  service  of  the  paiidi 
church,  he  raised  to  give  i\  direct  answer ;  but  said,  he 
could  not  join  in  the  ecclesiastical  ministry  and  stale  of 
archbishops,  bishops,  parsonsTy  vicars,  &c.  &c.f 

«  Strype**  Annals,  yoI.  i? .  p.  9C.    -^  Baker*i  MS.  Collec.  vol.  zv.p.  SMi> 

F.JOHNSON.  ;99 

' '  Mr.  Johnson,  having  lain  in  close  confinement  fourteen 
months,  wrote  a  letter  to  Lord  Treasurer  Burleigh,  entreating 
his  OMnpassionatc  influence  to  procure  for  him  and  his 
fUIow-prisoneis,  a  friendly  conference,  that  their  real 
sentiments  might  be  known,  and  that  all  impartial  men 
might  judge  whether  they  deserved  such  hard  treatment. 
In  this  letter,  he  observes,  ^'  That  his  brother  George  had 
been  confined  eleven  months  in  the  Clink.*  And,"  says  he, 
*'  when  our  poor  old  father  applied  to  Justice  Youn^,  for  us 
to  have  the  liberty  of  the  prison,  he  and  the  Dean  of 
.Westminster,  would  have  sent  him  to  prison,  had  not 
Justice  Barnes  interposed  and  prevented  them. — We  are 
not  ashamed  of  the  gospel  of  Christ.  We  suj9er  these 
■things  only  for  refusuig  to  have  communion  with  the 
antichristiau  prelacy;  and  for  labouring,  in  a  holy  and 
peaceable  manner,  to  obey  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  in  his 
ministry  and  worship,  as  prescribed  in  his  last  Testament, 
and  sealed  with  his  own  precious  blood.  If  we  err  in  these 
things,  prisons  and  the  gallows  are  no  fit  means  to  convince 
and  persuade  our  consciences :  but  rather  a  quiet  and  godly 
iXHimence,  or  a  discussion  of  the  matter  by  writing,  before 
•equal  and  impartial  judges.  This  we  have  often  sued  for, 
but  could  never  yet  obtain.  We  now,  therefore,  in  a 
humble  manner,  solicit  your  lordsliip  to  procure  this  for  us. 
Not  that  we  doubt  the  truth  of  our  cause.  We  are  fully 
persuaded  of  this  from  the  word  of  God,  and  are  ready, 
by  the  grace  of  Grod,  to  seal  it  with  our  own  blood.  But 
we  desire  it,  that  the  truth  being  discovered  and  made 
manifest,  the  false  offices,  callings,  livings,  and  possessions  of 
the  prelacy,  might  be  converted  to  her  majesty's  use,  as 
'were  not  long  since  the  livings  of  the  abbots,  monks,  and 
fiiais  in  these  dominions;  and  that  by  these  means  the 
gospel  of  Christ  may  have  free  course,  and  the  peace  of 
Uie  church  be  promoted/'  In  the  conclusion,  he  subscribes 
liilnself)  ^^  pastor  of  that  poor  distressed  church,  and  still 
m  close  prisoner  tor  the  gospel  of  Jesus  Christ."f 
-*  Indosed  in  this  letter,  Mr.  Johnson  sent  a  paper  to  the 
r,  signifying,  that,  for  his  writings,  he  was  in  no 

•  Mr:  Gmfe  JohMoa*  mcaber  of  Uie  Brownitt  congregMioD,  lats 
'     '  ia  8L  MicholM  l>ng,  Loe^oa,  born  t  Richmond  in  Yorkshire, 

~  'April  t»  1SS8,  before  tbe  bigb  conmisiioo,  when    he 

~  IB  teko  the  ooth.    Hebadatthat 

■at  bad  already  nnderKone 

iaa  aad  olben.— JSaifctr'f 



dan^r  of  the  statate  of  35  Elic.  «<  To  retun  the  queen's 
tobjectsin  their  due  obedience/'  In  this  paper,  he  pro» 
fessedly  acquits  himself  on  the  following  grouixlB : 

1.  He  had  onlj  inquired  of  the  prelates  and  niiiustef% 
whether  her  majesty,  with  the  consent  of  parliament,  migiit 
not  abolish  the  present  prelacy  and  ministry  of  the  chitfcl^ 
and  transfer  their  revenues  and  possessions  to  her  own  civil 
uses,  as  her  father,  Henry  YIII.,  did  with  abbots,  moaks^ 
and  others,  and  their  liyings. 

S.  His  writings  are  only  in  defence  of  such  doctrines  af 
Christ  as  are  against  the  canonical  function  of  the  popc^ 
and  were  profb^ed  by  the  holy  martyrs  of  Christ,  acconuited 
lellardy  and  heresy :  as,  for  instance,  John  Wickliffe  held, 
that  archbishops,  bishops,  archdeacons,  officials,  deans,  ftc 
were  disciples  of  anticnrist* 

3.  If  the  statute  of  35  Eiii.  be  against  mich  writings  aad 
books  as  reprove  the  ecclesiastical  ministry  and  government 
of  archbishops,  bishops,  archdeacons,  deans,  ftc.  then  the 
writing  and  the  printing  of  the  confessions  of  the  refbniied 
t^urches  of  Helvetia,  Tigur,  Geneva,  &c.  wherein  tb^ 
write,  that  archprelates,  metropiditans,  ardipriests,  deaos^ 
snbdeans,  and  others  of  the  same  kind,  pass  not  a  rusk 
And  the  confessions  of  the  reformed  French  and  Belgick 
churches  say,  that  the  church  ou^ht  to  be  governed  b^ 
pastors,  elders,  and  deacons,  as  Chnst  hath  appointed* 
.  4.  In  his  writings,  he  hath  jHXived  his  assertions  by  the 
.word  of  God,  which  her  majesty  protesteth  and  defeadeth; 
and  they  are  written  in  defence  of  the  liberty  and  privilqfe 
of  the  church  of  Christ,  which  the  great  charter  of  England 
granteth  and  preserveth  inviolable. 

5.  If  all  who  forsake  the  communion  <^  the  estabUdwd 
ehurch,  be  in  danger  of  this  statute ;  then  any  one  fonakiag 
the  church,  and  joining  the  French,  Dutch,  or  ItaUaa 
churches,  allowed  by  her  majesty  in  London,  Norwidi^ 
or  Sandwich,  would  also  incur  the  penalty  of  tUi 

6.  He  never  maliciously  persuaded  any  to  abstain  fioai 
the  church,  much  less  to  deny,  withstana,  or  impogahar 
majesty's  authoritv. 

7.  He  never  did,  obstinatel  v,  and  without  lawfal  calMr 
but  upon  conscience,  groundbJ  upon  the  word  of  God, 
and  approved  by  the  confessions  of  the  rdformed  diucclKa, 
and  the  faithful  servants  and  martyrs  of  Christ,  rd^aat^lj^ 
hear,  and  have  contmutiion  with  the  miaistQr.  ^.yhfijfr^^jfr 
as  now  established*  ".      " 


»  &  He,  haTing  been  a  close  prisoner  a  long  time  before 
tiie  said  statute  was  made^  cannot  be  lawfully  convicted  9£ 
haying  broken  it/'* 

r.  Tine  reasons,  however,  prevailed  not  Whether  the 
ticaturer  made  any  use  of  them,  we  are  not  able  io  learn. 
But  Mr.  Johnson  was  brought  to  trial ;  and  though  his 
crime  was  merely  that  of  writing  against  the  established 
clrarch  and  the  oppressions  of  the  prelates,  and  was  com* 
niitted  even  some  time. before  the  statute  was  made^  he  was 
found  guilty  by  the  said  statute,  and  condemned  to 
perpetual  banishment  from  his  country.  Messrs.  Barrow, 
'Greenwood,  Penry,  and  some  others,  having  suffered 
death  on  account  of  their  firm  attachment  to  their  religious 
sentiments.  Archbishop  Whitgift  and  the  other  ruling 
prdates,  who  were  the  chief  promoters  of  these  barbarous 
proocedings,  became,  at  length,  ashamed  of  hanging  men 
for  propagating  their  religious  principles,  and  contrived 
this  engine  to  have  the  Brownists  and  other  puritans  swept 
out  of  the  land.  This  act,  therefore,  condemned  them  to 
iNuiislunent  without  discrimination ;  and  the  gaols  were  soon 
(deared  of  them.  Yet  the  overbearing,  tyrannical  prelates 
icofc  care  to  have  them  filled  again  in  the  following  year.f 

Mr.  Jcdmscm  being  condemned  to  sufier  perpetual  banish- 
ineuty  tetired  to  Amsterdam,  many  of  his  mends  accom- 
iwnying  him*  There  he  formed  a  churoh  after  the  model 
of  the  orownists,  having  the  learned  Mr.  Henry  Ainsworth 
^  its  doctor  or  teacher.  The  grand  principle  on  which 
Ihis  church  was  founded,  may  be  expressed  in  Mr.  Johnson's 
mm.  words.    ^<  The  church,"  says  he,  ^^  pught  not  to  be 

fommed  by  popish  canons,  courts,  classis,  customes,  or  any 
uman  in ventions,but  by  the  laws  and  rules  which  Christ  hath 
appointed  in  his  Testament.''^  ^'  Every  particular  church, 
HVith  its  pastors,  stands  immediatoly  under  Christ,  the  arch* 
pastor,  without  any  other  ecclesiastical  powar  intervening ; 
whether  it  be  of  prelates,  synods,  or  any  other  invented  hy 
inaa."§  In  1598,  Mr.  Johnson  and  Mr.  Ainsworth  drew  up 
m  mijfession  of  their  faith  in  Latin,  which  they  dedicated 
to  the  universities  of  St.  Andriews,  Leyden,  Heidelbery, 
Geneva,  an4  the  other  universities  of  Scotland,  Holland, 
Germany,  and  France.  It  was  afterwards  translated  into 
^£nfflish,  and  doe^  not  differ  much  in  doctrine  from  the 
V  Hannony  oi  Confessions."! 

.'.  *  9lrypft*t  Annab,  yol.  if.  p.  1S7, 138. 

-f  AiMWorth'i  GpooterpoysoDy  p.  40.        t  1^S*^'8  Chnrch  Go?,  p.  fill, 
%  W^W  Wtmmahe^  p.  8ft,  |  Ufe  mf  AimwpMi,  p.  18. 


Although  Mr.  Johnson  was  a  learned  and  religious  man, 
he  was  rigid  in  his  principles  ;•  and  his  people  cntertaming' 
discordant  sentiments,  it  was  not  long  before  they  split  into 
parties.  That  which  first  occasioned  this  dissention  was 
Mr.  Johnson's  marriage  to  a  widow  of  competent  fortuhe, 
whom  his  brother  George  Johnson  and  his  father  thought 
an  improper  match  in  those  times  of  persecution.  George 
Johnson  represents  her  as  addicted  to  luxurious  living, 
excess  of  finery  in  dress,  and  a  lover  of  ease.  Frequent 
'  disputes,  therefore,  took  place  from  1594,  the  tinue  of 
marriage,  till  about  1598,  when  George  Johnson,  his  father^ 
and  some  other  members  who  adhered  to  them,  were  cut  off 
from  the  church,  chiefly  on  account  of  their  behaviour  in 
this  affair.  The  greater  part,  among  whom  was  Mr; 
Ainsworth,f  took  part  with  Francis  the  pastor.  Much 
reproach  has,  by  various,  writers,  been  cast  upon  them  on 
account  of  this  censure.^  Tlie  excommunication  of  a 
brother  and  an  aged  father,  appears  an  harsh  and  unnatural 
proceeding :  however,  the  grounds,  circumstai^ces,  and  ends 
of  it,  should  be  examined  before  we  condemn  what  was 
done.  Most  probably  the  censure  was  by  the  suffrage  of 
the  church,  and  appeared  to  a  majority  of  its  members,  to 
be  according  to  the  will  of  God^  and,  therefore,  they 
preferred  the  will  of  God,  more  than  any  natural  affection^ 
and  regarded  the  spiritual  welfare  of  those  whom  they  cast 
out,  more  than  any  temporal  ease  or  advantage.  Mr. 
Johnson  says,  ^^  Those  whom  we  have  cast  out,  it  hath  been 
partly  for  revolting  from  the  truth,  to  the  corruptions  of 
other  .churches,  and  partly  for  other  sins."^  And  Mx. 
Ainsworth  says,  <^  That  George  Johnson  and  his  fiither 
were  cast  out  for  Iving,  slandering  and  contention.") 

Mr.  Neal  conrounds  this  unhappy  controversy  with 
another  which  happened  many  years  afterwards,  Detweioa 
Mr.  Johnson  and  Mr.  Ainsworth,  about  matters  of  dis^ 
cipline.i  Mr.  Johnson  placed  the  government  rf  the 
church  in  the  eldership  alone;  Ainsuforth  in  the  ivhole 
church,  of  which  the  elders  are  a  part.    The  event,  accord" 

•  Bishop  Han  charges  him  with  saying,  **  That  the  ministry  and 
worship  'of  the  church  of  England  were  tal^en  out  of  the  whore'f  cap. 
He  styles  onr  church,  the  daughter  of  Babylon,  the  mother  of  whoredoni 
and  abominations ;  and  says,  that  the  constitution,  worship,  and  gofem- 
ment,  are  directly  antichristian." — Jpohgie  agaitut  Srownhtit  p.  7^ 
Edit.  1614. 

f  See  Art.  Ainsworth.        j:  Bailie's  Dissuasive,  p.  15.       S  Ibid.  p.  Sf. 

B  Life  of  Ainsworth,  p.  30. 

t  Neal*8  Hist,  of  JPoritaos,  vol.  ii.  p.  44, 4ft. . 


ing  to  the  opuiion  ^{  some,*  was,  that  Jolinson  excom- 
mamcatecl  Ainsworlh  and  his  part  of  the  church,  and  that 
^insworth  returned  the  compliment  upon  the  (mposite 
party :  butT  for  the  latter  charge  there  appears  no  founda- 
tiqii.f  On  the  contrary,  Mr.  John  Cotton,  who  was  no 
BiDwnist,  but  was  contemporary  with  Atnsworth  and 
Johnson,  and  lived  among  those  who  had  been  concerned 
in  this  affair,  observes,  ^^  That  Mr.  Ainsworth  and  his 
company  did  not  excommuuicafe  Mr.  Johnson  and  his 
party,  but  withdrew,  when  they  could  no  longer  live 
peaceably  together.''^  Ainsworth  and  those  who  adhered 
to  him,  held  a  separate  assemblyat  Amsterdam,  and  the  two 
congregations  were  afterwards  distinguished  as  Johnsonian 
and  'Ainsworthian  Brownisfs.^  But  Mr.  Johnson  and  his 
friends,  at  length,  removed  to  Embden,  where  he  afterwards 
died,  and  his  congregation  dissolved. 

In  the  year  1599,  there  was  a  lons^  controversy  carried  on 
in  print,  between  Mr.  Johnson  and  Mr.  Henry  Jacob,  con- 
cerning certain  tenets  of  the  Brownists.  The  same  year  the 
whole  was  collected  and  published  at  Middleburgh,  by  Mr. 
Johnson,  consisting  of  ninety-one  quarto  pa^es,  entitled,^^  A 
Defence  of  the  Churches  and  Ministry  of  England,  against 
the  reniODS  and  objections  of  Maister  Francis  Johnson,  and 
otheiB  of  the  separation  commonly  called  Brownists.  In 
two  Treatises.  Published  especially  for  the  benefit  of  those 
in  these  parts  of  the  Low  Countries."  In  one  of  these 
treatises  is  a  recapitulation  of  all  the  chief  objections  raised 
6y  the  Brownists  against  the  churcb  of  Kngland ;  from 
which  we  may  gather  a  much  more  complete  account  of 
their,  tenets  and  doctrines,  than  from  any  thing  else  ever 
published ;  and  it  is  truly  authentic,  because  it  was  written 
•by  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  Brownists.  It  is  called, 
<*  Antichristian  Abominations  yet  retained  in  England,'*  and 
enumerates  the  following  particulars : 

<<  The  contusion  of  all  sorts  of  people  in  the  body  of 

•  Bailie^s  Dissiasiiae,  p.  15. 
+  Life  of  Ainsworth,  p.  Si,  S3. 

?'CottoD*s  Congregational  Chnrcbes,  p.  6. 
The  Johnsonian  Broiruists  commenced  a  suit,  it  is  said,  afj^inst  the 
Alnsworthians,  for  the  meeting-house  granted  to  the  Brownists  at  Amstec- 
dam.  The  Jolinson ians  pleaded  that  it  belonged  to  them,  l>eing  che  ancioit 
Brownists,  to  whom  it  was  originally  given :  but  the  Alnsworthians,  on 
the  contrary,  pleaded  it  was  theirs,  seeing  they  were  the  true  Brownists, 
Mdii^  the  ancient  faith  of  that  church,  from  which  the  Johnsonians  are 
Mid  to  have  apostatized.  How  far  this  account  is  correct,  or  how  this 
Alspete  was  ended,  we  are  not  able  to  learn. *-<Pa|f«<*f  Htrcnogrmjfkjij 


their  (the  Englkb)  church ;  even  the  moBt  polluted,  and 
iced,  beiMg  members  thereof. — Their  ministratioQ  of  tlie 
word)  sacraments,  and  government  of  th<*  church,  by  ririmfi 
of  antichrist ian  officers. — The  titles  of  primate,  metrc^Kiii- 
ian,  lords,  grace,  lordship.  Sec  ascribed  to  the  prelates.-^ 
The  interior  prelates  swearing  obediaice  to  the  metropolitical 
sees  of  Canterbury  and  York. — The  inferior  ministei^ 
when  they  enter  into  the  ministry,  promising  obedience 
to  the  prelati^,  and  their  ordinances ;  and  when  they  aie 
inducted    to   beneiic(  s,   confirming   with  an  oath. — ^Tlie 
deacon's  and  priest's  prt  sentation  to  a  lord  bishop,  by  ma 
archdeacon. — Their  receiving  orders  of  the  prelates,  <Mr 
.  their  suflfragans. — Their  pontifical,  or  book  of  consecrating 
bishops,  and  of  ordering  priests  and  deacons,  taken  out  of 
the  pope's  pontifical,  where  their  abuse  of  scripture  to  that 
end,  their  collects,  epistles,  &c.  may  be  seen. — Their  mak- 
ing, and  being  made,  priests,  with  blasphemy ;  the  prelates 
saying  to  those  whom  they  make  priests,  Receive  ye  the 
Holy  Ghosl^  whose  sins  ye  forgioe^  they  areforgrveny  fte. 
—T'neir  confounding  of  civil  and  ecclesiastical  offices  wA 
authorities  in  ecclesiastical  persons. — Thiir  retaining  and 
using  in  their  public  worship  the  apocryphal  books,  whidi 
hav^'  in  f  h«*m  divers  errors,  untruths,  blasphemies,  and'  con- 
tradictions to  canonical  scriptures. — Their  stinted  prayefi 
and  litur^,  taken  out  of  the  pope's  mass-book,  with  the 
same    order   of   psalms,    lessons,  collects,    pater-nosten^ 
episdts,  gospels,  versicles,   responds,  &c. — The  cross  in 
mptism. — ^The  hallowed  font,  and  questions  to  the  infimli 
in  baptii<m. — The  godfathers  and  godmothers  pronoisim 
that  the  child  doth  believe,  forsake  the  devil  and  all  ins 
works,  &c — Women's  baptizing  ot  children ;  which  maiib 
taineth  that  heresy,  that  the  children  are  damned  which  die 
unbaptized. — Their  howseling  the  sick,  and  ministerial; 
the  communion  to  one  alone.     The  ministering  it,  not  with 
the  words  of  Christ '^  institution,  but  with  others  takes 
out  of  the  pope's  portuis. — They  sell  that  sacrament  for 
two-pence  to  all  ccHuors. — The  receiving  of  it  kneeUD|^ 
which  maketh  it  an  idol,  and  nourishem  that  heresy,  of 
receiving  their  Maker,  of  worshipping  it,  &c. — Their  ring 
in  marriage,  making  it  a  sacramental  sign,  and  marriage  ah 
ecclesiastical  action ;  thereby  nourishing  the  popish  heieqr, 
that  matrimony  is  a  sacrament. — ^Their  praying  over  tte 
dead,  making  it  als6  a  part  of  the  minister's  duty,  and 
nourishing   &e   heresy  of  prayer  for  the  dead. — ^Their 
churching  or  purifying  of  women,  then  also  abusvig  t|u^ 


■  ^Bcnptasej  T%e sun  shall noi  bum  them  bjfdm/^  uorthtmom 
by  tttgM^r^Thm  Gang-week,*  and  then  praying  over  the 
eon 'and  grass. — ^Their  forbidding  of  marriage  in  Gang^ 
week,  m  Advent,  in  Lent,  and  on  allthe  £mber-day8 ;  wbldi 
&»  apostle  calleth  a  doctrine  of  demts^  1  Tim.  iv.  1 — S.-** 

.  Their  saints,  angek  and  apostles'  days,  with  their  prescripit 
terrioe.— -Their  fasts,  and  abstaining  from  flesb,  on  their 

.  eves,,  on  Fridnys,  Saturdays,  Eimber-<&ys,  and  all  tkedays  of 
LenL-^Their  dispensations  from  the  prelates'  courts  of 
fiicuUieB  to  eat  flesh  at  these  times. — Their  dispensations  to 
waxTj  in  these  times  forlndden. — Licenses  from  the  same 

-  anthority  to  marry  in  places  exempt. — Dispensations  also 

.  from  tbace  for  boys  and  ignorant  fools  to  have  benefices.-— 
Dispensations  also  for  nonresidents. — For  haying  two^  three. 

'  four,  or  more  benefices. — Tolerations. — ^P^tronages  of,  and 
IHfesenlBtions  to,  benefices,  with  buying  and  selling  ad- 
Towsons. — Their  institution  into  benefices  by  the  prelates^ 
their  inductions,  proxies,  &c. — Their  suspensions,  absoln* 
tioiis,  degradations,  deprivations,  &c.  —  The  prelates, 
ciianoellorB,  omunissioiiers'  courts,  having  power  to  exocHU- 

.  jBunicalealone,  and  to  absolve. — Their  penance  in  a  white 
dieet.— -Their  commutation  of  penance,  and  absolving  one 
man  for  another. — The  prelate's  confirmation,  or  bishopping 
of  ^^Blldito,  to  assure  them  of  Grod's  favour,  by  a  sign  di 
man^s  devising. — The  standing  at  the  gospel. — The  puttii^ 
off  the  cap,  and  making  a  leg,  when  the  word  Jesus  is  reao. 
— ^The  ring  of  peals  at  burials. — ^Bead-men  at  burials,  and 
hired  fluoomers  in  mourning  apparel. — The  hanging  and 
mouniing  of  churches  and  hearses  with  black  at  burials.— 
Their  absolving  the  dead,  dying  excommunicate,  before 
they  can  have,  as  they  say,  Christian  burial. — The  idol 
templeB.— -The  popish  vestments,  as  rocket,  horned  cap, 
ti}met,  the  surpUce,  and  the  cope. — The  visitations  of  the 
kurd^bishops  and  archdeacons. — ^The  prelates'  lordly  do- 

,BiiiiioD,  revenues,  and  retinue. — The  priests'  maintenance 

*  Gung-week,  or  rogatioo-week,  was  that  particular  season  of  the 
3fflir,  in  which,  according  to  popish  cnitom,  was  observed  **  the  perambn- 
•MUioB  of  the  circuits  of  parishes.'*  Queen  Elizabeth  retained  the  same 
pnctkes  and  eiyoined,  *>  That  the  people  should  once  a  year,  at  the 
**  accnstoned  time,  with  the  minister  and  substantial  men  of  the  parish, 
*^*  walk  roand  the  parish  as  usual,  and  at  their  return  to  church  make  the 
**lBoawMHi  prayers;  provided  that  the  minister,  at  certain  convenient 
**  placet,  ihaU  admonish  the  people  to  give  thanks  to  God  for  the  increase 
'*  aod  aboDdance  of  the  fruits  of  the  earth,  repeating  the  103d  Psalm  %  at 
**  which  time  also  the  minister  shall  inculcate  this  and  such  like  sentences, 
'*  GKTMtf  H  A«  UM  rem«ostA  Ait  n^ighbowrU  /miil-iiiariir. "--Sparrow's 
Gellecti^t  ?• '73. 

106  LIVES  X>F  THE  PURITANS.    . 

hy  tithes,  Christmas  offerings,  &c. — The  oaths  es  qi 
in  their  ecclesiastical  courts,  making  men  swear  to  accuse 
themselves.' — The  churchwarden's  oath  to  present  to  the 
prelates  all  the  offences,  faults,  and  defaults,  committed  in 
their  parishes  against  their  articles  and  injunctions.— ^Tbe 
prelates  ruling  the  church  by  the  pope's  cursed  canon  law. 
— Finally,  their  imprisonuig  and  banishing  such  as  |f- 
nounce  and  refuse  to  witness  these  abominations  aforesaid, 
and  the  rest  yet  retained  among  them.''* 

As  our  author  very  justly  observes,  they  might  well  find 
fiiult  with  the  church  in  the.  article  last  mentioned,  since 
they  had  smarted  so  severely  under  it.  The  foregoing 
particulars  contain  the  general  principles  of  the  Brownists, 
or  their  chief  reasons  for  a  total  separation  from  the 
established  church,  and  are  undoubtedly  the  most  conipleie 
and  correct  account  of  their  opinions,  that  was  ever 
published.  We  forbear  making  any  comments,  but  leave 
the  whole  to  the  reader's  own  judgment.  •       • 

His  Works.— 1.  Certayne  Reasons  and  Arguments,  proving  that  it 
Is  not  lawful  to  hear,  or  have  any  spiritual  Communion  with,  the 
present  Ministry  of  the  Church  of  England,  1601.  This  is  perhapi 
the  same  as  that  of  which  an  abstract  is  given  above. — 2,  An  Answer 
to  Whitens  Discoverie  of  Brownism,  1606.-^3.  A  Christian  Plea, 
1617. — 4.  A  Tract  on  Matt  xviii. — He  also  published  some  other 
pieces  on  the  controversies  of  the  times. 

William  Cole,  D.D. — This  learned  divine  was  most 
probably  educated  in  Corpus  Christi  college^  Oxford, 
where  he  took  his  doctor's  degree.  Upon  the  commence- 
ment of  Queen  Mary's  bloody  persecution,  he  fled  from  the 
storm,  and  retired  to  Frankfort.  He  was  there  involved 
in  the  trouUes  among  the  £nglish  exiles ;  and  the  firrt 
settlers  being  excluded  from  the  privileges  of  the  place^  by 
the  officiousness  of  Dr.  Cox  and  his  party,  he  retired,  with 
several  of  his  brethren,  to  Zurich.+  He  went  aflerwatdsto 
Geneva,  where  he  was  highly  esteemed  by  his  fellow-exiles. 
He  united  wth  the  venerable  Miles  Coverdale  and  other 
learned  divines,  in  publishing  the  Geneva  translation  of  the 
Bible.J  Upon  his  return  from  exile,  he  sat  in  the  convoca^ 
tion  of  1562,  and  subscribed  the  articles  of  religioa.S  He 
was  in  high  favour  with  Queen  Elizabeth,  who^  on  acconnt 

•  Biog.  Britan.vol.  ii.p.  618,  619.     Edit.  1778. 

f  Troables  at  Frankeford,  p.  13. 

-f  Wood's  Athene  Oxon.  vol.  i.  p.  153.^See  Art.  CoTerdalCw 

^  Strype*!  AnnalSy  vol.  i.  p.  329. 



of  bis  great  celebrity,  preferred  him,  in  1568,  to  the 
presidentship  of  Corpus  Christi  college,  Oxford,*  in 
which  ijiSiCe  he  continued  at  least  thirty  years.  A  divine 
of  the  same  name,  and  very  probably  the  same  p('rson,'wa9 
cast  into  prison  for  nonconrormity.  Though  it  does  not 
appear  how  long  he  remained  under  confinement ;  yet, 
upon  the  earnest  intercession  of  friends,  a  letter  from  the 
court  at  Greenwich,  dated  April  4,  1574,  was  addressed  to 
the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  signifying,  that,  in  consider- 
ation of  his  great  years,  her  majesty  was  willing  for  him  to 
be  released  from  his  present  confinement :  but  that  he  should 
remain  within  twenty  or  thirty  miles  of  London,  in  some 
honest  person's  house,  as  his  lordship  should  think  most 
conYenient ;  and  should  obtain  sureties,  that  he  would  not 
henceforth  meddle,  by  teaching  or  otherwise^  in  matters  of 
religion.^  In  the  year  1599,  he  exchanged  this  preferment 
with  Dr.  John  Rainolds,  for  the  deanery  of  Lincoln ;  but 
died  at  an  "advanced  age,  in  the  year  16004  Mr.  Strype 
denominates  him  a  sober  and  religious  nonconformist ;  and 
observes,  that  being  chosen  chaplain  to  the  Earl  of 
Leicester  or  some  other  great  courtier,  he  attended  at  court 
in  his  hai  and  short  cloak,  and  endeavoured  to  overthrow  all 
attempts  to  enjoin  the  clerical  habits.§ 

John  Holland  was  a  minister  of  great  piety,  and 
apparently  one  of  the  old  puritans.  But  we  have  very 
htUe  account  of  him  till  the  time  of  his  death,  which  being 
rather  peculiar,  we  cannot  withhold  it  from  the  reader's 

The  day  before  he  died,  having  called  for  the  Bible,  he 

1,  <<  Come,  O  come  ;  death  approaches.     Let  us  gather 

soitte  flowers  to  comfort  this  hour."    And  having  tunied  to 

R<Hn.  yiii.  he  gave  me  the  book,  says  Mr.  Leigh,  (who 

preached  his  funeral  sermon,)  and  bade  me  read.    At  the 

end  of  every  verse  he  required  me  to  pause,  when4ie  gave 

the  sense  of  the  passage,  to  his  own  comfort  and  to  the 

great  wonder  and  joy  of  his  friends.    Having  continued 

his  meditations  on  the  above  chapter,  above  two  hours,  he 

suddenly  cried  out : — "  O,  stay  your   reading.      What 

brightness  is  this  1  see  ?     Have  you  lighted  any  candles  ?^* 

To  which  Mr.  Leigh  answered,  "  No ;  it  is  the  sunshine ; 


*  Strype's  Parker,  p.  266.         +  Baker^s  MS.  Conec.  toI.  ixi.  p.  364. 

(Wood's  Athene  Oxon.  vol.  i.  p.  289, 736. 
StrypVs  Fbrker,  p.  213, 219,  266. 


being  about  five  o'clock  on  a  clear  snmm^'s  evaung^ 
^  Sunshine,"  said  he,  "  nay,  my  Saviour's  shine.  Nwr 
ferewell,  world  :  welcom^  heaven.  The  Day-star  from  ds 
liigfa  hath  visited  my  heait.    O  speak  when  I  am  gane^  a)nd 

J  reach  at  my  funeral,  God  detueth  famUiarh  wUh  m«fk 
feel  his  mercy  ;  I  see  his  majesty ;  and  whether  in  the 
body,  or  out  of  the  body,  I  cannot  tell :  God  knoweth. 
But  I  see  things  that  are  unutterable."  In  these  tranqporti 
of  joy,  his  spirit  soared  towards  heaven ;  but  afierwaidt 
riirinking  down,  he  sighed  and  said,  ^^  Ah  !  it  will  not  be 
yet.  My  sins  keep  me  back  from  my  God."  The  nekt 
morning,  he  closed  his  eyes  in  death,  using  these  exptt^ 
sions: — <^  O  what  a  happy  change  shall  I  make!  from 
^  death  to  life !  from  sorrow  to  solace !  from  a  faciioiis 
<<  world  to  a  heavenly  state !  O,  my  dear  brethren,  sisleiiy 
^  and  friends,  it  pitieth  me  to  leave  you  behind.  Yet 
^  remember  my  death  when  I  am  gone  ;  and  what  I  now 
^  feel,  I  hope  you  will  find  before  you  die,  that  God  dodi 
<<  and  will  deal  familiarly  with  men.  And  now,  thou  fiery 
f  <  chariot,  that  earnest  down  to  fetch  vcp  Elijah,  carry  meki 
^  my  happy  home.  And  ail  ye  blessed  angds,  wb6 
*<  attended  the  soul  of  Lazarus  to  bring  it  to  heaven,  bear 
^  me,  O  bear  me,  into  the  bosom  of  my  best  beloived* 
"  Amen^  amen.  Come^  Lord  Jesus ;  come  quickly. ^^  He 
died  about  the  year  ICOO.* 

Henry  Smith,  A.  M. — This  zealous  and  eloquent  diving 
was  born  at  Withcock  in  Leicestershire,  in  the  year  1550^ 
and  educat<'d  in  Lincoln  college,  Oxford ;  where  hebecame 
well  furnished  with  useful  learning.  He  was  descended 
from  a  wealthy  and  honourable  family,  was  possessed  of  a 
plentiful  estate,  and  was  heir  to  a  large  patrimony.  But  he 
resolved  to  employ  his  talents  to  the  utmost  of  hi^  power, 
by  labouring  for  the  glory  of  God  and  the  conversion  of 
souls,  in  the  work  of  the  ministry ;  and  therefore  he  left 
the  rich  patrimony  to  a  younger  brother,  f  Upon  hit 
removal  from  Oxford,  he  pursued  his  studies  under  the  ctut 
tjf  Mr.  Greenham,  whose  principles  aiid  piety  he  appeared 
lafterwards  to  have  imbibed.  When  the  Lord  Treasurer 
Burleigh  applied  to  Mr.  Greenham  for  a  testimonial  of  Mr. 
%iith's  character,  this  excellent  divine  observed,  <<  tibat  ht 

.•  Ambrose's  Worku,  p.  800.    Edit.  1701. 
•  -f  This  younger  brother  was   Sir  Roger   SBlth  of   fidmondthorp   !■ 
Leicestenhire,  wlio  died  about  the  rcrtonittea.    . 

SMITH.  lot 

was  veil  versed  in  the  holy  scriptures,  religious  and  devout 
in  his  character,  moderate  and  sober  in  his  opinions,  discreet 
and  t^Qperate  in  his  behaviour,  industrious  in  his  studies 
and  punuits,  and  of  a  humble  spirit  and  upright  hearty 
joined  with  a  fervent  zeal  for  the  glory  of  God  and  tha 
vdfiBune  of  jk>u1s."* 

Though  Mr.  Smith  was  eminently  qualified  for  the  sacred 
fitnclio%  he  was  dissatisfied  with  the  subscription  imposed 
upon  ministers,  and  the  lawfulness  of  certain  ceremonies^ 
lie  was  loath  to  make  a  rent,  either  in  the  church  or  in  his 
own*  conscience.  But,  during  this  perplexity,  he  resolved 
not  (o  undertake  any  pastoral  charge,  but  to  content  himself 
with  a  lecturer's  situation.  Accordingly,  in  the  year  1587^ 
he  became  lecturer  at  St.  Clement  Danes,  near  Temple-bar^ 
London.  He  was  chosen  to  this  public  situation  by  the 
parishioners,  and  by  the  favour  of  the  Lord  Treasurer,  who 
lived  in  the  parish,  and  assisted  in  raising  the  contribution 
lor  his  support*  Here  he  set  himself  to  do  the  work  of  the 
Lord  fiiithtully.  He  was  greatly  beloved,  and  his  ministry 
htfhly  admired  by  his  numerous  hearers.  But  the  year 
fi&minftj  complaint  being  made  to  Bishop  Aylmer,  that  he 
had  Bprnexk  in  his  sermon  some  words  derogatory  to  the 
Conunon  Prayer,  and  that  he  had  not  subscribed  to 
Whitffifk's  three  articles,  his  grace  suspended  him  from 
preaching.  The  reasons  all^^  by  the  bishop,  with  Mr. 
Smith's  answers,  were  the  following : 

L  ^<  That  he  was  chosen  by  a  popular  election ;  that  is, 
by  the  minister  and  congregation,  without  his  lordship's 

^<  I  was  recommended  to  the  parish  by  certain  godly 
ministers,"  says  Mr.  Smith,  ^'  who  had  heard  me  preach  iu 
other  places  in  this  city,  and  thereupon  accepted  by  the. 
parish,  and  entertained  with  a  stipend  raised  by  voluntary 
<KHitribution*  In  which  sort  they  had  heretofore  entertained 
athfln,  without  any  such  question  or  exception.  And  his 
kidship  calling  me  to  preach  at  Paul's  cross,  never  moved 
any  such  question  to  me.  Nevertheless,  if  any  enr(»  have 
beon  committed  by  me  or  the  parish,  through  ignorance, 
•or  joint  desire  is  to  have  his  lordship's  good  allowance  and 
approbation,  for  the  said  exercise  of  my  function  in  his 
-loraship's  diooese." 

. .  8.  ^  That  he  hath  preached  against  the  Book  of  Common 


'^  How^cr  his  lordship  may  have  been  infoimed  aganist 
me,"  observes  Mr.  Smith,  ^^  I  never  used  a  speech  in  any 
cf  my  sermcMis,  against  the  Book  of  Comnum  Prayer; 
whereof  the  parish  doih  bear  me  witness  in  this  my  suppli- 
cation to  vonr  lordship."  .      .    i    *,. 

S.  '^  That  he  hath  not  yielded  his  subscription  to  certain 
articles  which  bis  lordship  required  at  his  hands."    *       . 

"  Concerning  the  third,"  says  he,  "  I  rehise  not  to 
subscribe  to  any  articles,  which  the  law  of  the  realm  dodi 
require  of  men  in  my  calling ;  acknowledging,  with  all 
humbleness  and  loyalty,  her  majesty's  sovereignty  in  all 
causes,  and  over  all  persons,  within  her  higlineiB's 
dominions;  and  yielding  my  full*  consent  to  all  ^articles 
of  faith  and  doctrine,  taught  and  ratified  in  this  cbnrdi, 
according  to  a  statute  in  that  behalf  provided,  the  Idth 
year  of  her  majesty's  reign.  And  therefore  I  beseiech  'hit 
lordship,  not  to  urge  upon  me  any  other  subscription  than 
the  law  of  God  and  the  laws  positive  of  this  realm  tk 

'  The  above  charges,  with  the  answers  subjoined,  Mr. 
Smith  presented  to  the  treasurer,  accompanied  with  a 
supplication  to  his  lordship,  humbly  requesting  his  fiavonr 
and  influence  at  this  painful  juncture.  This  ^eat  statesman 
had  the  highest  respect  for  him ;  and,  as  Mr.  Smith  ivas 
not  long  deprived  of  his  lecture,  he  most  probably  espoased 
his  cause,  applied  to  the  bishop,  and  procured  his  restoratioii. 
It  is,  indeed,  observed,  "  that  the  lord  treasurer  looked 
very  favourably  upon  Mr.  Smith  ;  and  that  he  was  often  H^ 
screen  to  save  him  from  scorching,  by  interposing  hu 
greatness  betwixt  him  and  the  anger  of  certain  epii^opBl 

In'  the  year  1589,  upon  the  death  of  Mr.  Harewood,  the 
incumbent  of  Clement  Danes,  the  churchwardens  and 
parishioners  petitioned  the  treasurer  to  bestow  the  living 
upon  our  pious  divine.  In  their  petition,  they,  observe^ 
^^  that  by  his  excellent  preaching,  his  exemplary  life,  and 
his  sound  doctrine,  more  good  had  been  done  among  thefii, 
than  by  any  other  who  bad  gone  before,  or,  as  they  feared, 
Vi^uld  follow  him.":(  But  Mr.  Smith,  for  tiie  reasons  already 
mentioned,  was  most  probably  unwilling  to  accept  the  be^ 
neift,  if  it  was  offered  him.  He  does  not'appear  ever  to  have 
enjoyed  any  greater  preferment  than  that  of  his  lecturerfiip^ 


*  Strype's  Aylmer,  p.  155,  156. 

+  Fuller's  JLife  of  Mr.  Smith  prefixed  to  htljemioof. 

i  Strype's  Aylmer;  p.  167  i 

t)Ei\t.  Ill 


Mr*  Smitli  >vas  a  preacher  uncommonly  followed  by 
rsoDS  of  piety,  especially  those  of  the  puritanical  party, 
e. was  generally  esteemed  the  first  preacher  in  the  nation ; 
and)  on  account  of  his  prodigious  memory,  and  his  fluent^ 
eloquent,  and  practical  way  of  preaching,  he  was  looked 
upon  ae  the  ve;^  miracle  and  wonder  of  the  age.*  It  may 
be  truly  said  ot  him^  that  he  was  a  man  peaceable  in  Israel. 
F<Hr  though  he  scrupled  conformity  himself,  and  utterly 
disapproved  the  imposition  of  it  on  others;  still  he  could 
liye  on  terms  of  intimacy  with  those  from  whom  he  dis- 
■en^jed.  His  fame  was  so  great^  that  he  was  usually  called 
ihe  sUver^iongued  preacher,  as  if  he  was  second  even  to 
Chrysostom.  His  church  was  so  crowded  with  hearers,  that 
peiBons  of  quality,  as  well  as  others,  were  frequently  obliged 
to  stand  in  the  aisles;  and  his  wonderful  dexterity  in 
preaching  was  such,  tlrnt,  by  his  solid  reasons,  he  fastened 
oonviction  upon  the  judgments  of  his  auditory ;  by  his  apt 
similitudes,  upon  their  fancies;  by  his  orderly  method,  upon 
their  memories;  and  by  his  close  applications,  upon  their 
consGiences.f  He  died  apparently  of  a  cx)nsumption,  about 
the  year  1600,  aged  fifty  years.  Mr.  Smith  was  author  of 
finaay  Sermons  and  Treatises,  published  at  various  times. 
They- passed  through  many  editions,  and  some  of  them 
were  cairried  abroad  and  translated  into  Latin.  His  ser- 
mons were  so  universally  admired,  that  they  were  for  many 
yesurs  used  as  a  family  book  in  all  parts  of  the  kingdom. 
They  aie  so  solid,  says  Fuller,  that  the  learned  may  partly 
admire  them ;  yet  so  plain,  that  the  unlearned  may  per- 
fectly understand,  them.t  His  ^<  Sermons,  with  other  his 
learned  Treatises,"  and  his  Life  by  Fuller,  were  collected 
and  published  in  one  volume  quarto,  in  1675. 

Arthur  Dent  was  the  learned  and  pious  minister  of 
South  Soubery  in  Essex,  but  persecuted  by  Bishop  Aylitier 
for  nonconformity.  About  the  year  1584,  he  endured 
many  troubles  from  this  prelate,  for  refusing  to  wear  the 
lurplice,  and  omitting  the  sign  of  the  cross  in  baptism.^  He 
afterwaitls  united  with  his  brethren,  the  persecuted  ministers 
of  Essex,  in  presenting  a  petition  to  the  lords  of  the 
council,'  in  which,  say  they,  "  We  ^  have  received  the 

•  Wood*i  Athens  Oxon.  toI.  i.  p.  SSI.— Nichols's  Hist,  of  Leicester- 
tbire,  vol.  ii.  p.  390. 
t  Life  of  Mr.  Smith.  f.  Church  History,  b.  ix.  p.  142. 

h  MS.  Rcf  iiter,  p.  741. 


charge  to  instruct  and  teach  our  people  in  the  way  of  life; 
and  eyeiy  one  of  us  hearing  this  sounded  from  the  God  of 
heaven,  fVoe  be  unto  me,  if  I  preach  fid  the  gaspdj  we  havt 
all  endeavoured  to  discharge  our  duties,  and  to  apiHroye  am^ 
selves  both  to  God  and  man.  Notwithstanding  thia,  we  ara 
in  ffreat  heaviness,  and  some  of  us  akeady  put  to  silence, 
and  the  rest  living  in  fear;  not  that  we  have  beoi,  or  cao 
be  char^ed^  we  hope,  with  false  doctrine,  or  slanderous  Itfb : 
but  because  we  refuse  to  subscribe  that  there  is  nothiiig 
contaii^ed  in  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer  contrary  to  tto 
word  o£  God.  We  do  protest  in  the  sight  of  God,  wdio 
•earcbeth  all  hearts,  that  we  do  not  refuse  from  a  desire  to 
dissent,  ^  from  any  sinister  affisction;  but  in  the  fen  of 
God,  and  firom  the  necessity  of  conscience."  A  ciicun^ 
stantial  account  cf  this  petition,  signed  by  tvoenij^ievm 
ministers,  is  given  in  another  place.* 

BCr.  Dent  was  author  of  a  work,  entitled  <^  The  Raioe 
of  Rome ;  or,  an  Eamosition  of  Revelation ;"  in  the  dedica* 
tion  of  which,  Mr.  Ezekiel  Culverwell  gives  the  foUowing 
account  of  the  author  :-^<^  To  give  some  public  testimony  of 
my  love  towards  him,  and  reverence  of  the  rare  grace 
which  we  all,  who  enjoyed  his  sweet  society,  did  oqd- 
tinually  behold  in  him,  whose  learning  his  labours  do 
shew ;  and  whose  diligence,  yea  extreme  and  unwearied 
pains  in  his  ministry,  publicly,  privately,  at  home  and 
abroad,  for  at  least  four  and  twenty  years,  all  our  couatiy 
can  testify.  AU  which  being  adorned  with  such  specidt 
humility,  do  make  his  name  the  greater,  and  our  km  the 
more  grievous.  I  may  not  leave  out  this,  which  I  avow  t0 
be  as  certain  as  it  is  singular,  that,,  besides  all  othen  hii 
great  labours,  he  had  a  special  care  of  all  the  churchenji 
night  and  dav,  by  study  and  fervent  prayer,  procuring  the 
prosperity  of  Zion,  and  the  ruin  of  Rome.  And  to  end 
with  his  blessed  end:  his  life  was  not  more  profitable t9 
others  than  his  death  was  peaceable  to  himself;  scarcdly  A 
groan  was  heard,  though  his  fever  must  needs  have  beat 
violent  which  dispatchra  him  in  three  days.  Having  mafjb  a 
pithy  confession  of  his  fiiith,  ^  this  faith,'  said  he,  ^  have  I 
pr(  ached  ;  this  faith  have  I  believed  in ;  this  faith  I  do  die 
in ;  and  this  faith  would  I  have  sealed  with  my  blood,  if 
God  had  so  thought  good ;  and  tell  my  brethren  sp.*  Ho 
aflterwards  said, '  I  have  fought  a  good  fight,  I  have  finished 
«ny  course,  I  have  kept  the  faith ;  hencdoith  them  ia 

•  See  Art.  Geoii^e  Gifford. 

CHARRE.  lis 

vpJbr  me  the  crown  of  righteousness;'  and  with  his  last 
hieath  added^  <  I  have  seen  an  end  of  all  perfection,  but 
ttyr  law  is  exceeding  broad.'  ^  He  died  most  probably 
aome  time  after  the  year  1600. 

WiLiiiAM  Charke  was  fellow  of  Peter-house,  Gam* 
brid^.in  1578,  where,  most  probably,  he  received  his 
education;  Cambridge,  at  this  time,  was  a  nest  of  puritans ; 
but  Dr.  Whitgift,  wiSi  the  other  heads  of  colleges,  laboured 
to  ezpd  the  growing  faction,  as  it  was  called.  Many  of 
the  students  and  fisUows  were  disaffected  to  the  ceremooiet 
and. discipline  of  the  church,  among  whom  was  Mr.  Charke* 
He  did  not,  therefore,  remain  lon^  imobserved ;  for  the 
heads  of  colleges,  of  whom  Whitgift  was  chief,  presently 
brought  complaints  against  him  to  Lord  Burleigb,  chan* 
oellorof  the  university.  . 

Mr.  Charke,  in  his  sermon  at  St.  Mary's,  December  S, 
1572^  asserted,  1.  ^^  That  the  states  of  bishops,  archbishops, 
metropolitans,  and  popes,  were  introduced  into  the  church 
by  Satan.-^Ajid,  S.  That  the  ministers  of  the  church  ought 
not  to  be  superior  one  to  another."  For  divulging  these 
senthnents,  n6  was  the  very  next  day  cited  bdbre  Drs. 
Whilgifl,  Pern,  Howford,  Kelk,  and  Bying,  the  vice-chan- 
odkir ;  before  whom  he  acknowledged  the  delivery  of  the 
two  propositions,  the  former  directly,,  the  latter  implicitly. 
He  wag  brought  before  them  a  second  time,  in  Februaiy 
fiiUowing,  and  was  often  admonished  and  commanded  to 
rewke.  his  errors  publicly  at  St  Mary's,  on  a  Lord's  day, 
which  he  absolutely  refused :  only  he  acknowledged  that 
there  ought  to  be  some  superiority  among  ministers,  in 
matters  of  jurisdiction.  Upon  which,  the  vice-chancellor, 
with  the  consent  of  the  heads,  pronounced  sentence  upon 
him  of  exclusion  from  the  college,  and  banishment  irom 
the  university.  He  was,  therefore,  excluded  and  expelled 
fiovn  the  place.*  Whether  his  punishment  was  not  greater 
tiuax  the  crime  with  which  he  was  charged,  is  left  with  the 
candid  reader  to  ddermine. 

Mr.  Charke,  upon  his  departure  from  Cambridge,  appealed 
firem  the  judgment  of  the  vice-chancellor  and  heads,  to 
Bpjrleigh,  the  chancellor.  This  he  did,  says  Mr.  Strype, 
in,  a  well-penned  epistle,  written  in  a  good  Latin  style, 
iic|dring,  by  his  lordship's  means,  to  be  again  restored  to  his 

•  Strypt'i  Whttfift,  p.  43,  44. 
TOL.  II.  I 


college^  promiring  to  ccmduct  himself  quietly  and  petuf^ 
ably.  In  this  letter,  he  said,  <<  That  he  deiiied  not  himself 
to  be  one,  who,  being  led  by  argument  taken  from  scripr 
ture,  and  the  example  of  fprei^  churches^  thought. some^ 
thing  to  be  wanting,  whereby  our  church,  lately  rescued 
from  darkness,  might  come  nearer  the  original  pattern. 
That  when  he  was  aware  how  his  opinion  might  prove 
dangerous  to  be  divulged  among  the  unskilful  multitude^ 
because  it  appeared  something  new  to  the  common  peopliB^ 
and  was  different  from  the  ordinances,  he  kept  to  himMf 
tJbe  knowledge  of  the  truths  and  had  ever  studioudy 
avoided  the  promulgation  of  it  in  his  sermons ;  but  that  in 
a  private  senate,  and  in  the  Latin  tongue,  he  thought  he 
might  use  greater  liberty.  He  had^  therefore,  in  a  veiy 
learned  and  wise  assembly,  explained'  his  opini<m  move 
freely  in  those  matters-.  And  that,  by  so  doing,  he  had 
ignorantly  fallen  into  the  crime  of  violating  a  law  ;  and  so 
,was  cited  to  appear  in  judgment.  And  that  his  judges  had 
forbidden  him  not  otdy  uie  use  of  water  and  me,  hf 
which  men  live ;  but  the  use  of  learning  too,  by  wMcu 
.they  live  weU.  He,  therefore,  humbly  appealed  to  his 
equity  and  goodness,  as  the  only  hope  he  had  left  of 
recovering  his  place ;  praying  him  to  write  to  the  univer^ 
sity  for  his  restoration;  and  that  hereafter  he  might  be 
wholly  rejected,  if  he  violated  the  peace  either  of  the 
church,  the  state,  or  the  university."* 

The  chancellor,  knowing  him  to  be  a  good  achdar, 
and  that  he  was  treated  with  tyrannical  severity ,  .upon 
receiving  this  humble  and  peaceable  supplication,  Bude 
intercession  for  him,  by  addressing  the  following  letter  to 
the  vice-chancellor  and  heads  of  houses  :f 

<<  After  my  very  hearty  commendations* 

"  Whereas  you  have  expelled  William  Chailiie,  h^ 
fellow  of  Peter-house,  for  some  speeches  used  in  a  sermon 
which  he  lately  had  ad  clerum^  tending  to  the  ^ 
turbing  the^  quietness  and  peace  of  the  churdi,  and 
manifestly  contrary  to  the  orders  taken  for  the  maint^ance 
of  the  same  peace.  For  as  much  as  the  said  Charke  hatM 
been  with  me,  and  partly  wisely  extenuating  his  faulty  and 
partly  very  honestly  acknowledging  that  he  committed  lb 
same  by  overmuch  vehemency  of  spirit,  and  promiahjg 
faithfully  never  hereafter  to  deal  in  inis  or  the  like  agani 
that  may  be  offensive,  hath  shewed  soine  good  pait%  aAc^ 

♦  Strype'8  Whitgift,  p.  43,  44. 

•\  Baker*8  MS.  CoUec.  toI.  xxil.  p.  aT3e     .  . 

CHARKE.  115 

tioii,aiid  good  gifts  to  be  in  him,  the  which,  in  mine 
opinion,  it  vf^re  great  charity  and  good  wisdom,  by  gentle 
usage  and  persuasion,  to  reduce  to  be  profitable  in  the 
church,  rather  than  by  too  suddenly  cutting  him  off  from 
ihe  course  of  his  studies,  utterly  to  lose.  These  are 
Jieartily  to  pray  you,  the  rather  for  my  sake,  and  for  proof 
.of  him  hereafter,  to  receive  him  again  into  the  university 
juod  his  fellowship  within  the  college,  upon  his  like  promise 
made  to  you  not  to  meddle  hereafter  in  such  kind  of 
jdodrines.  Wherein,  if  you  shew  some  indulgence  for  this 
time,  and  rather  suppress  the  memory  of  his  said  speech 
pud  doctrine^  for  it  was  delivered  in  the  Latin  tongue,  and 
not  popularly  taught,  in  my  judgment  you  shall  do  well ; 
and  so  praying  you  to  do,  I  bid  you  hearty  farewell. 
From  my  house^  Feb.  90, 1573. 

"  Your  loving  friend, 

"  William  BanLEiGH.'* 
This  intercession,  however,  was  to  no  purpose.  It  does 
■ot  appear  that  Mr.  Charke  was  ever  restored  to  his  fel- 
lowahqp.  He  was,  about  the  same  time,  one  of  the  super- 
added members  of  the  presbytery  at  Wandsworth  in 
Sonejr**  In  the  year  1580,  we  find  him  employed,  with 
odior  Jearned  men,  in  a  omference  with  Campian,  the 
[bmaa^  perish  priest.  He  was  engaged  in  the  fourth  day's 
dispute,  when  the  subjects  of  discussion  were, — 1.  ^^  Whether 
the  scriptares  contain  sufiicient  doctrine  for  salvation.  And^ 
SL  \¥btkba  faith  alone  justifieth."  These  conferences  were 
odlected  and  published,  by  the  c<Mi8ent  of  both 

Upon  Mr.  Gharke's  banishment  from  the  university,  he 
coontenanced  and  entertained  by  several  of  the  nobi- 
litjTy  and  patroniied  by  persons  of  learning  and  real  worth. 
He  was  domestic  chaplain  first  to  Lord  Cheiny,  then  to 
Ae  Dncheas  of  Somerset,  at  Chelsea,  and  was  with  her  when 
died.  In  the  year  15S1,  he  was  chosen  constant 
to  the  society  of  Lincoln's-inn.  But,  to  succeed 
in  their  choice,  the  society  applied  to  the 
of  LoBdoo,  for  his  approbation  smd  allowance. 
bsalhoii,  knowing  Mr.  Charke's  great  abilities,  and  that 
eminently  qualified  for  a  situation  of  so  much 
Ij  did  not  refuse;  bat  signified  that  applio 
first  made  to  the  lords  of  the  council,  for 
Thb  was  accordingly  done,  and  the  lords 

'i  XSS.  p.  3».— F«»cr'9  Choreh  Wm.  b.  is.  p.  lOK. 
Ito^t  Aaaaliy  f«L  ii.  p.  «|6. 


•       ■ 

signified  their  fiill  approbation ;  so  that  he  was  cIuMfea  and 
a£nitted.*  He  afterwards  united  with  his  brethren  ib 
subscribing  the  "  Book  of  Discipline."+ 

In  the  above  respectable  situation,  Mr.  Charke,  by  the 
favour  of  his  learned  .patrons,  was  protected  some  yesrv 
from  the  tyrannical  oppressions  of  the  times ;  and  thoudi  a 
zealous  nonconformist,  he  enjoyed  his  lectiue  at  LincohiV 
inn  till  the  year  1593.  The  period  at  length  arrived- whfs 
they  could  no  longer  screen  him  from  the  fory  c^  tlie 

E relates;  for  in  that  year,  it  appears,  he  was  liknoeji 
y  Archbishop  Whitgift.|  Notwithstanding  the  treaAfQcat 
he  met  with,  be  was  greatly  admired  and  commended^- evoi 
by  rigid  conformists,  on  account  of  his  distinguished  lem^ 
ing  and  great  moderation.  After  his  suspension,  pleaoiK 
his  cause  befoj'e  the  archbishop,  that  he  ccmducted  himsdT 
peaceably,  &c.  his  grace  replied,  ^'  This  is  not  enough.  If 
is  not  sufficient,  that  you  do  not  preach  against  the  b^bops: 
you  do  not  preach /or  thera."^  .1 

Mr.  Strype  denominates  him  a  man  of  eminent  ^pot^ 
and  a  chief  leader  among  the  puritans.)  Dr.  ifoffA 
styles  him  a  person  of  great  learning  and  gpdliness.f  Tir 
Oxford  historian,  speaking  of  the  various  books  of  Hoo^t% 
«  Ecclesiastical  Polity,*'  obsenres,  *<  That  the  three  bobfa^ 
(meaning  the  three  last,)  which  Hooker  completed  befere-lni 
death,  were,  with  the  consent .  of  his  unlucky  widiMT; 
seized  upon  in  his  study^soon  after  his  decease,  by.WjIliaiB 
Charke,  a  noted  puritan,  and  another  minister  thivt  UyisK 
near  Canterbury;  who,  making  the  silly  woman  bcjUeve 
that  they  were  writings  not  fit  to  be. seen,  did  either  ham 
them  in  the  place,  or  carry  them  away."**  Admitting  tlui» 
statement  to  be  correct,  the  whole,  it  seems,  was  doM'by 
the  permission  of  that  sitfy  womany  the  unlitckv  wUmj 
and  if  Mr.  Charke  and  his  companion  persuadecl  hat^  tlutt 
the  papers  were  notJU  to  be  seen^  all  this  might  be  perfecdJF 
just  and  true.  But  our  histqrian^s.  sole  authority  is  fUb 
letter  of  Dr.  Kin^,  bishop  of  Chichester,  dated  Npvemto 
13,  1664,  above  sixty  years  after  the  event;  and  he  w 
made  considerable  additions  to  it.  ft     Mr*  Chaifce  inb 

*  Strype's  Annak,  toI.  Hi.  p.  55,  56. 
f  Neal's  Paritaos,  vol.  i.  p.  423. 

t  MS.  Chronology,  vol.  i.  p.  3)3.  (4.) 

^  Minifter's  Reasons  agaiost  Subscrip.  part  ii.  p.  173.    £dit.lfi08L 

B  Sfrjpe*s  Wbitgift,  p.  4S.~Annals,  vol.  ii.  p.  533. 

H  Churton>  Life  of  Nowell,  p.  278,  note. 

*  *  Wood's  Atbenae  Oxon.  vol.  i.  p.  gfiS. 

f  f  King's  Letter,  prefiied  to  the  Life  of  Hooker,    j^it.  rSSS* 


liiring  towards  the  close  of  the  year  1600 ;  but  when  he  died 
we  &ye  not  been  able  to  learn.  He  published  several 
piebes.against  the  papists* 

John  Darrell,  A.  B.^^He  was  minister  at  Nottingham^ 
biA  a  person  in  some  respects  of  rery  peculiar  sentiments* 
PEb  belieyed,  that  by  fasting  and  prayer  evil  spirits  might 
hie  cast  out  ik  persons  possessed.  Dr.  Heylin,  defaming  his 
DQemary,  saprs,  thatiie  set  up  the  trade  of  lecturing  at  Not- 
tnigbam,  without  any  lawful  calling;  and,  to  advance  his 
mmtation,  pretended  to  cast  out  devils.*  Mr.  Strype,  also, 
mdi  a  desiffn  \xi  reproach  the  puritans  as  a  body,  observes, 
(bat  when  ue  open  practices  of  the  puritans  for  setting  up 
Ebm  discipline  did  not  prevail,  some  of  their  ministers 
had  recourse  to  a  more  secret  method,  by'  doing  something 
which  looked  little  less  than  miraculous.  They  pretendec^ 
tgr  fai^ng  and  prayer,  to  cast  out  devils;  by  which  the 
hcdtilade  became  so  amazed,  and  were  led  so  to  venerate 
fheoa^  that  they  were  the  more  readily  inclined  io  submit  to 
fbeir  opinions  and  ways.  This  was  a  practice  borrowed 
Gpom  toe  papists,  to  make  their  priests  revered,  and  to 
eonfina  the  laity  in  their  superstitions.f  From  these  base 
DMinuations,  we  might  be  led  to  suppose,  that  some  plot  of 
poj^^iderable  magnitude  was  laid  by  the  puritans,  to 
DOQittre  the  ignorant  multitude  into  a  belief  of  their  dis* 
^pune^  and  the  practice  of  nonconformity:  but  all  this 
fBpour  and  smoke  at  once  vanishes,  and  we  only  hear  of 
Qie  principles  and  practice  of  a  solitary  individual,  in 
eminexion  with  two  or  three  others  of  less  note,  but  of 
pmilar  sentiments. 

-  -What  we  have  to  say  is  not  intended  as  a  defence  of  Mr. 
Danreirs  peculiarities.  He  appears  to  have  been  a  weak, 
llid  zealous  and  honest  man ;  and,  therefore,  undeserving  of 
fbe^^ruel  usage  which  he  received  from  Archbishop  \Vhit- 
gifi  and  others.  But  because  he  was  a  puritan,  and  a 
■offerer  for  nonconformity,  it  will  be  proper  t^  give  au 
impartial  statement  of  facts. 

The  learned  historian  observes,  that,  in  the  year  1586, 
Mr«  Darrell  professed  to  cast  a  devil  out  of  one  Katharine 
Wright,  a  young  woman  about  seventeen  years  of  age, 
living  in  Derbyshire.  But  tlie  evil  spirit  afterwards  re.- 
luniing  into  her^  he  cast  out  eight  other  devils,  with  which 

•  HejUn's  Hilt,  of  Prcs.  p.  348.  f  Stripe's  Whitgift,  p.  492. 


she  pretended  to  have  been  possessed.  Also,  he  wrote  W 
account  of  these  thmgs  at  some  length,  and  communicated! 
copies  of  his  performance  to  persons  of  distinction ;  and/ 
among  others,  to  the  excellent  and  pious  Lady  Bowes: 
^'  hoping  hereby,"  says  our  author,  "  to  obtain  applause^ 
and  to  accomplish  other  ends."*  There  is  not,  howen^, 
the  least  shadow  of  evidence,  that  Mr.  Darrell  sought  after 
any  human  applause.  This  does  not  appear  to.  haY)e. 
formed  any  part  of  his  character,  or  at  all  to  have  entered 
into  his  designs.     And  what  other  ends  he  meant  to  jaccom- 

Slish,  we  arc  left  to  conjecture.  If  the  historian  here 
esigned  to  iiisinuate,  that  he  intended  to  promote  puri-. 
tanisiti,  and  overthrow  the  church  of  England,  it  may  be. 
confidently  affirmed,  that  his  prospects  were  not  the  mcMt 

In  the  year  1596,  Mr.  Darrell  pretended  to  cast  oirf 
many  more  devils.  Among  the  persons  who  were  on  thia 
account  indebted  to  his  piety,  was  one  Thomas  Darling,  ^ 
boy  about  fourteen  years  of  age,  at  Burton-upon-TrenL. 
This  occasioned  a  person  ot  the  town  to  publish. an 
account  of  it,  entitled  "  The  Book  of  the  Dispossession  ol( 
the  Bdy  of  Burton ."  Thiis  greatly  increased  his  populanty '; 
and  caused  his  fame  to  spread  so  much  abroad,  that  he 
was  sent  for  into  Lancashire,  and  there  cast  out  inany  other 
devils.  Afterwards,  upon  his  return  to  Nottingham,  tone 
of  the  ministers  of  the  town,  and  several  of  its  inhabitants,^ 
urged  him  to  visit  one  William  Somers,  a  boy  who  was  so 
deeply  afflicted  with  convulsive  agonies,  that  they  were, 
thought  to  be  preternatural.  When  Mr.  Darrell  bad  seen 
the  boy,  he  concluded,  with  others,  that  he  was  certainly 
possessed,  and,  accordingly,  reconunended  his  friends  io 
obtain  the  help  of  godly  and  learned  ministers,  with  the 
view  of  promoting  his  recovery,  but  excused  himself  from 
being  concerned  ;  lest,  as  he  observed,  if  the  devil  shoiiild 
be  dispossessed,  the  common  people  should  attribute  toliini 
some  special  gift  of  casting  out  devils.  At  length,  .how- 
ever, by  the  urgent  solicitation  of  the  mayor  of  Nottingham, 
he  complied;  and  having  agreed  with  Mr.  Aldridge.and 
two  other  ministers,  together  with  about  one  hundred  and 
fifty  christian  friends,  they  set  dpart  a  day  of  fasting  and 
prayer,  to  entreat  the  Lord  to  cast  out  Satan,  and  itelivec 
the  young  man  from  his  present  torments.  Having  con** 
tinued  in  their  devotions  for  some  time,'  the  Lord  is  said  to 

•  Strype*s  Annals,  vdl.  iii»  p.  ASS, 

DAKRELL.  119 

lMCTe'':l)eeii  entreated,  and  to  haye'cait  ont  Satan,  for 
which  thejr  blessed  his  holy  name,  Xbis  was  in  the  year 

In  a  few  days  after  this  event,,  the  mayor  and  several  of 
the  aldermen  began  to  snspect  that  Somers  was  an  impostor ; 
and,  to  make  him  confess,  they  took  him  from  his  parents, 
and  committed  him  to  prison ;  where,  by  the  threatenings  of 
his  keqier,  he  was  led  to  acknowledge,  that  he  had  dis« 
aembled  and  counterfeited  what  he  had  done.  Upon  this 
confessicMi,  being  carried  before  a  commission  appointed 
to  examine  him,  he  at  first  owned  himself  to  be  a  qounterf 
felt,  then  presently  denied  it;  but  being  so  exceedingly 
firi^tened,  he  fell  into  fits  before  the  commissipners,  which 
put  an  end  tp  his  eicamination.  After  some  time,  being 
still  kept  in  custody,  and  further  pressed  by  his  keeper,  he 
returned  to  his  confessing,  charging  Mr.  Darrell  with  having 
trained  him  up  in  the  art  for  several  years.  Mr.  DarreU 
vras  then  summoned  to  appear  before  the  commissioners, 
when  sufficient  witnesses  were  produced  to  prove  that 
Somers  had  declared,  in  a  most  solemn  m^mner,  that  he  had 
not  dissembled;  upon  which  he  was  dismissed,  and  the 
commission  was  dissolved. 

This  affiiir  becoming  the  subject  of  much  conversation 
in  the  country,  Mr.  Darrell,  in  1598,  was  cited  before 
Archbishop  Whitgift,  and  other  high  commissioners,  at 
Lambeth.  Upon  his  appearance,  after  a  long  examination, 
he  was  deprived  of  his  ministry,  and  committed  close 
prisoner    to  the  Gatehouse,  where  he   continued    many 

J  earn.  Mr,  Greor^e  Moore,  another  puritan  minister,  for 
is  connesdon  witn  him,  was,  at  the  same  time,  committed 
close  priscmer  to  the  Clink.  The  crime  with  which  Mr. 
Darrell  was  charged,  and  for  which  he  received  the  heavy 
sen^ce^  wa^  ''  his  having  been  accessary  to  a  vile  im* 

.    Indeed,  Bishop  Maddox  highly  commends  the  conduct 
of  these  ecclesiastical  judges,  in  this  unchristian  censure. 

*  Dr.  He^rUq,  contemptuously  speal^ing  of  S|r.  DarreU's  pretensions, 
obeenreSf  ^  that  whenever  the  conformable  ministers  visited  these  demo- 
-BiacB*  and  used  the  form  of  prayer  according  to  the  established  liturgy, 
tl|e  devil  was  as  quiet  as  a  lamb,  there  being  nothing  in  those  prayers  to 
dlstorb  his  peace.  But  when  Mr.  Darrell  and  his  nonconformist  brethren 
afiproachea,  who  used  to  faU  upon  him  with  whole  volleys  of  raw  and 
andigested  prayers  of  their  own  devising,  then  were  the  wicked  spirits 
extremely  troubled  and  perplexed ;  so  that  the  puritans,  lest  the  papists 
should  io  any  thing  have  the  start  of  them,  had  also  a  kind  of  holy  tooftr, 
with  which  to  frighten  away  the  devil,''— /f^j/aVs  MiictU  Tracts^  p.  156. 

f  Strype's  Whitgift,  p.  492—494. 


^'  Any  one,"  says  he,  "  who  considers  the  state  of  HbB 
town  of  Nottingham,  will  applaud  the  proceedings  of  the 
high  commission."     Then,  in  the  words  of  Mr.  Strype,  he 

fives  an  account  of  the  state  of  the  town,  as  if  Mr.  Dandl 
ad  prompted  the  people  to  quarrel  one  with  another ;  or, 
as  if  his  deprivation  and  severe  imprisonment  were  lijcely 
to  allay  the  diflference.  "  By  this  time,"  says  he,  <^  it  came 
to  pass,  that  the  people  of  Nottingham  were  become  violent 
against  one  another,  and  the  whole  town  divided  as  tbgr 
stood  affected.  The  pulpits  rang  of  nothing  but  devib  and 
witches ;  and  men,  women,  and  children,  were  so  affri^led^ 
that  they  durst  not  stir  out  in  the  night ;  nor  so  mucii  as  a 
servant,  almost,  go  into  his  master's  cellar  about  his  busiflen^ 
without  company.  Few  happened  to  be  sick,  or  ill  at  ease^ 
but  strait  they  were  deemed  to  be  possessed.  It  was  hkh 
time,"  adds  the  leanied  prelate,  ^'  to  put  a  stop  to  w 
practice  of  dispossessing,  whether  the  authors  were  knuves^ 
or  eiithusiasts,  or  both.'^  And  couki  neither  the  JEtishop  of 
Worcester,  nor  yet  the  high  conunissioners  at  Lambeth^ 
think  of  a  more  equitable  method  of  punishing  the  con* 
tentious  inhabitants  of  Nottingham,  than  by  indlicting^  td 
heavy  a  sentence  upon  Mr.  Darrell  ?  But  Mr.  Danell  was 
H  puritan ;  therefore,  right  or  wrong,  he  must  needs  be 

Somers  and  Darling  were  also  brought  before  the  high 
^mmission.  During  their  examinations,  though  the  fonner 
returned  to  his  accusation  of  Mr.  Darrell,  declaring  that 
he  himself  had,  in  what  he  had  done,  been  guilty  m  dis- 
simulation, the  latter  stood  firm ;  and,  notwimstanduig  flio 
entreaties,  threatenings,  and  fair  promises  of  the  archbiahq^ 
and  others,  he  could  not  be  prevailed  upon  to  accusie  him^ 
but  maintained  to  the  last,  that  the  evil  spirit  had  been  cast 
out  of  him.  It  does  not  appear,  however,  tiiat  either*  of 
them  were  cast  into  prison.  + 

The  prosecution  of  Mr.  Darrell  led  to  a  new  controvmy, 
whei^  Mr.  Harsnet,  chaplain  to  Bishop  Bancroft,  and 
afterwards  Archbishop  of  York,  published  a  work,  entitled, 
"  A  Discovery  of  the  fraudulent  practices  of  John  Dandl, 
Batchelor  of  Arts,  in  his  proceedings  concerninjr  the  pre* 
tended  possession  and  dispossession  of  William  Somers  of 
Nottingham :  of  Thomas  Darling,  the  boy  of  Burton  at 
Galdwall :  and  of  Katherii\e  Wright  at  Mansfield  and 
Whittington :  and  of  his  dealings  with  one  Maiy  Couper 

•  YhidicBtioD  of  the  Chovcb,  p.  360.  ,    ' 

f  Clark's  Lives  annexed  to  Marty rdogie,  p.  32» 

DARRELL.  121 

at  Nottingham,  detecting  in  some  sort  the  deceitiul  tfade  in 
then  latter  days  of  casting  out  devils,"  1599.  This 
Indilbed  Mr.  Darrell  to  publiA  a  reply,  entitled,  <<A 
Detiection  of  that  sinful,  shamful,  lying,  and  ridiculoi'is 
Discours,  of  Samuel  Harshnet.*  Entituled :  A  Discoverie 
of  the  fraudulent  practices  of  John  Darrell.  Wherein  is 
manifestly  and  apparently  shewed  in  the  eyes  of  the  world. 
Not  only  the  unlikelihoode,  but  the  flate  impossibilitie  of  the 
pretended  counterfayting  of  William  Somers,  Thomas  Darl- 
ing, Kath.  Wright,  and  Mary  Couper,  together  with  other  7 
in  Lancashire,  and  the  supposed  teaching  of  tbem  by  the 
saide  John  Darrell,"  1600.  The  same  year,  Mr.  Darrell  also 
published,  ^^  A  true  Narration  of  the  strange  and  greyous 
Vexation  by  the  Devil,  of  7  Persons  in  Lancashire,  and 
William  Somers  of  iVotfingham.  Wherein  (he  doctrine  of 
FdssessicMi  and  Dispossession  of  Demoniakes  out  of  the  word 
of  God  is  particularly  applied  unto  Somers,  and  the  rest  of 
the  piersbns  controyertea :  together  with  the  use  we  are  to 
make  of  these  workes  of  God."  Mr.  Greorge  Moore,  his 
intimate  friend,  and  fellow-sufferer  in  the  same  cause,  likewise 
published  a  reply  to  Harsnet,  entitled,  "  A  true  Discourse 
concerning  the  certaine  Possession  and  Dispossession  of  7 
persons  in  one  familie  in  Lancashire,  which  also  may  serve 
as  jpart  of  an  Answere  to  a  fayned  and  false  Discoverie 
which  speaketh  very  much  evill,  as  well  of  this,  as  of  the 
rest  of  those  great  and  mightie  workes  of  God,  which  be  of 
the  like  excellent  nature,"  1600  a 

Mr.  Darrell,  upon  his  imprisonment,  published  another 
work  paiticnlarly  in  his  own  defence,  entitled,  ^'  The  Trial 
of  Joan  Darrell,  or  a  Collection  of  Defences  against 
Alligations  not  yet  suffered  to  receive  convenient  Answer, 
tencung  to  clear  him  from  the  Imputation  of  teaching 
Somers  and  others  to  counterfeit  Possession  of  Devils,"  1599. 
Also,  whQe  he  was  in  prison,  he  published  ''  An  Apology 
or  Defence  of  the  Possession  of  William  Somers,  &c. 
Wherein  this  work  of  God  is  cleared  from  the  evil  name  of 
counterfeiting.  And  thereupon  also  it  is  shewn,  that  in 
these  days  men  may  be  possessed  with  devils;  and  tliat 
being  so,  by  prayer  and  fasting  the  unclean  spirit  may  be 
cast  out'*    At  the  close  of  this  work,  Mr.  Darrell  made  the 

*  Hunet  waff  one  of  the  principal  perwcaton  of  Mr.  DarreU,  and  wai 
advaaced  to  the  bishopric  of  Norwich,  ah  the  jnst  r«*ward  of  this  meritorioas 
service.  Bat  oar  antbor,  by  mistake,  calls  Mr.  Daireli  st  popish  prieit. — 
BUomJUid't  Hist,  of  Norfolk^  toI.  li.  p.  40S. 

i  Bio^.  Britaa.  toI.  i?.  p.  8M7.    I:;dit,  1747. 


following  protestation : — <<  If  what  I  am  accused  of  be 
true,  even  that  I  have  been  accessary  to  a  vile  impostune/ 
with  a  design  to  impose  on  mankind,  let  me  be  registered  to 
my  perpetual  infamy,  not  only  for  a  notorious  deoeiyeri 
but  such  an  hypocrite  as  never  trod  cm  the  earth  befoie,. 
Yea,  Lord !  for  to  Thee  I  direct  my  speech,  who  knoweth 
all  things,  if  I  have  confederated  morp  or  less,  with  Soimei% 
Darling,  or  any  others ;  if  ever  I  set  my  eye  upon  them 
before  they  were  possessed,  then  let  me  not  only  be  made  a 
laughing-stock,  and  a  by -word  to  all  men,  but  raze  my 
name  ako  out  of  the  book  of  life,  and  let  me  have  mj^ 
portion  with  hypocrites."*  » 

While  Mr.  Darrell  was  suffering  in  close  prison  in  the 
Gatehouse,  the  productions  of  his  pen  were  spread  through 
the  kingdom.  His  books  found  their  way  to  the  two 
universities,  particularly  Cambridge,  where  many  of  them 
were  purchased  by  the  learned  coUegians.  This  priesently 
roused  the  attention  of  the  ecclesiastical  governors ;  when 
the  bookseller'  was  convened  before  Dr.  Jegon,  the  vice- 
chancellor,  as  will  appear  from  the  following  letter,  addressed 
<<  To  the  right  Rev*  Father  in  God,  the  Lord  Bishop  <^ 
London :"+ 

"  Right  reverend,  my  very  good  lord,  my  duty  mosi 
humbly  premised.  May  it  please  you  to  be  advertised, 
that  certain  books  of  Darrell's,  in  two  volumes,  the  one 
^^  A  Detection  of  the  shameful,  lying  Discoverie,"  &c.  tlie 
other  "  A  true  Narration  of  the  strange  Vexation,"  &ci 
have  been  sold  underhand,  by  a  taylor,  since  Christmas 
last,  to  the  number  of  sixty  books,  as  the  party  before  me 
hath  confessed.  To  whom  he  hath  sold  them  in  partiddar, 
he  will  not  confess :  whereupon  I  have  bound  nim  here, 
with  surety,  to  be  forth  coming  untiM  know  your  lordship's 
pleasure,  thinking  it  my  duty  io  signify  the  same,  knowing 
that  Darrell  hath  been  censured  for  a  dissembler,  ana 
supposing  that  such  books  come  not  out  with  allowaace 
and  privilege*     The  examination  I  send  here  inclosed. 

"  Jegon,  Vice-chancellor  of  the 

"  University  of  Cambridge/' 

What  further  prosecution  the  poor  man  underwent,  or 
when  Mr.  Darrell  was  released  from  his  cruel  imprisoninenl^ 
it  is  very  difficult  to  ascertain. 

•  Strype*8  Whitgiflt,  p.  495.     +  Baker*8  MS.  CoUec.  toI.  xzTii,<^.  11.- 

GOODMAN.  123 

"  CH&iSTOPfttiR  Goodman,  B.  D. — This  distinguished 
{nufitan  was  born  in  the  city  of  Chester,  about  the  year 
IS  19,  and  educated  in  Brazen-nose  college,  Oxford.  After 
taking' his  d^rees  in  Arts,  he  was  constituted  one  of  the 
acnior  students  of  Christ's  Church,  then  newly  founded  by 
H«ify  VIII.  Towards  the  close  of  the  reign  of  King 
Edward,  he  was  admitted  to  the  reading  of  the  sentences, 
and  chosen  divinity  lecturer  in  the  university.  But  upon 
the  accession  of  Queen  Mary,  and  the  return  of  popery 
and .  bloody  persecution,  he  withdrew  from  the  storm,  and 
went  into  exile.  He  retired,  with  many  of  his  brethren,  to 
Frankfort,  and  was  deeply  involved  in  the  troubles  of  that 
place,  occasioned  chiefly  by  the  officious  interference  of  Dr. 
Cox  and  his  party.  Here,  when  it  was  proposed  to  make 
choice  of  officers  for  the  church,  Mr.  Goodman  gave  it  as 
his  opinion,  "  That  they  ought  first  to  agree  to  some  godly 
drder  for  the  church ;  and,  in  agreeing  to  this  order,  to 
obtain  the  consent  of  the  congre^tion,  whereby  it  might 
appear  that  they  contemned  not  the  rest  of  their  brethren  r 
and  further,  to  proceed  to  the  election,  which  he  thought, 
dso,  ought  not  to  be  attempted  without  the  consent  of  the 
whole  church."  In  neither  of  these  proposals,  however, 
did  Mr.  Goodman  succeed.  For  it  was  replied,  that  they 
should  have  no  other  order  than  the  English  Book  of 
CcMnmon  Prayer ;  and  Dr.  Cox  had  assembled  the  ministers, 
at  his  lodgings,  to  make  choice  of  a  bishop  and  other 
officers.*  Upon  the  separation  at  Frankfort,  Mr.  Goodman 
went  to  Geneva,  where  he  and  Mr.  John  Knox,  the  famous 
Scotch  reformer,  were  chosen  pastors  of  the  English  church, 
and  there  remained  till  the  death  of  Queen  Mary.  While 
at  Geneva,  he  assisted  Mr.  Knox  in  composing  ^'  The 
Book  of  Common  Order,"  which  was  to  be  used  as  a 
directory  of  worship  in  the  protestant  congregations.+ 
Upon  receiving  the  news  of  the  queen's  death,  Mr.  Goodman 
and  his  brethren  at  Geneva,  wrote  a  most  affectionate, 
healing  letter  to  their  fellow-exiles  at  Frankfort.  This 
letter,  with  the  answer,  is  still  preserved.J 

It  will  be  proper  here  to  observe,  that  during  Mr. 
Gopdman*s  exile,  and  some  time  before  the  queen's  death, 
a  report  came  to  them  that  she  was  dead.  The  rumour 
occasioned  him  to  write  to  Mr.  Bartlet  Green,  a  lawyer,  a 
pious  professor  of  the  gospel,  and  his  former  acquaintance 

*  Troobl«8  at  Frankeford,  p.  39, 40. 

-f  Scott's  Lives  of  Reformers,  p.  250.     Edit,  1810. 

t  Troablet  at  Franl^eford,  p.  100—163. 


at  Oxford,  inquiring  whether  the  report  was  true.  Hii 
worthy  friend  replied,  The  queen  is  not  ytX  dead.  The 
letter,  however,  being  intercepted,  Mr.  Green  was  appifw 
hended^  committed  to  the  Tower,  and,  after  lying  a  loii; 
time  in  prison,  condemned  and  committed  to  the  flames, 
under  the  cruel  severities  of  Bonner,  bishop  of  London.* 
While  our  divine  remained  at  Geneva,  he  took  an  activt 
part,  with  several  of  his  learned  brethren,  in  writing  and 
publishing  the  Geneva  translation  of  the  Bible.f 

On  the  accession  of  Queen  Elizabeth^  Mr.  Groodma% 
after  finishing. the  Translation,  returned  from  exile,  but  did 
not  immediajtely  come  to  England.  He  went  to  Scotland ; 
and,  for  several  years,  was  actively  employed  in  promoting 
the  reformation,  and  preaching  the  gospel,  in  that  oountiy. 
in  the  year  1560,  having  preached  for  some  time  at  AjTr,  the 
committee  of  parliament,  wjio  nominated  the  ministers  for 
the  principal  towns  in  Scotland,  appointed  him  to  be 
minister  at  St.  Andrews,  where  it  was  thought  expediqit 
that  the  officiating  minister  should  be  a  man  of  established 
leputation.t  KSovX  the  same  time,  he  was  onployed  in  a 
public  disputation  at  Edinburgh,  betwixt  the  papists  and 

Erotestants.  Those  on  the  side  of  the  papists  were.Dr^ 
lesley,  Dr.  Anderson,  Mr.  Mirton,  a^d  Mr.  Stracouin  ;  who 
disputed  with  Mr.  Knox,  Mr.  Willock,  and  Mr.  Uoodman. 
The  points  of  disputation  were,  ^^  The  holy  eiicharist  and 
the  sacrifice  of  the  altar."  In  the  conclusion,  thdugh  the 
papists  gave  it  out,  that  the  protestants  were  com^etdy 
Imffled,  and  declined  the  contest  in  future,  the  nobilitVy 
who  attended  the  dispute,  were  certainly  of  another  iliina.i 
As  minister  of  St..  Andrews,  Mr.  Goodman  was  present 
in  the  assembly,  December  20,  1560,  with  the  assistant 
elders,  David  Spens  and  Robert  Kynpont,  who  accompanied 
him.  In  156S,  he  and  Mr.  John  Uow,  minister  of  Perth, 
were  appointed  to  assist  John  Erskine  of  Dun,  in  the 
visitation  of  the  sheriffdoms  of  Aberdeen  and  Banff.  And 
in  1563,  he  argued  in  opposition  tp  Mr.  Secretary  Lething* 
ton,  that  tlie  tithes  ought  to  be  appropriated  to  ihe  cleigy, 
Lethington  was  on  this  occasion  much  chagrined;  and  un- 
generously said,  that  it  was  not  fit  that  a  stranger  should 
meddle  with  the  affairs  of  a  foreign  commonwealth.  Mr« 
doodman  calmly,  but  firmly,  replied,  ^<  My  lord  secietary, 

*  Fox's  Martyrs,  vol.  iii.  p.  523 — ^526.— Srrype's  Cranmer,  p.  3T0« 

+  See  Art.  Coverdalc. 

X  HiRt.  of  Chorch  of  Scotland,  p.  853.     Edit.  1644. 

S  CoHier's  £ccl.  Hiit.  yol.  ii.  p.  476. 

>    600DMAK.  129 

thoiu^  in  Tcmr  pdicy  I  be  a  fstran^r,  yet  I  am  not  so  in 
the  jDik  of  Goa ;  and,  therefore,  the  care  thereof  apper** 
tainoCh  no  less  to  me  in  Scotland,  than  if  I  were  in  the  midst 
of  England*''* 

In  toe  year  1564,  he  was  appointed  to  preacb  for  the 
space  of  a  month,  at  Edinburgh,  in  the  absence  of  Mr. 
John  Craig,  one  of  the  ministers  of  that  city,  who  had  been 
oommissicned  to  visit  some  of  the  southern  parts  of  the 
kingdom.  Also,  the  assembly,  June  25,  1565,  laid  many 
appointments  upon  him,  some  of  which  be  did  not  fulfil ; 
for,  before  the  assembly  again  met,  December  25th,  in  the 
same  year,  be  had  left  the  kingdom ;  which  is  thus  noticed 
in  the  church-register : — ><^  Conmiissioners  from  St.  Andrews 
appeared,  who  requested  that  Mr.  John  Knox  should  be 
transplanted,  and  placed  at  St.  Andrews.  The  assembly 
lefnsed  their  request,  and  desired  them  to  choose  a  minister 
out  of  their  own  university,  in  the  room  of  Mr.  Christopher 
Croodman,  who  had  lately  departed  into  England. "f 

Dr.  Heylin,  with  his  wonted  peevishness  and  slander, 
says,  ^  it  cannot  be  denied,  tliat  Goodman,  Gilbyi 
Whittingham,  and  the  rest  of  the  Genevean  conventicle, 
wete  very  much  grieved,  at  their  return  from  exile,  that 
they  cxrald  not  bear  the  like  sway  here  as  Calvin  and  B^za 
did  ai  Geneva.  They  not  only  repined  and  were  envious 
at  the  lefonnation  of  the 'English  church,  because  not  fitted 
to  tfadr  fiuicies,  and  Calvin's  platform ;  but  laboured  to  sow 
those  seeds  of  heterodoxy  and  disobedience,  which  brought 
forth  those  troubles  and  disorders  that  afterwards  followed. "( 
So  much  reproach,  misrepresentation  and  falsehood,  is 
sddoin  found  within  so  small  a  compass.  • 

About  the  year  1568,  our  celebrated  divine  became 
chaphun  to  Sir  Henry  Sidlney,  in  his  expedition  against  the 
nhdB  in  Ireland,  and  shewed  his  great  diligence  and  faith- 
iidneaB  in  that  service.^  And  in  1571,  he  was  cited  before 
Archbishc^  Parker,  and  other  high  conmiissioners,  at 
Lambeth.  He  published  a  book,  during  his  exile  under 
Queen  Mary,  entitled,  <<  How  Superior  R>wers  ought  to  be 
obeyed  of  their  Subjects,  and  wherein  they  may  be  lawfully, 
by  God's  Word,  obeyed  and  resisted :  Wherein  a}so  is 
dieclared  the  Cause  of  all  the  present  Misery  in  England, 
and  how  the  same  may  be  remedied,'*  1558.  In  this  work, 
he  spoke  with  some  freedom  against  the  government  of 
women,  but  especially  the  severe  proceedings  of  Queen 

•  Scou'f  Uweg  of  RcfoBBCTt,  p.  251 .  ^  Ibid .  p .  252. 

X  Hejlia't  Hiit.  of  Pres.  p.  25.         <  Troablcs  at  Fnokeford,  p.  ISS. 


Maij.  From  this  book,  the  archbishop,  after  iso  "saaaif: 
years,  collected  certain  dangerous  and  seditious  arttcles^-a^' 
they  are  called ;  and  required  Mr.  Goodman  to  revoke  hiif 
opinions.*  Though  he  refused  for  some  time,  yet^  befoie 
his  release  could  be  procured,  he  was  obliged  to. subscribe 
ihe  following  recantation : 

<<  For  as  much  as  the  extremity  of  the  time,  wheiein  I 
did  write  my  book,  brought  forth  alteration  of  leligion, 
setting  up  of  idolatry,  banishment  of  good  m«i,  muidering 
of  saints,  and  violation  of  all  promises  made  to  the  godly; 
I  was,  upon  consideration  of  present  grief,  moved  to  wnte 
many  things  therein,  which  may  be,  and  are,  offenshrdijr 
taken,  and  which  also  I  do  mislike,  and  wish  ihey  had  not 
been  written.  And  notwithstanding  the  book,  by  me  so 
written,  I  do  protest  and  confess,  ^  That  good  and  godly 
women  may  lawfully  govern  whole  realms  and  nations;  ana 
do,  from  the  bottom  of  my  heart,  allow  the  queen's  majesty's 
most  lawful  government,  and  daily  pray  for  the  long 
continuance  of  the  same.  Neither  did  I  ever  mean  to  aflbm, 
that  any  person  or  persons,  of  their  own  authority,  ^ught 
or  miffht  lawfully,  have  punished  Queen  Mary  with  derai. 
Nor  that  the  people,  of  their  own  authority,  may  lawfidly 
punish  their  magistrates,  transgressing  the  Lord's  pieceptft 
Nor  that  ordinarily  God  is  the  head  of  the  people^  and 
giveth  the  sword  into  their  hands,  though  they  seek  Hnt 
accomplishment  of  his  laws.'  Wherefore,  as  many  <tf  these 
assertions  as  may  be  rightly  collected  out  of  my  said  book, 
them  I  do  utterly  renounce  and  revoke,  as  none  of  mine; 
promising  never  to  write,  teach,  nor  preach,  any  such 
offensive  doctrine.  Humbly  desiring,  thatit  may  please  yoor 
lordships  to  ^ve  me  your  good  and  favourable  allowanoei; 
whereby  I  shall,  by  God's  grace,  endeavour  to  labour  ii 
furthering  the  true  service  of  God,  and  obedience  to  hs 
majesty,  to  the  utmost  of  my  power,  during  my  whole  lift; 
to  the  satisfaction  of  all  good  men,  and  to  the  contentment 
of  her  majesty  and  your  good  lordships. 

<<  ClIRISTOPHEE  GrOODlf  Alf.''f  ' 

^^  This  is  a  lame  recantation,"  says  one  of  our  kaned 
historians.  ^^  For  Goodman  founds  the  queen's  title  upoii 
her  moral  J  and  not  upon  her  ctt»7  qualifications.  Chd^ 
women,"  he  says, "  may  lawfully  govern.  By  this  dodxinti^ 
where  there  is  no  virtue,  there  can  be  no  claim  to  authority ; 
and  when  their  godliness  is  at  an  end,  their  govomment  murt 

•.Strype'i  Parker,  p,  S2&,  336.        f  Slrype'i.  Annals«  v«K  I.  p.  ISO. 

GooDMAif.  lar 

lie  BO  too :  this  is  fouiding  dominicm  on  grace.  And  when' 
the  prince  has  so  precarious  a  title,  and  the  subjects  are 
made  judges  of  the  forfeiture,  peace  and  public  order  must 
be  weakly  established.  The  next  part  of  the  recantation  is 
not  one  jot  bett^.  For  by  only  denying  that  prvoate  people 
Hoav  estecute  their  princes,  he  seems  to  aUow  that  ms^istrates 
Hid  parliaments  may  do  it.  And  by  saying,  that  GoA  does 
not  vtdSnanhf  put  the  sword  into  the  hands  of  the  people, 
what  can  be  inferred,  but  that  in  some  cases  it  is  lawful  for 
(he  people  to  rise  against  their  sovereign,  and  reform  the 
dmrch  and  state  at  discretion."*  How  much  better  would 
tfie  learned  writer  have  ordered  this  recantation,  if  he  had 
faftoniUely  been  one  of  the  high  commissioners  at  Lambeth ! 
If  the  form  of  it  was  really  faulty,  surely  this  attaches 
BO  evil  io  Mr.  Groodman.  He  only  complied  with  the  im- 
positions of  his  ecclesiastical  judges.  In  this,  as  in  numerous 
other  instances,  we  see  the  extreme  madness  of  any  man,  or 
any  body  of  men,  attempting  to  impose  their  own  opinions 
vpon  their  fellow-creatures. 

When  Mr.  Groodman  was  cited  before  the  archbishop 
and  otiier  commissioners,  he  was  required  to  subscribe,  n^ 
01^  the  above  recantation,  but  the  following  protestation 
of  his  loyalty  to  the  queen  and  government : 
'  ^  I,  Christopher  Goodman,  preacher  of  God*s  word  in 
this  realm  of  England,  have  protested,  the  day  and  year 
above  written,  before  the  reverend  fathers  aforesaid,  and  in 
this  present  writing,  do  unfeignedly  protest  and  confess 
before  all  men,  that  I  have  esteemed  and  taken  Elizabeth, 
by -the  grace  of  God  Queen  of  England,  France,  and 
Ireland,  defender  of  the  faith,  &c.  ever  smce  her  coronaticm, 
as  noW)  and  shall  during  life,  and  her  grace's  government, 
for  my  only  liege  lady,  and  most  lawful  queen  and  sove- 
nign.  Whom  I  truly  reverence  in  my  heart,  love,  fear, 
and  obey,  as  becometh  an  obedient  subject,  in  all  thin^ 
Iftwftil;  a^d  as  I  have  at  sundry  times  in  the  pulpit^ 
9rillingly  and  of  mine  own  accord,  declared  in  great  audi- 
ence, who  can  and  will  bear  me  sufficient  record,  exhorting 
and  persuading  all  men,  so  far  forth  as  in  me  did  lay,  to  the 
like  obedience  to  her  majesty.  For  whose  preservation, 
an^  prosperous  government,  I  have  earnestly  and  daily 
prated  to  God,  and  will,  being  assisted  by  his  holy  spirit, 
aiiring  my  Ufe.    In  witness  whereof,  I  the  said  Christopher, 

*  OoUier'f  Eccl.  Hist.  vol.  ii.  p.  440. 


Maij.  From  this  book,  the  archbishop,  after  so  muuij^ 
years,  collected  certain  dangerous  and  seditious articles^w 
they  are  called ;  and  requirra  Mr.  Goodman  to  revoke  his 
opinions.*  Though  he  refused  for  some  time,  yetj  before 
his  release  could  be  procured,  he  was  obliged  to  subscribe 
ihe  following  recantation :  ... 

<^  For  as  much  as  the  extremity  of  the  time,  wherein  I 
did  write  my  book,  brought  forth  alteration  of  religion^ 
setting  up  of  idolatiy,  banishment  of  good  men,  murdering 
of  saints,  and  violation  of  all  promises  made  to  the  godly ; 
I  was,  upon  consideration  of  present  grief,  moved  to  write 
many  things  therein,  which  may  be,  and  are,  offensively 
taken,  and  which  also  I  do  mislike,  and  wish  ihey  had  no^ 
been  written.  And  notwithstanding  the  book,  by  me  so 
written,  I  do  protest  and  confess,  ^  That  good  and  godly 
women  may  lawfully  govern  whole  realms  and  nations ;  and 
do,  from  the  bottom  of  my  heart,  allow  the  queen's  majesty's 
most  lawful  government,  and  daily  pray  for  the  long 
continuance  of  the  same.  Neither  did  I  ever  mean  to  aflton, 
that  any  person  or  perscms,  of  their  own  authority,  ought 
or  miffht  lawfully  have  punished  Queen  Mary  with  deatti. 
Nor  that  the  people,  of  their  own  authority,  may  lawfidly 
punish  their  magistrates,  transgressing  the  Lord's  preceptei 
Nor  that  ordinarily  God  is  the  head  of  the  people^  and 
giveth  the  sword  into  their  hands,  though  they  seek  iht 
accbmplishment  of  his  laws.'  Wherefore,  as  many  of  these 
assertions  as  may  be  rightly  collected  out  of  my  said  book, 
them  I  do  utterly  renounce  and  revoke,  as  none  of  mine; 
promising  never  to  write,  teach,  nor  preach,  any  such 
offensive  doctrine.  Humbly  desiring,  that  it  may  please  your 
lordships  to  give  me  your  good  and  favourable  allowance.; 
whereby  I  shall,  by  God's  grace,  endeavour  to  labour  ia 
furthering  the  true  service  of  God,  and  obedience  to  her 
majesty,  to  the  utmost  of  my  power,  during  my  whole  life; 
to  the  satisfaction  of  all  good  men,  and  to  the  contentiiieiit 
of  her  majesty  and  your  good  lordships. 


^^  This  is  a  lame  recantation,"  says  one  of  our  learned 
historians.  <^  For  Goodman  founds  the  queen's  title  upte 
her  moraly  and  not  upon  her  ctz7t/ qualifications.  CMUf 
women,"  he  says, "  may  lawfully  govern.  By  this  dootrini^ 
where  there  is  no  virtue,  there  can  be  no  claim  to  siuthority^; 
and  when  their  godliness  is  at  an  end,  their  government  must 

•.Strype's  Parker,  p,  S2&,  336.        f  Sirype'g.  Annals«  v«K  i.  p.  IM> 

GOODMAir.  Itt 

be  80  too :  iiiis  is  founding  dominicm  on  grace.  And  when' 
the  prince  has  so  precarious  a  title,  and  the  subjects  are 
made  judges  trf*  the  forfeiture,  peace  and  public  order  must 
be  weakly  established.  The  next  part  of  the  recantation  is 
imt  one  jot  better.  For  by  only  denying  that  private  people 
Hiay  e:stecute  their  princes,  he  seems  toaUow  that  magistrates 
and  parliaments  may  do  it  And  by  saying,  that  (Sod  does 
not  etdbmrify  put  the  sword  into  the  hands  of  the  people, 
what  can  be  inferred,  but  that  in  some  cases  it  is  lawful  for 
ibe  people  to  rise  against  their  sovereign,  and  reform  the 
church  and  state  at  discretion."*  How  much  better  would 
the  learned  writer  have  ordered  this  recantation,  if  he  had 
fortunately  been  one  of  the  high  commissioners  at  Lambeth ! 
If  the  form  of  it  was  really  faulty,  surely  this  attaches 
no  evil  to  Mr.  Goodman.  He  only  complied  with  the  im- 
positions of  his  ecclesiastical  judges.  In  tnis,  as  in  numerous 
other  instances,  we  see  the  extreme  madness  of  any  man,  or 
any  body  of  men,  attempting  to  impose  their  own  opinions 
upon  their  fellow-creatures. 

When  Mr.  Goodman  was  cited  before  the  archbishop 
and  otiier  commissioiiers,  he  was  required  to  subscribe,  n^ 
odty  the  above  recantation,  but  the  following  protestation 
of  his  loyalty  to  the  queen  and  government : 
•  ^  I,  Christopher  Goodman,  preacher  of  God*s  word  in 
this  lealm  of  £ngland,  have  protested,  the  day  and  year 
above  written,  before  the  reverend  fathers  aforesaid,  and  in 
this  present  writing,  do  unfeignedly  protest  and  confess 
before  all  men,  that  I  have  esteemed  and  taken  Elizabeth, 
by  the  grace  of  God  Queen  of  England,  France,  and 
Ireland,  defender  of  the  faith,  &c.  ever  since  her  coronaticm, 
as  noW)  and  shall  during  life,  and  her  grace's  government, 
for  my  only  liege  lady,  and  most  lawful  queen  and  sove- 
reign. Whom  I  truly  reverence  in  my  heart,  love,  fear, 
and  obey,  as  becometh  an  obedient  subject,  in  all  thin^ 
lawftil;  a^d  as  I  have  at  sundry  times  in  the  pulpit^ 
mllingly  and  of  mine  own  accord,  declared  in  great  audi- 
ence, who  can  and  will  bear  me  sufficient  record,  exhorting 
and  persuading  all  men,  so  far  forth  as  in  me  did  lay,  to  the 
like  obedience  to  her  majesty.  For  whose  preservation, 
an^  prosperous  government,  I  have  earnestly  and  daily 
pfayra  to  God,  and  will,  being  assisted  by  his  holy  spirit, 
aimng  my  life.    In  witness  whereof,  I  the  said  Christopher, 

*  OoUier'f  Eccl.  Hist.  vo].  ii.  p.  440. 


have  subscribed  this  protestation  i^ith  mine  own  hand,  the 
S6th  day  of  April^  1571,  by  me, 

"  Christopher  Gtoodman.***  . 

In  the  year  1584,  Mr.  Goodman,  we  find,  lived  in  his 
native  county,  where  he  was  most  probably  silenced  ficNr 
nonconformity.  During  that  year,  Archbishop  Whitgift 
haying  pressed  subscription  to  his  three  articles,  upon  the 

lly  ministers  in  those  parts,  Mr.  Goodman  wrotis  to  the 
!ajrl  of  Leicester,  informing  him  how  the  papists  in  Cheshire 
and  elsewhere,  rejoiced  at  the  proceedings  and  severities  of 
the  archbishop.  This  the  archbishop,  indeed,  resented  and 
denied,  and  charged  Mr.  Goodman  with  perverseness,  in 
refusing  subscription,  and  an  exact  conformity  to  the  estab- 
lished church.f 

We  have  not  been  able  to  obtain  any  further  account'of  thii 
excellent  divine,  till  the  pious  and  learned  Mr.  James  Usher} 
afterwards  the  famous  archbishop,  came  to  England  to  pur* 
chase  books  for  the  college  library  at  Dublin,  nvhen  ho 
visited  him  on  his  death-bed.  Usher  was  so  deejAw 
impressed  with  the  holy  conversation  of  this  venesiUe 
divine,  that,  when  he  himself  became  an  old  man,  and  the 
Archbishop  of  Armagh,  he  often  repeated  the  wise  aiid  grtTtt 
speeches  which  he  had  heard  from  him.J  Mr.  GoodmaD 
died  in  1603,  aged  eighty-three  years,  and  his  reml^ 
were  interred  in  St.  Werburg's  church,  in  the  d^  (tf 
Chester.  Fuller  denominates  him  a  leader,  of  the  nerit 
nonconformists.^  Wood  says,  he  was  a  most  violoit  non- 
conformist, and  more  rigid  in  his  opinions  than^  hii 
friend  John  Calvin,  who  speaks  of  him  in  his  epu  ~ 
Mr.  Leigh  calls  him  a  learned,  good,  and  holy  divin 
Dr.  Bancroft  says,  that  he,  with  the  rest  of  the  Geneva 
accomplices,  urged  all  estates  to  take  up  arms,  and  -bjr 
force  to  reform  religion  themselves,  rather  than  to  liaOeii 
superstition  and  idolatry  to  remain  in  the  land.** 

Mr.  Thomas  Merburie  of  Christ's  coU^,  Cambridge 
in  his  last  will  and  testament,  dated  December  1, 1571,  an 
proved  the  same  month,  appointed  <^  his  well-beloveidi.  :n 
Christ,  his  father-in-law,  Mr.Christopher  Goodman,  preacher 

•  Strype*8  Annals,  toI.  i.  p«  95, 96.  f  Ibid.  toI.  Hi.  p.  946,  Mti' 
X  Bernard's  Life  of  Usher,  p.  42.     Edit.  1656. 

S  Fuller's  Church  Hist.  b.  ix.  p.  77.  ,  ,  i' 

jl  Wood's  Athens  Oxoo.  vol  i.  p.  273. 
1  Leigh's  Religion  and  Learning,  p.  811. 

•  •  Bancroft's  Dangeroui  Positions,  p.  62.    Edit.  1640, 

PERKINS.  129 

of  GocVs  word,"  one  of  the  supervisors  of  his  wiU.»  Mr. 
Goodman  publish*  d  the  two  tbilowing  -irticles :  ^<  How 
Superior  Powers  ought  to  be  obeyed  of  their  Subjects,  and 
wherein  they  mfiy  be  hwfully,  by  God's  Word,  disobeyd 
and  resisted,"^'  1548, — "  A  Commentary  on  Amos."  Wood 
ascribes  to  him,  <<  The  first  Blast  of  the  Trumpet  against 
the  Monstrous  Regiment  of  Women,"  1558 :  But  it  is  well 
known  that  Mr.  John  Knox,  the  celebrated  Scotch  reformer, 
was  its  aothor :  our  divine  only  itrote  the  preface  to  that 

William  Perkins    was   bom  at  Marton  in  War- 
wickshire, in  the  year  1558,  and  educated  in   Christ's 
college,  Cambridge.     For  some  time  after  his  going  to 
the   university,  he  continued   exceedingly   profile,   and 
ran  to  great  lengths  in  prodigality.     While  Mr.  Perkins 
was  a  young  man,  and  a  scholar  at  Cambridge,  he  was 
much  devoted  to  di  unkeuness.    As  he  was  walking  in  the 
skirts  of  the  town,  he  heard  a  woman  say  to  a  child  that  was 
froward  and  peevish,  "  Hold  your  tongue,  or  1  will  give 
^*  you  to  drunken  Perkins,  yonder."      Finding  himself, 
b^ome  a  by-word  among  the  people,  his  conscience  smote 
hiin^  and  he  became  so  deeply  impressed,  that  it  was  the 
first  step  towards  his  conversion.     After  he  was  called  by 
divine  grace,  and  become  a  preacher  of  the  gospel,  he  laid 
pp«n  the  working  of  sin  and  vanity  in  others,  exercised  a 
spirit  of  sympathy  over  perishing  sinners,  and  upon  their 
repentance  and  faith  in  Jesus  Christ,  led  them  to  the  enjoy- 
ment of  substantial  comfort.    He  gave,  at  the  same  time, 
strong  proofs  of  his  great  genius,  by  his  deep  researches  into 
nature^  and  its  secret  springs  oi  operation.     When  the 
Lord  was  pleased  to  convert  him  from  the  error  of  his  ways, 
he  immediately  directed  his  attention  to  the  study  of  divi- 
luty,  and  applied  himself  with  such  uncommon  diligence^ 
tiiat  in  a  short  time,  he  made  an  almost  incredible  profici- 
^cy  in  divine  knowledge. 

At  the  age  of  twenty-four,  he  was  chosen  fellow  of  his 
<^l%e,  when  he  entered  upon  the  sacred  function.  Having 
Umaelf  freely  received,  he  freely  gave  to  others ;  arid  in 
uiiitation  of  our  Lord,  he  went  and  preached  deliverance  to 
^ptives.  Feeling  bowels  of  compassion  for  the  poor  pri- 
'  *^er8  confined  in  Cambridge,  he  prevailed  upon  the  jailer 

*  Baker's  MS.  CoHec.  toI.  lii.  p.  314. 


to  colleet  them  together  in  one  spacious  roonii  nrhere  he 
preached  to  them  every  sabbath,  -with  great  power  and 
success.  Here  the  prison  i^as  his  parish;  his  lore  to  souls, 
the  patron  presenting  him  to  it ;  and  his  work,  all  the  wages 
he  received.  No  sooner  were  his  pious  labours  made 
known,  than  multitudes  flocked  to  hear  him  from  all 
quarters.  By  the  blessing  of  Grod  upon  his  endeavours, 
he  became  the  happy  instrument  of  bringing  many  to  the 
knowledge  of  salvation,  i^d  to  enjoy  the  gibhous  liberty  of 
the  sons  6f  God,  not  duly  of  the  prisoners,'  but  others,  who, 
like  them,  were  in  captivity  and  bondage  to  sin.  His  great 
fame,  afterwards  known  in  all  the  churches,  was  soqd 
spread  through  the  whole  university  ;  and  he  was  chosen 

i>reacher  at  St.  Andrew's  church,  where  he  continued  a 
sdborious  and  faithful  minister  of  Christ,  till  cdUed  to 
teceive  his  reward.  * 

Mr.  Perkins  being  settled  in  this  public'  situation,  Ui 
hearers  consisted  of  collegians,  townsmen,  and  people  from 
th6  country.  This  reqtiired  those  peculiar  mmisteiial 
endowments  which  providence  had  richly  bestowed  upon 
him.  In  all  his  discourses,  his  style  add  his  subject  Were 
acconunbdated  to  the  capacities  of  the  conunon  people^ 
while,  at  the  same  time,  me  pious  scholars  heard  hud  with 
admiration.  Luther  used  to  say,  <<  that  ministers  who 
preach  the  terrors  of  the  law,  but  do  not  bring  forth  gospel 
instruction  aiid  consolation,  are  liot  vf^ise  masfer-builderB : 
they  pull  down,  but  do  not  biiild  up  again.''  Bat  Mr. 
Perkinses  sermons  were  edl  laWy  and  alt  gospel.  He  was  a 
rare  instance  of  those  opposite  gifts  meeting  in  so  emmeirf 
a  degree  in^the  same  preacher,  eVen  the  vehemoice  and 
thunder  of  Boanerges^  to  awakisn  sinners  to  a  sense  of  their 
sin  and  dan^r,  and  to  drive  them  from  destruction;  and 
the  persuasion  and  Goitifoit  of  Barnabas^  to  pour  the  ynut 
and  oil  of  gospel  consolation  into  their  wounded  spirits. 
He  used  to  ^pp&  the  terrors  of  the  law  so  direcfly  to  the 
consciences  of  his  hearers,  that  their  hearts  would  ofien 
sink  under  the  convictions ;  and  he  used  to  pronounce  the 
word .  damn  with  so  peculiar  ail  emphasis,  that  it  left  a 
doleful  echo  in  their  ears  a  long  time  after.  •  Also  his 
wisdom  in  giving  advice  and  comfort  to  troubled  con- 
sciences, is  said  to  have  been  such,  <^  that  the  afflicted  in 
spirit,  far  and  near,  came  to  him,  and  received  milch  com' 
fort  from  his  instructions/'  ' 


•  FDl]er*8  Abel  RediTiTas,  p.  431 -434.--Clark'ft  Marrow  of  Bed. 
Hist.  p.  851. 

PERKINS.  131 

Mr.  Perikins  had  a  surprising  talent  for  reading  books. 
He  perused  them  so  speedily,  that  he  appeared  to  read 
Bothiog;  yet  so  accurately,  that  he  seemed  to  read  all.  In 
addition  to  his  frequent  preaching,  and  other  ministerial 
duties,  he  wrote  num«r6tis  excellent  books ;  many  of  which, 
on  account  of  their  great  worth,  were  translated  into  Latin, 
wd  sent  into  foreign  countries,  where  they  were  greatlj 
adnured  and  esteemed.  Some  of  them  being  translated  into 
Frenqh,  Dutch,  and  Spanish,  were  dispersed  throush  tiie 
various  European « nations.  Voetius  and  other  foreign 
divines,  have  spoken  of  him  with  great  honour  and  esteem. 
Bishop  Hall  said,  <<  he  excelled  in  a  distinct  judgment,  a 
Tare  dexterity  in  clearing  the  obscure  subtleties  of  the 
schods,  and  in  an  easy  explication  of  the  most  perplexed 
subjects.'*  And  thoi^h  he  was  author  of  so  many  books, 
being  lame  of  his  right-hand,  he  wrote  them  all  with  his 
left.  He  used  to  write  in  the  title  of  all  his  books,  ^^  Thou  art 
a  Bfinister  of  the  Word :  Mind  thy  business.'" 

This  celebrated  divine  was  a  thorough  puritan,  both  in 
principle  and  in  practice,  and  was  more  than  once  con- 
vened before  his  superiors  for  nonconformity  ;  yet  he  was  a 
man  of  peace  and  great  moderation.  He  was  concerned 
for  a  purer  reformation  of  the  church ;  and,  to  promote 
the  daired  object,  he  united  with  his  brethren  m  their 
wivate  associations,  and  in  subscribing  the  <<  Book  of 
Discipline."*  Complaint  was,  however,  brought  against 
him,  that  he  had  signified,  before  the  celebration  oif  the 
Lord's  supper,  that  the  minister  not  receiving  the  bread  and 
'tine  from  the  hands  of  another  minister,  but  from  himsdf^ 
was  a  corruption  in  the  church:— that  to  kneel  at  the 
sacrament  was  superstitious  and  antichristian ; — and  that  to 
tnin  their  faces  towards  the  east,  was  another  corruption. 
Upon  this  complaint,  he  was  convened  before  Dr.  Penie,  the 
vice-chancellor,  and  heads  of  colleges;  but  refusing  to 
answer,  unless  he  might  know  his  accusers,  it  was  thought 
eapedient  to  bring  certain  persons  who  had  heard  him,  wd 
examine  them  upon  their  oaths.  Therefore,  Mr.  Bradcock^ 
Mr.  Osborne,  Mr.  Baines,  and  Mr.  Bainbrigg,  were  pro- 
doced  as  witnesses  against  him,  and  required  to  answer 
the  three  following  interrogatories:  —  1.  ^^  Whether  Mr. 
Ferldns,  in  his  conunon  place,  made  at  the  time  before 
mrntMHied,  did  teach,  that  it  was  a  corruption  in  our 
^oicb,  that  the  minister  did  not  receive  the  oommnnion  at 

•  2rcal*t  FultMm,  vol.  i.  p.  AtS. 


the  hands  of  another  minister,  because  that  which  is  naedm 
our  dhurch  is  without  warrant  of  the  word  ? — 9.  Whethei^ 
he  did  name  kneeling  when  we  receive  the  sacrament,  as' 
superstitious  and  antichristian  ?— 3.  Whether  he  did  not 
denominate  kneeling  towards  the  east  to  be  a  cormption  }** 
-—The  witnesses  mostly  answered  in  the  affirmative;  bat,  in 
several  particulars,  they  could  not  give  any  testimony. 
Mr.  Bambrigg  closed  the  evidence  by  obMrving,  -friah 
respect  to  bieeling  at  the  sacrament,  <<  He  thought  oar 
Saviour  sat,  and,"  in  his  opinion,  <^  it  was  better  to  come 
near  to  that  which  He  did,  than  that  which  was  done  in' 
time  of  popery.*'  He  thought  also  that  it  was  better  not 
to  kneel  towards  the  east. 

After  the  examination  of  the  witnesses,  Mr.  Perkins  was 
allowed  to  speak  in  his  own  defence,  when  he  addressed  his 
spiritual  judges  as  follows : — ^'  As  this  doctrine  c^  faith  and 
a  sood  conscience  is  to  be  applied  to  the  congregation,  so 
it  is  by  Grod's  providence  come  to  pass  that  I  must  apply  it 
to  myself.  I  am  thought  to  be  a  teacher  of  erroneoos 
doctrines.  I  am  enjoinra  to  satisfy,  and,  in  trutii,  I  am  now 
williqg  with  all  my  heart  to  do  it. — ^Of  ministering  (ho 
communion  to  a  man's  own  self,  this. was  my  cMpinion,  that 
in  this  place  it  was  better  to  lieoeive  it  from  another,  because 
we  are  thirteen  ministers ;  and,  by  this  means,  the  minister 
would  not  only  receive  the  sacrament,  but  also  the  approba* 
ticm  of  his  brother,  that  he  was  a  worthy  receiver.  It  itf 
observed,  that  I  said  this  action  was  unlawful,  and  a  onrnip" 
tion  of  our  church.  I  said  it  not;  and  truly,  I  protoC 
before  God,  if  I  had  said  it,  the  same  tongue  whidi  had 
said  it,  should  unsay  it ;  that  God  might  have  the  gtoary, 
and  that  shame  and  confusion  might  be  unto  me. 

<<  I  said  not  that  kneeling  was  idolatrous  and  antichrii^ 
tian..  I  do  remember  it.  My  opinion  was  this,  that  of  die 
two  gestures  which  we  used,  sitting  and  kneeling,  sitting  ii 
more  convenient,  because  Christ  sat,  and  the  pope  knadethi 
as  Jewel  observes  against  Harding.  And  in  things  in- 
different we  must  go  as  far  as  we  can  from  idolatry.  Mr. 
Calvin  taught  me  this,  in  his  sermon  on  Deut.  yii.  I 
think  a  man  may  use  it  with  a  good  consdence;  for  I  am 
far  from  condemning  any.  And  I  beseedii  vou  how.  can 
.  we  altogether  clear  ourselves,  who,  sitting  before,  &U  down 
on  our  knees  when  the  bread  cometh,  and,  having  recdVeB 
it,  rise  up  again,  and  do  in  like  manner  with  the  wine. 

^^  I  hold  looking  unto  the  east  or  west  to  be  indiflfeient, 
and  to  be  used  accordingly :  but  this  I  marvel  at,  wh/  tiis 


crofls  fltill  jBtimdeUi  in  the  window,  and  ^hy  we  turn  our« 
fidrcB  toward  the  end  of  the  chapel,  at  the  end  of  the 
first  and  second  lesson.  We  are  commanded  to  flee  from 
e?ei7  appearance  of  evil. — ^These  things  I  have  said  to 
satisfy  every  man  in  the  conurbation,  audi  to  shew  that  I 
deqpise  not  authority :  which,  if  this  will  do,  God  be 
maued ;  but  if  not,  God's  will  be  done.  I  confess  most 
h^y  this  thing.  I  did  not  seek  the  disquiet  of  this  con- 
gregation; yet  I  might  have  spoken  these  things  at  a 
more  convenient  time.''* 

It  does  not  appear  whether  Mr.  Perkins's  defence  gave 
satisfiEU^on  to  his  ecclesiastical  judges,  or  whether  he  suffered 
^ome  particular  censure  or  further  prosecution.  This,  how- 
ever, was  not  the  end  of  his  troubles.  lie  was  apprehended, 
with  many  others,  and  carried  before  the  star-chamber,  on 
account  of  the  associations.  Upon  his  appearance  before 
this  high  tribunal,  he  took  the  oath  ex  officio^  discovered 
ithe  asiiociations,  and  confessed  that  Mr.  Cartwright,  Mr. 
finape,  and  others,  had  met  at  Cambridge,  to  confer  about 
ma^iB  of  discipline.f  He  was  once  or  twice  convened 
befivre  the  high  commission;  and  though  his  peaceable 
bdhaviour,  and  great  fame  in  the  learned  world,  are  said  to 
Jiave  procured  him  a  dispensation  from  the  persecutions  of 
]iis  brithren,t  he  was,  nevertheless,  deprived  by  Archbishop 
Whitgifl.^  Mr.  Perkins,  writing  at  the  above  period,  in 
1582,  when  many  of  his  brethren  were  cruelly  imprisoned 
for  nonconformity,  styles  it,  ^^  The  year  of  the  last  patience ' 
§£  the  saints.'*! 

Towards  the  close  of  life,  Mr.  Perkins  was  much  afflicted 
:vnth  the  stone,  the  frequent  attendant  on  a  sedentary  life, 
which  he  bore  with  remarkable  patience.  In  the  Inst  fit  of 
Ids  complaint,  a  little  before  his  death,  a  friend  praying  for 
the  mitigation  of  his  pains,  he  cried  out, ''  Hold,  hold  !  do 
not  pray  so;  but  pray  the  Lord  to  give  me  faith  and 
patience,  and  then  let  him  lay  on  me  what  he  pleases.'* 
At  length  his  patience  had  its  perfect  work.  He  was  finally 
deliv^d  from  all  his  pains,  and  crowned  with  immor- 
tality and  etem^  life,  in  the  year  1602,  aged  forty-four 
^rears.f  He  was  bom  in  the  first,  and  died  in  the  h\^  year 
^  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth.    He  left  the  world  rich 

•  Biker*i  ]lil8.  CoUec.  ▼o1.  zzx.  p.  992,  893. 

•f  Strype*t  Whitgift,  p.  S34,  S7 1 ,  378. 

1  Ncal'i  Paritam,  vol.  i.  p.  509. 

S  Granger's  Biog.  Hist.  toI.  i.  p.  819. 

I  Cbwtoa'f  life  of  Nowdl,  p.S83.      f  FuUer^f  Hist,  of  Qm.  p.  IBT. 


in  grace,  and  in  the  love  of  God  and  good  men ;  and 
instrumental  in  making  nidny  rich.  His  ministerial  laboim 
were  signally  blessed  to  multitudes,  both  townsmen  and 
collegians.  His  remains  were  interred  in  St.  Andrew'« 
church  wi<h  great  funeral  solemnity,  at  the  sole  expense  of 
Christ's  college ;  the  university  and  the  town  striving  which 
could  shew  the  warmest  gratitiTtfe  for  hiS  faithful  bbours, 
and  pay  the  greatest  resjx*ct  to  his  memory.  Dr.  M'jntague, 
afterwards  successively  Bishoi)  of  Rath  and  Wells,  and  (^ 
Winchester,  preached  his  funeral  sermon  from  Joshua,  i.  9. 
Moses  my  servant  is  dead ;  and  spoko  in  high  commenda- 
tion of  his  learning,  piety,  labours,  ond  usefulness.*  • 

Mr.  Perkins  was  so  pious  and  exemplary  in  his  life, 
that  malice  itself  was  unable  to  reproacli  his  character.  A% 
his  preaching  was  a  just  commeul  upon  his  text ;  so  his 
practice  was  a  just  comment  upon  his  preaching.  He  was 
naturally  cheerful  and  pleasant;  rather  reserved  towards 
strangers,  but  familiar  upon  their  further  acquaintance.  He 
was  of  a  middle  stature,  ruddy  complexion,  bright  hairy 
and  inclined  to  corpulency,  but  not  to  idleness.f  He  was 
esteemed  by  all,  says  I^'uller,  as  a  painful  and  faithfid 
dispenser  of  the  word  of  God ;  and  his  great  piety  pro^ 
cured  him  liberty  in  his  ministry,  and  respect  to  his  person, 
even  from  those  who  difiered  from  him  in  other  matters. 
He  is  classed  among  the  ft^llows  and  learned  writers  of  , 
Christ's  college,  Cambridge,  t  Churton  styles  him  "tfce 
learned  and  pious,  but  Calvinistic  Perkins;"  as  if  hii 
Calvinism  was  a  considerable  blemish  in  his  character^ 
Toplady,  on  the  contrary,  applauds  him  on  account  of  hii 
Calvinistic  opinions,  and  denominates  him  ^'  the  leame^ 
holy,  and  laborious  Perkins."|  The  celebrated  Aiehbifiluioi 
Usher  had  the  highest  opinion  of  him,  and  often  expicsBei 
his  wish  to  die  as  holy  Mr.  Perkins  did,  who  ezpivd 
crying  for  mercy  and  forgiveness.  Herein  he  was,  iDmed^ 
gratified;  for  his  last  words  were,  <<  Lord,  eqpeciafly 
forgive  my  sins  of  omission.*'! 

The  works  of  this  excellent  divine  are  numeioiu  and  . 
highly  esteemed,  especially  in  foreign  countries.    Thcf 
were  published  at  various  times,  but  were  collected  aid 
printed  in  three  volumes  folio,  in  1606,  entitled  <<  His 

•  Strype*8  Whitgift,  p.  S7 1. 

f  FuUer*!  Abel.  Red.  p.  436.— Clark's  Eccl.  Hist.  p.  851.  , 

FnUer's  Chnrch  Hist.  b.  iz.  p.  211.— Hist,  of  Caoi.'p.  98. 

Churton^s  Life  of  NoweU,  p.  323. 

Toplady*8  Historic  Proof,  toI.  ii.  p.  179. 
i  Bernard's  Life  of  Uiberj  p.  100.    Edit.  1656. 


Warkes  of  that  Famous  and  Worthie  Minister  of  Christ, 
in  the  Uniyersitie  of  Cambridge,  M.  W.  Perkins."  Mr. 
Job  Orton  had  an  high  opinion  of  him  and  his  writing, 
and  gives  the  following  account  both  of  the  author  and  the 
productions  of  his  pen : — ''  I  am  now  reading  the  works 
of  Mr.  William  Perkinu,  an  eminent  tutor  and  divine  at 
Cambrid^,  in  Queen  Elizabeth's  reign.  They  arc  three 
▼(dumes  folio,  and  I  have  got  throu^^h  one  of  them.  What 
led  me  more  particularly  to  read  him  was,  that  his  elder 
brother  was  one  of  my  ancestors,  from  whom  I  am  in  a 
direct  line,  by  my  mother's  side,  descended.  I  think  him 
an  excellent  writer :  his  style  is  the  l^'st  of  any  of  that  age^ 
or  the  next,  and  niafiy  passage^  in  his  writings  are  equal  to 
those  of  the  best  writers  in  modern  times.  He  is  judicious, 
clear,  tiill  of  matter,  and  deep  christian  experience.  He 
wrotei  all  his  works  with  his  left  hand,  being  lame  of  thp 
rijB^ht,  and  died  about  forty-four.  I  could  wisfi  all  ministers, 
especially  youn^  ones,  would  read  him,  as  they  would 
find  large  materials  for  composition.  He  hath  some  tracts 
a^nst  the  papists ;  and  appears  to  have  been  a  pretty 
high  Calviiiist;   but  he  hath  many  admirable  things  in 

CriMfu'o/ divinity.  His  works  are  little  known  in  EWland, 
at  they  f^re  still  in  estimation  in  CJermany,  many  of  them 
being  written  in  elegant  Latin,  and  others  translated  into 

Mr.  Perking  made  his  last  will  and  testament  a  little 
before  his  death,  dated  Cambridge,  October  16,  1602,  and 
it  was  in  substance  as  follows :— First,  he  bequeaths  to  the 
poor  of  thp  parish  of  St.  Andrews,  where  he  then  dwelt, 
the  sum  of  forty  pounds.  Also  to  his  worshipful  and 
loyii^  friends,  Mr.  Edm.  Barwt-11,  Jam.  Montague,  D.  D; 
Mr.  Law.  Chadderton,  master  of  Emanuel  college.  Rich. 
Fozcrofl  and  Tho.  Cropley,  M.  A.  and  Nath.  Ciudock  his 
brother-in-law,  all  the  messuage  or  tenement  wherein  he 
then  dwelt,  with  the  houses,  yards,  &c.  adjoining  thereto^ 
in  the  town  of  Cambridge,  to  be  sold,  aiid  the  monev 
divided  into  three  equal  parts,  on^  part  to  eo  to  his  wiie 
Timothye,  the  other  two  amongst  his  children,  bom  or 
unborn.  He  also  wills  that  the  price  of  all  his  moyeable 
goods  and  chattels  be  divided  amongst  Jiis  wife  and 

<<  He  appoints  his  wife  Timothye  his  sole  ezecotriz,  oc 
in  case  of  failure  by  death,  then  he  makes  Nath.  Ciadqpl( 

»  9io(.  Biilaa.  f •!.  T.  p.  SlSi    Ediumf.  i 


aforesaid,  e;xecutor.  He  also  bequeaths  to  his  father^-Tlia* 
Perkins,  and  his  mother,  Anna  Perkins,  ten  pounds  a  piece, 
and  to  every  of  his  brethren  and  sisters,  fiye^  pounds  a 
piece,  and  to  his  son-in-law,  John  Hinde,  his  Elnglish 

JosiAS  Nichols  was  a  worthy  minister  of  the  i^ospeL  an 
humble  servant .  of   Christ,  and  a  man  of  distinguisaed 
eminence  in  his  day.     Certain  writers  in  defence  of  the 
church  and  its  ceremonies,  having  c^.harged  the  puritans 
with  bemg  as  factious,  seditious,  and  as  great  enemies^  to 
the  queen,  as  the  papists ;   Mr.  Nichols,  in  answer  to  these 
malicious  imputations,  publislied  a  book,  entitled  <*  A  Flea 
for  the  Innocent;  or,  a  Defence  of  the  Puritans/'  16Q2. 
The  author  proves  that  the  charges  against  the  puritans 
were  malicious  and  false.     He,  fully  answers  all  the  calum- 
nies and  slanders  cast  upon  them,  and,  with  great  impar- 
tiality, blames  both  parties  in  those  things  wherein  they 
were  culpable.     The  book  is  written  with  great  modesty, 
humility,  and  temper,  and  with  great  reverence  of  the 
bishops ;  in  soft  and  gentle  language,  with  good  stroigth  of 
argument,  liveliness  of  affection,  and  a  deep  sense  of  the 
common  danger  then  threatening  both  the  church  and  the, 
state,  f    In  this  work,  he  observes,  in  defence  of  himself  and 
his  brethren,  "  We  subscribe  willingly  to  the  book  of 
articles,  according  to  the  statute  in  that  behalf  provided: 
viz.  to  those  articles  which  only  concern  the  confession  of 
the  true  faith,  and  the  doctrine  of  the  sacraments,  as  tfe 
iMAtuto  expressly  commandeth  and  limiteth.''^   Mr.  NichcdB 
subscribed  the  "  Book  of  Discipline."^ 

Thomas  Cartwright,  B.  D. — This  most  celebiated 
person  was  born  in  Hertfordshire,  about  the  year  1535,  and 
educated  in  St.  John's  college,  Cambridge.  He  possessed 
excellent  natural  parts,  applied  to  his  studies  with  uncooi* 
mon  assiduity,  and  made  amazing  progress  in  the  varioos 
branches  ot  usejful  literature.  He  allowed  himself  only  i^ 
hours'  sleep  in  the  night,  to  which  custom  he  closdy 
adhered  to  the  end  of  his  days.  Having  been  about  three 
years  at  the  university,  upon  the  death  of  King  Edwaid, 

•  Baker*8  MS.  Conec.  vol.  ii.  p.  644. 

f  MS.  Reinark«,  p.  535.  1^  Pleafbr the Iiuoceot,  p.  91. 

S  Neal's  Furitiuis,  yol.  i.  p.  423. 


4Uid  the  return  of  popery,  he  quitted  that  seat  of  learning, 
and  became  clerk  to  a  counsellor  at  law.  This  employ- 
ment, however,  did  not  prevent  the  prosecution  oi  h^ 
^rmer  pursuits.  The  study  of  divinity,  and  those  branches 
of  knowled^  most  calculated  for  usefulness  to  a  divine^ 
were  his  chief  deligbt ;  and  to  which  he  still  directed  the 
closest  application.  In  this  situation  he  remained  till  the 
accession  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  when  he  returned  to  St. 
John^s  collegtu  and  in  the  year  1560,  was  made  icUow  of  the 
Louse.  In  about  three  years,  he  was  removed  to  Trinity 
college,  where,  on  account  of  his  great  learning  and  worth, 
he  was  chosen  one  of  the  eight  senior  fellows. 

In  the  year  1564,  when  Queen  Elizabeth  visited  the 
university  of  Cambridge,  uncommon  preparations  were 
made  for  her  entertainment,  and  the  most  learned  men  were 
selected  for  the  public  disputations.  Among  these  was 
Bir.  Cartwright,  whose  performance  on  this  occasion  dis- 
covered such  extraordinary  abilities,  as  gave  the  greatest 
Batisfaction,  both  to  the  queen  and  the  other  auditors.*  But 
laaaay  writers  have  asserted,  that  he  received  neither  reward 
nor  con^mendation ;  and  that  he  was  presumptuous  of  his 
own  ^ood  learning,  but  deficient  in  a  comely  grace  and 
behaviour.  Indeed,  it  is  added,  that  he  was  so  vexed  by 
hex  majesty ^s  neglect  of  him,  that  he  immediately  began  to 
wade  into  divers  opinions  relative  to  the  new  discipline,  and 
to  kick  at  the  government  of  the  established  chtkrch; 
girowing  conceited  of  his  own  learning  and  holiness,  and 
beeoming  a  great  contemner  of  those  who  differed  irom 
him.'l'  That  this  is  a  most  notorious  slander,  appears  partly 
fiom  the  account  already  given ;  but  especially  from  the 
words  of  another  learned  mstorian.  From  the  relation  of 
the  queeiTs  reception  at  Cambridge,  says  he,  there  appears 
no  clear  ground  for  any  such  discontent,  as  that  which  is 
charged  against  Mr.  Cartwright;  for,  as  this  relation 
informs  us,  the  queen  approved  of  them  aU4 

In  the  year  1570,  Mr.  Cartwright  was  chosen  Lady 
•Haigaret's  professor  of  divinity.  It  is  particularly  men* 
ti<med,  that  he  delivered  lectures  upon  the  first  and  second 
pUapters  of  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles ;  which  he  performed 
with  such  acuteness  of  wit,  and  such  solidity  of  judgment, 
that  they  excited  the  admiration  of  those  who  attended. 
He  was  also  become  so  celebrated  a  preacher,  that  when  it 

*  Clark*8  Lives  annexed  to  bis  Martyrologie,  p.  16, 17. 
t  Fteile*s  Life  of  Whitgift,  p.  9, 10. 
i  8trype*8  Annals,  voL  i.  p.  403. 


was  his  tnra  to  preach  at  St  Mary^s,  the  sexton^  on  accoonl 
of  the  multitudes  who  flocked  to  hear  him,  was  oblJMf, 
for  their  accommodation,  to  take  dowa  the  windows  or  the 

Mr.  Cartwright  took  occasion,  in  his  lectures,  to  deliyer 
his  sentin^.ents  concerning  church  discipline ;  and  becaiiso 
they  were  uni'ayourable  to  the  hierarchy,  public  accusatioiB 
were  soon  exiiibited  against  him.f  Archbishop  Grindai 
wrote  a  letter,  dated  June  24,  1570,  to  Sir  William  Cecily 
chanc-ellor  oK  the  university,  urging  him  to  take  some 
course  with  Mr.  Cartwright ;  alleging,  that  in  his  lectures 
he  constantly  spoke  against  the  external  policy,  and  tho 
various  offices  ot  the  church;  in  consequence  of  which, 
the  young  men  of  the  university,  who  attended  his  lectures 
in  great  numbers,  were  in  danger  of  being  poisoned  by  his 
doctrines.  He,  therefore,  reconunended  to  the  chancellor 
to  silence  Cartwright  and  his  adherents,  and  to  reduce 
them  to  conformity,  q^r  expel  them  from  the  coll^,  'or 
from  the  university,  as  the  cause  should  require. '  IJ^  alsa 
urged  that  Mr.  Cartwright  might  not  be  allowed  to  take  his 
degree  of  doctor  in  divinity,  at  the'  approaching  cbm^" 
mencement,  tor  which  he  had  made  application.^  -  Dn 
Whitgift  also  zealously  opposed  Mr.  Cartwright,  and 
wrote  at  the  same  time  to  the  chancellor,  communicatiitff 
not  only  what  Mr.  Cartwright  had  openly  taught,  bin 
also  what  he  had  spoken  to  him  iq  private  conversation.^ 

Mr.  Cartwright  vindicated  his  conduct  in  a  letter  to  Sir 
William  Cecil ;  in  which  he  declared  his  extreme  ,aveni<^ 
to  every  thing  that  was  seditious  or  contentiou&i ;'  and 
affirmed,  that  he  had  taught  nothing  but  what  naturally 
flowed  from  his  text.    He  observed,  uuit  he  had  cantiourij 

«  Clark*!  Lives,  p.  17. 

-f  Itli  said,  with  a  design  to  reproach  Mr.  Cartwright,  that  he  aod  hk 
mdhereots  having  delivered  three  sermons  iq  the  col^e  chapel»  on  o# 
Ijard*s  day,  they  spoke  so  vehemently  against  the  ceremonies  anid  c^  «8f  ^ 
the  surplice,  that,  at  evening  prayer,  all  the  collegians,  except  three,  citf 
off  their  surplices,  and  appeared  in  the  chapel  without  them  l-^Fmil^f 
Hfe  of  Whitgift,  p.  X^.—FulUr's  HUU  of  CM9^Mdg9,  p.  140. 

'^  Strype's  Grindal,  p.  168. 

^  It  is  observed,  that  what  Mr.  Cartwright  delivered  In  his  leraMM  M 
one  Lard*s  day,  Whitgift,  in  the  same  place,  lUways  refuted  the  Lwrd^ 
day  following,  to  his  great  commendation  and  applause.  How  ftu*  ikk 
WV  to  bis  commendation  or  applause,  we  do  not  determiaei  but  i|owt9 
retoncile  Whitgift's  practice,  in  this  case,  with  his  own  coodoctx  after* 
wards,  when  in  the  most  cruel  manner  he  censured  the  excellent  l|^r. 
Walter  Travers  for  the  very  same  thing,  will  be  found,  we  think,  eztrenyly 
difficult.— S/r»p«*s  Whitgift,  p.  10»  11,— Potil^'t  fFkUgifl,  p,  19.r-:0e« 
Art.  Tra99n, 

-       CARTWRI6HT.  IS^ 

wroided.^feakiiiff  against  the  habits ;  but  acknowledged  his 
haivini^  tmght,  that  the  ministry  of  the  church  of  England 
liad  declii^,  in  some  points,  from  the  ministry  of  the 
apostolic  church,  and  that  he  wished  it  to  be  restored  to 
gmler  puriQr.  But  these  sentiments,  he  said,  he  had 
oriivered  with  all  imaginable  caution,  and  in  such  a 
maimer  as  could  give  offence  to  none,  excepting  the 
igtiorant,  die  malignant,  or  those  who  wished  to  catch  at 
something  to  calumniate  him ;  of  which  things,  nearly  all 
■the  university,  if  they  might  be  allowed,  would  bear 
"witness.  He,  therefore,  entreated  the  chancellor  id  hear 
and  judge  the  cause  himsi^lf.*  Mr.  Cartwright  had,  indeed, 
numerous  friends,  ornaments  to  the  university,  by  whom  he 
was  exceedingly  admired,  and  who  now  stuck  close  to  him. 
They  came  forwards  f^t  this  juncture ;  and  declared  in  their 
testimonial  sent  to  the  chancellor,  ''  That  he  never  touched 

Xthe  controversy  of  the  habits ;  and  though  he  had 
need  somc^  propositions  respedH^  the  ministry,  accord^ 
iog  to  which  he  wished  things  might  be  r^ulated,  he  did 
it  with  all  possible  caution  and  modesty.'^  This  was  signed 
lyy  fifteen  hands;  and  other  letters  of  commendation  were 
written  in  his  favour,  signed  by  many  naines,  some  of 
irimn  'afterwards  b<!came  bishops  ;t  but  all  was  to  no 
pQipdse.  It  was  too  obvious,  that  his  adversaries  were 
Ksolved  to  make  him  a  public  example. 

Chancellor'  Cecil  was,  indeetl,  inclined  to  treat  Mr. 
Gartwright  with  candour  and  moderation  ;i  but  his  oppo- 
-nents  were  determined  to  prosecute  him  with  the  utmost 
ifeour  and  severity.  He  was  cited  before  the  vice-chan- 
cellor. Dr.  May,  and  other  doctors,  and  examined  upon 
sundry  {urticles,  which,  he  was  said  to  have  delivered.  The 
points  alleged  against  him,  they  affirmed  to  be  contrary  to 
the  religion  established  by  public  authority;  and,  there- 
fore, demanded  whether  he  would  revoke  his  opinions,  or 
abide  by  them.  Mr.  Cartwright  desiring  to  be  permitted 
to  commit  his  sentiments  upon  th(  se  points  to  writing,  was 
allowed  the  favour.  He  tfien  drew  up  his  opinions  m  six 
propositions,  and  presented  them  to  the  vice-chancellor, 
who  admonished  him  to  revoke  them ;  and,  upon  his  refusal, 
deprived  him  of  his  stipend,  but  allowed  him  to  continue 
Ins  lecture.^ 

During  this  year.  Dr.  Whitgift  was  chosen  vice-chaUr* 

•  Strype*!  Annals,  vol.  ii.  p.  3.  +  Ibid.  p.  2—4.  Appen.  p,  i— 4. 

1  IbM.  vol.  I.  p.  566, 6^. 

f  Clark'i  LiTe8,p.  n.*-S(r7pe'i  Whitgift,  Appen.  p.  lU 


eeUor,  when  Mr.  Gartwright  was  mesently  convoied  befont 
liim.  Upon  his  appearance,  Whiteift  required  him- to 
revoke  those  opinions  contained  in  his  six  pvopositionsy  to 
which  he  had  subscribed;  and  upon  Mr.  Gartwri^t'i 
refusal,  he  pronounced  upon  him  the  following  defimtive 
sentence : — ^'  That  seeing  no  admonition  would  hd-jK  bat 
that  he  still  persisted  in  the  same  mind,  he  did  theie* 
fore  pronounce  him,  the  said  Mr.  Cartwright,  to  be 
removed  from  his  said  lecture ;  and  by  his  final  decree  or 
sentence,  did  then  and  there  remove  him,  and  declare  the 
said  lecture  void ;  and  that  he  minded,  ficcordin^  to  the 
foundation  thereof^  to  proceed  to  the  election  of  a,  oeir 
reader.  And  further,  he  did  .then  and  there,  by  virtue  of 
his  office,  inhibit  the  said  Mr.  Cartwright  from  preaching 
within  the  said  university,  and  the  jurisdiction  of  the 

The  six  propositions  which  Mr.  Cartwright  delivered 
under  his  own  hand  to  the  vice-chancellor,  and  which 
were  said  to  be  both  dangerous  and  untrue,  were  the 
following  :— 

1.  That  the  names  and  functions  of  archbishcqps  and 
archdeacons  ought  to  be  abolished. 

2.  That  the  offices  of  the  lawful  ministers  of  the^chordi, 
viz.  bishops  and  deacons,  ought  to  be  reduced  4o  their 
apostolical  institution :  bishops  to  preach  the  Word  of  God 
and  pray,  and  deacons  to  be  employed  in  taking  care  of 
the  poor. 

3.  That  the  government  of  the  church  ought  not  to  be 
entrusted  to  bishops'  chancellors,  or  the  officials  of  arch- 
deacons; but  every  church  ought  to  be  governed  by  fti 
awn  minister  and  presbyters. 

4.  That  ministers  ought  not  to  be  at  large,  but  ^verf 
one  should  have  the  charge  of  a  particular  copgi^ 

.  5..  That  no  man  ought  to  solicit,  or  to  stand  as  a  candi- 
date for  the  ministry. 

6.  That  ministers  ought  not  to  be  created  by  the  iok 
authority  of  the  bishop,  but  to  be  openly  and  fiiirly  choM 
by  the  people.t 

In  addition  to  these  heterodoxies  and  misr€presenlifti0h 
as  the  learned  historian  is  pleased  to  call  thenl,t  otbtf 
^Ifticles  were  collected  from  Mr.  Cartwright's  lectures;  and* 
as  they  were  accounted  both  dangerous  and  seditious^  ii  wA 

•  Clark's  Livea,  p.  17 — Strype's  Whitgift,  Appen.  p.  l|.    , 

^  Ibid.  i  ColUer'a  hccU  Hkt.  foU  ii.  p.  M» 



be  proper  to  give  the  substance  of  them,  which  was  as 

L  That  in  refomiingthe  chnrch,  it  is  necessary  to  reduce 
all  thiDjn  io  the  apostolic  institution. 

S.  That  no  man  ought  to  be  admitted  into  the  ministry^ 
who  is  not  capable  of  preaching. 

3.  That  popish  ordinations  are  not  valid.  And  onlj 
omonical  scripture  ought  to  be  publicly  read  in  the 

4.  That  equal  reverence  is  due  to  all  canonical  scripture^ 
ind  to  all  the  names  of  God ;  there  is,  therefore,  no  reason 
why  the  people  should  stand  at  the  reading  of  the  gospel^ 
or  bow  at  the  name  of  Jesus. 

5.  That  it  is  as  lawful  to  sit  at  the  Lord's  table,  as  to 
heel  or  stand. 

6.  That  the  Lord^s  supper  ought  not  to  be  administered 
m  private;  nor  should  Imptism  be  administered  by  women 
or  lajr-persons. 

7.  That  the  sign  of  the  cross  in  baptism,  is  superstitious. 

8.  That  it  is  reasonable  and  proper,  that  the  parent 
should  oflfer  his  own  child  in  baptism,  without  being  obliged 
k>  say  /  iJDill^  I  mil  noty  I  believe^  &c. 

9.  That  it  is  papistical  to  forbid  marriages  at  certain 
tunes  of  the  year ;  and  to  give  licenses  for  them  at  those 
times,  is  intdlerable. 

10.  That  the  observation  of  Lent^  and  fiEusting  on  Fridays 
and  Saturdays,  is  superstitious. 

11.  That  trading  or  keeping  markets  on  the  Lord's  day^ 
is  unlawful. 

18.  That  in  ordaining  ministers,  the  pronouncing  of  those 
woids,  Recehe  the  Holy  Ghost^  is  both  ridiciuous  and 

These  were  the  dangerous  and  seditious  doctrines,  which 
Mr.  Cartwright  occasionally  touched  upon  in  his  publio 
lectores,  but  evidently  without  the  least  design  of  promoting 
discord.  However,  those  who  sought,  his  ruin,  having 
already  deprived  him  of  his  lecture  and  professorship^ 
piDcured  his  expulsion  from  the  university.  This  was 
undoubtedly  a  short  and  easy  method  pf  refuting  his 
opinions !  The  pretended  occasion  of  his  expulsion  was, 
indeed,  looked  upon  as  a  crime  of  no  small  magnitude. 
Mr.  Cartwright,  a  senior  fellow. of  the  college,  was  only  in 
deacon's  orc&rs.     Whilgift  was  no  sooner  informed  of  this, 

•  Strype^f  Annals,  vol,  i.  p.  .589. 


and  that  the  statute  required  such  to  take  upon.them  the 
order  of  priests,  than  he  omcluded  he  was  perjured ;  upon 
which,  withoirt  any  further  admonition,  he  exerted  his 
interest  to  the  utmost  among  the  masters,  to  rid  the  place 
of  a  roan  whose  popularity  was  too  great  for  his  ambitidn, 
declaring  he  could  not  establish  order  in  the  uniyenity, 
while  a  man  of  his  principles  was  amonc^  them.* 

The  friends  of  Mr.  Cartwright  complained  of  this  hard 
usage.  They  looked  upon  it'  as  extreme  severity,  and 
savouring  too  much  of  antichrist,  for  a  man  to  be  thus  oeo' 
sured,  without  beiri^  allowed  to  have  a  conference  before 
impartial  judges.  Whitgift  and  his  friends,  therefore^  to 
tas^e  their  case  appear  plausible,  signed  the  following 
testimonial,  signifying,  ^<  That  Mr.  Cartwright  never 
ofiered  any  disputation,  only  on  condition  that  he  m\^ 
know  his  opponents  and  his  judges;  nor  was  this  kuid 
of  disputation  denied  him,  oidy  he  was  required  to  obtain 
a  license  from  the  queen  or  council  ;"f  which  his  ad- 
versaries knew  he  could  never  procure.  Here  it  is 
evident  Mr.  Cartwright  did  not  stand  on  equid  ffround. 
The  reader  will  easily  perceive,  that  his  .pixiposw  of  a 
public  dispute,  even  according  to  the  statement  of  Ins 
enemies,  were  most  equitable  and  just;  but  thdrs  were 
inequitable,  and  not  within  his  power  to  observe. 

After  Mr.  Cartwright's  expulsion  from  the  rmiverntf, 
<^  Wliit^ifi  accused  him  of  going  up  and  down  idly,  and  dmg 
no  good,  but  living  at  other  mens'  tables.''^  How  ungeDcnoi 
was  this  i  After  the  doctor  had  taken  away  his  bread,  and 
stopped  his  mouth  from  preaching,  how  unkind  was  it  1o 
reproach  him  with  doing  no  good,  and  wiA  depending  (A 
his  friends  for  a  dinner!  Mr.  Cartwright  himself  says, 
'^  After  he  had  thrust  me  out  of  the  college,  he  accused  oe 
of  going  up  and  down,  doing  no  good,  and  living  at  otlier 
mens'  tables.  That  I  was  not  idle,  I  suppose,  he  knowelfc 
too  well.  Whether  well  occupied,  or  no,  let  it  be  judged. 
I  lived,  indeed,  at  other  mens'  taUes,  having  no  houae^  nor 
wife,  of  my  own :  but  not  without  their  <ksire^  and  with 
small  delight  of  mine,  for  fear  of  evil  tongues.  And 
although  I  were  not  able  to  requite  it ;  yet  towards  some  I 
went  about  it,  instructing  their  children  partly  in  the  prin- 
ciples of  religion,  partly  in  other  learning."^ 

Mr.  Cartwright  being  expelled  from  me  university,  aid 

•  Strype's  Whiigift,  p.  4T.  +  Paale'i  WhlteifL  p.  14^18. 

1  Strype^s  Whitgift,  p.  64. 

h  Bios.  Britao.  toI,  iiU  p.  S8S.    Edit.  1778. 


out  of  all  employment,  if ent  abroad,  and  settled  a  corre* 
4Mndence.witn  some  of  the  most  celebrated  diyines  in  the 
|ore^;n  protestant  universities.  During  his  abode  on  the 
coQtiiient,  he  was  chosen  minister  to  the  English  merchants 
at  Antwerp,  th^i  at  Middleburg,  where  he  continued  about 
two  years,  the  Lord  greatly  blessing  his  labours.  But  by 
the  importunity  of  his  old  mends,  Messrs.  Deering,  Fulke^ 
Wybum,  Lever,  and  Fox,  he  was  at  length  prevailed  upon 
to  return  home.*  Several  of  our  historians  affirm  of  him, 
even  before  his  troubles  at  Cambridge, ''  that  he  might  the 
better  feed  his  humour  with  conceited  novelties,  he  travelled 
to  jGeneva ;  where  he  was  so  enamoured  with  the  new  dis- 
cipUne^  that  he  thought  all  churches  and  congre^tions 
were  to  be  measured  and  squared  by  the  practice  of 
Geneva.''^  I^or  this  reproachful  insinuation,  however^ 
there  is  ho  sufficient  evidence.  It  is  pretty  certain  he 
never  went  to  Geneva  till  afler  his  expulsion  from  the 
university.  ^ 

About  the  time  of  Mr.  Cartwriglit*s  return  to  Endand, 
was  published,  ^^  An  Admonition  to  the  Parliament,  ror  the 
Reformation  of  Church  Discipline  f  to  which  were  an- 
nexed Beza's' Letter  to  the  Elarl  of  Leicester,  and  Gaulter's 
to  Bishop  Parkhurst.  Mr.  Cartwriffht  was  not  the  author, 
as  many  writers  have  asserted ;  but  Mr.  John  Field,  assisted 
hy  Mr.  Thomas  Wilcocks,  for  which  they  were  both  com- 
mitted to  Newgate,  where  they  continued  a  long  time.f 
Upon  the  imprisonment  of  these  two  excellent  divines,  Mr. 
Cartwright  was  induced  to  publish  a  '^  Second  Admonition, 
with  an  humble  Petition  to  both  Houses  of  Parliament,  for 
relief  against  Subscription.'^  The  first  Admonition  was 
answered  by  Dr.  Whitgift.  Mr.  Cartwright  then  pub- 
lished a  Reply  to  Whitgift's  Answer ;  which  he  is  said  to 
h^ve  done  so  admirably  well,  that  his  very  adversaries  com- 
mended him  for  his  performance.^  In  1573,  Whitgift 
published  Ids  Defence  against  Mr.  Cartwrighfs  Reply. 
And  in  1575,  Mr.  Cartwright  published  a  Second  Reply 
to  Whitgift's  Defence,  in  two  parts.  But  the  second 
part  did  not  come  out  till  1577.  Fuller  is,  therefore, 
mistaken,  when  he  says,  that  Whitgift  kept  the  field,  and 
|iecc|ivi9d  no  refutation ;  for  it  is  certain  Mr.  Cartwright  had 
€he  last  word.f 

.    «  Churk'i  Li?et,  p.  18. 

4-  Piftvle't  Whhgift^p.  11.— Heylin^f  Hiit.  of  Pr«t.  p.  «02. 

t  See  Arte.  Fidd  and  Wilcocks.  h  Clark*i  Li?et,  p.  18. 

I  StiTpe'i  Whitf  ift;  p.  50--e9.^Charch  Hist.  b.  iz.  p.  108. 



It  was  impossible  for  these  divines  to  settle  the  cent ro- 
yersy ;  because  they  were  not  agreed  about  the  standard  or 
rule  of  judgment.  Mr.  Cartwright  maintained,  that  the 
holy  scriptures  were  the  only  standard  of  discipline  and' 
^yemment,  as  well  as  of  aoctrine ;  and  that  the  church  of 
Christ  in  all  ages  ought  to  be  r^ulated  by  them.  He  would, 
therefore,  consult  the  Bible  only^  and  reduce  all  things,  as 
near  as  possible,  to  the  apostouc  standard.  The  less  our 
religion  was  incumbered  with  the  inventions  of  men,  in  biV 
opinion,  the  more  it  would  resemble  the  simplicity  that  is 
in  Christ.  "  We  mean  not,"  said  he,  "  to  take  away  the 
authority  of  the  civil  magistrate,  to  whom  we  wish  all 
blessedness,  and  for  the  increase  of  whose  godliness  we 
daily  pray:  but  that  Christy  being  restored  to  his  king- 
dom, may  rule  in  the  same  by  the  sceptre  of  his  word.* 
Whitgift,  on  the  other  hand,  maintained,  that  though  the 
holy  scriptures  were  a  perfect  rule  of  faith,  they  were  not 
designed  as  the  standard  of  church  discipline.;  but  that  thib 
is  cnangeable,  and  may  be  accommodated  to  the  govern- 
ment under  which  we  live.  Therefore,  instead  of  reducing' 
the  external  policy  of  the  church  to  the  simplicity  S 
scripture^  the  doctor  took  in  the  opinions  and  customs  of 
the  fathers,  in  the  four  first  centuries,  f 

These  points  were  disputed,  as  might  be  expected,  with 
some  degree  of  sharpness.  While  Mr.  Cartwnght  thought 
he  had  reason  to  complain  of  the  hardships  which  he  luid 
his  brethren  suffer^ ;  Whitgift,  having  the  government  oil 
his  side,  thought  he  stood  im  higher  ground,  and  migU 
assume  a  superior  air.  When  Mr.  Cartwright  and  his 
friends  pleaded  for  indulgence,  because  they  were  brethren; 
Whitgift  replied,  "  What  signifies  their  being  brethmi : 
anabaptists,  arians,  and  other  heretics,  would  be  accounted 
brethren.  Their  haughty  spirits  will  not  suffer  them  to 
see  their  error.  They  deserve  as  great  punishment  as  tte 
papists;  because  they  conspire  against  the  church.  If 
they  be  shut  up  in  ]Newgate,  it  is  a  meet  reward  for  their 
disorderly  doings;   for  ignorance  may  not  excuse  libeb 

*  Bishop  Maddoz  warmly  censnres  Mr.  Cartwright  for  maintaiaioK,  that 
the  supreme  magistrate  is  only  the  bead  of  the  commonwealth,  not  of  the 
cborch  ^  and  that  the  church  may  be  established  without. him.— ITtedf?' 
cation  of  the  Churchy  p.  S71. 

f  The  words  of  Ballard,  a  popish  priest,  before  Sir  Francis  Knolhrif 
concerning  Whitgift's  writings,  are  remarkable.  '*  I  woald  deilre  M 
**  better  boolcs,"  said  he,  *'  to  prove  my  doctrine  of  popery,  than  Wiiitgift'i 
**  against  Cartwright,  and  his  ininuctions  let  forth  in  her  aajetty*!  ~— ^  " 
^Strypc'B  WhUgift,  p.  S66.  -  ^ .  . 


agaiort  a  private  man,  much.  less  when  thej  slander  the* 
mole  church."*  How  would  (he  doctor  have  liked  this 
\ummge  in  the  mouth  of  a  pamst  sixteen  years  before  ? 
U  lias  too  often  been  the  method  of  warm  disputants,* 
when  they  could  not  untie  the  knots  with  their  filers,  to 
qit  them  with  the  sword  of  the  civil  power. 

In  this  controversy,  the  two  parties  complained  of  each' 
other.  Whitgift  thus  observes  to  Cartvmght:  <<  If  you 
should  have  written  against  the  veriest  papist  in  the  world,' 
the  vilest  person,  the  ignorantist  dolt,  you  could  not  have 
med  a  more  spiteful  and  malicious,  more  slanderous  and' 
reproachful,  more  contemptuous  and  disdainful  kind  q£ 
vdtinff,  than  you  use  throughout  your  whole  book."  On 
the  ouMHT  hand,^  Cartwright  says  to  Whitgift,  <<  If  peace 
had  been  so  precious  to  you,  as  you  pretend,  you  would 
not  have  brought  so  many  hard  words,  bitter  reproachei^' 
eaemy-like  speeches,  (as  it  were  sticks  and  coab,)  to  double 
and  treble  the  heat  of  contention."  Mr.  Stiype,  speaking 
of  Cartwright's  reply,  says,  "  Great  was  the  opinion,  both 
pf  the  man  and.  of  his  book,  at  this  time  in  London,  as 
well  as  at  Cambridge :  many  of  the  aldermen  of  London^ 
openly  countenanced  him.  He  was  secretly  harboured  in 
the  city,  and  had  a  great  many  admirers  and  visitors  there, 
and  wanted  not  for  presents  and  gratuities."f  Whether, 
theiefore,  Mr.  Cartwnght  got  the  better  of  his  adversary, 
or  not,  in  sound  learning  and  strength  of  argument, 
Whilgijfit  assuredly  got  most  by  it : .  for  he  was  soon 
afier  made  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  while  Cartwright 
was  persecuted  from  place  to  place,  as  if  he  were  not  fit  to 

The  chief  of  the  puritans,  bein^  now  deprived  of  the 
liberty  of  preaching  and  publishmg,  wish^  to  obtain  a 
poUic  disputation  with  their  adversaries.  Though  this 
Privilege  had  been  allowed  the  protestants  in  the  days  of 
Qaeen  Mary,  and  the  papists  at  the  accession  of  Elizabeth, 
^be  queen  and  council  took  a  shorter  method,  and  summoned 
tbe  disputants  to  appear  before  the  ecclesiastical  rulers,  to 
answer  such  articles  as  should  then  be  exhibited  against 
^hem.  Mr.  Cartwright  was  summoned  by  a  special  order 
ftooi  the  high  commission,  addressed,  "To  all  mayors, 
sheriffi^  bailiffs,  constables,  headborougbs,  and  to  all  the 

*  Wfcitgift  ackDowIedged,  that»  by  the  word  of  God,  the  ofllce  of 
b'kbopi  and  prietts  were  theiame  ;  yet.  Id  his  controversy  with  Cartwright, 
^  made  it  heresy  to  believe  and  teach  thh  doctrine. — NtaVi  Puritant,. 
*•>!.  i  p.  teO.—HuntUifB  Prelates*  Uturpations,  p,  124. 

t  fiiog;.  Britan.  vol.  iii.  p.  9S4.     fidit.  1778. 
VOL.  II,  L 


queen^s  majesty's  officers,  unto  whom  it  may  come  of 
appertain/'  The  order  itself^  dated  London,  Deceabet 
11,  1573,  ifas  as  follows: — ^<  We  do  require  you,  and 
<<  therewith  straiiiy  command  you,  and  every  of  you. 
<<  in  the  queen's  majesty's  name,  that  you  be  aiding  ana 
<<  assisting  to  the  bearer  and  bearers  hereof,  with  all  the  best 
<^  means  you  can  devise,  for  tlie  apprehension  of  one 
^  Thomas  Cartwright,  student  in  divinity,  wheresoever  h^ 
<^  be,  within  the  liberties  or  without,  within  this  reabn. 
<<  And  jrou  having  possession  of  bu  body  by  your  gooii 
<<  travail  and  dilig^ice  in.  this  buoncss,  we  do  likewito 
^<  charge  you,  (for.  so  is  her  majesty's  pleasure,)  that  he  bd 
<<  brought  up  by  you  to  London,  with  a  sufficient  number 
^  for  his' safe  appearance  before  us,  and  other  her  majesty's 
^<  commissioners  in  causes  ecclesiastical,  for  his  unlawnif 
^^  dealings  and  demeanours  in  matters  touching  religion^  atidl 
<^  the  state  of  this  realm.  AAdfiiilyonnotsotodo,eveiydM 
<^  of  you,  with  all  diligence,  a&  you  will  answer-  to  the- 
<'  contrary  upon,  your  utmost  peril."  This  order  way 
signed  by  the  Bishop  of  London,  and  eleven  others  of  the 
high  commission.* 

Afr.  Cartwright,  however,  wisely  concealed  himself,  tiH 
he  found  an  opportunity  of  leaving  the  kingdom.  And  God, 
who  provides  for  the  young  ravons  when  they  cij) 
pfovided  for  his  persecuted  servant  in  this  glocNEby  season.- 
For  at  this  critical  juncture,  he  was-  unexpectecQy  invHed^ 
together  with  Mr.  Snape,  to  assist  the  ministers*  in  fle 
islands  of  Jerse;^  and  Guernsey,  in  framing  the  reauisita 
discipline  for  their  churches*     This  was  a  mvoursMf;'  &^ 

Ensation  to  Mr.  Cartwright ;  who,  being  forced  to  abandba 
s  native  country^  foura  there  a  refuge  from  t£RS  strain. 
These  two  islands  were  the  oi|ly  places  within  the  Britiiif 
^fominions,  where  the  out-stretched  anns  of  the  high  con* 
SHssioners  could  not  reach  him.  During  Mr.  Carttrrifflit]i 
abode  here,  besides  attending  to  the  special  object  dr  Uf 
mifirion.,  he  laboured. in  his  pdblic  ministiTv particularly  at 
Castle^Comet  in  Guernsey.  It  appears  that  he  aftdrMidb 
went  again  to.  Antwerp^  and  a  secmd'  time  beoHSM^ 
I»eacher  to  the  £i^li9h  merchants.^ 

Mr.  Cartwn^t  continued  at:  Antwerp  several  yesffj 
bat  his  health  haying  ^^eatly  deeUned,  the  physidaai 
recommended  hiin,  as  the  most  likely  means  of  nis  lestor- 
ation,  to  tiy  his.  native  ain     His  comidaint  at  laogA 

•  Strype'f  AamIs,  vol.  IS.  |kS8{i.      f  JU^om*!  lf«.  CollecPraf. p.  93^ 


iticrca8iii^4o  so  great  a  degree  that  his  life  was  thought  to 
be  ill  danger,  he  wrote  to  the  lords  of  the  council,  the  Eaii 
#f  Iieicester^  and  the  Lord  Treasurer  Burleigh,  for  permission 
to  come  home.  These  two  noblemen  made  honourable  men- 
thM  of  him  in  Parliament.  They  also  interceded  with  the 
qtteeu,  but  could  not  procure  her  favour  and  consent. 
JNeyertheless,  he  yentured  to  return  once  more  to  his  native 
oountrj.  But  it  was  no  sooner  known  that  he  was  landed^ 
thali  he  was  apprehended  by  Bishop  Aylmer,  and  cast  into 
l^riiion.*  When  he  appeared  before  Whitgift,  now  made 
Archbishop,  he  behaved  with  so  much  modesty  and 
respect,  as  greatly  softened  the  heart  of  his  adversary ;  who^ 
Upon  the  promise  of  his  quiet  and  peaceable  behaviour, 
suffered  him,  after  some  time,  to  go  at  large.  For  this 
ftyour,  both  the  E^rl  of  Leicester  and  Mr.  Cartwright 
thanked  the  archbishop ;  but  all  the  endeavours  they  used 
eoald  not  obtain  him  a  license  to  preach.f  The  eiarl  did 
every  thing  for  him  in  his  power,  and  made  him  master  of 
the  hospital  at  Warwick;  where,  for  some  time,  he  preached 
without  a  license,  being  exempt  from  the  jurisdiction  of 
Uib  prelates.}  This  noble  earl,  and  his  brother,  the  Earl 
of  Warwick,  were  his  constant  friends  and  patrons  as  long 

Mr.  Cartwright  was  so  celebrated,  that  King  James 
of  Scotland  offered  him  a  professorship  in  the  university 
of  St.  Andrews ;  but  he  modestly  declined  it.  Afterwards, 
Ifr.  Cartwright,  in  the  dedication  of  his  <^  Commentary 
o^  Ecclesiastes"  to  that  king,  made  thankful  acknowledg- 
BMnt  of  the  royal  favour.  The  Archbishop  of  Dublin 
itiyited  him  into  Ireland,  offering  him  considerable  prefer- 
nient;  and  it  is  said  he  went  into  Ireland,  but  soon 
letumed  to  England. ||    Indeed,  such  Was  his  distinguished 

i^utation,   that   the   most   celebrated    divines,  both    at 


•  The  bishop,  to  rast  the  reproach  of  this  from  himself,  proceeded 
a^iut  Mr.  Cartwright,  not  in  his  own  name,  but  in  the  name  of  theqaeeo  ; 
with  which  her  majesty  no  sooner  became  acquainted,  than  she  was  greatly 
bRCDsed  against  him.  Aylmer,  poor  man  !  to  make  up  the  breach,  wrote  to 
ibe  treasurer,  entreating  him  to  use  his  utmost  endeavours  to  appease  tha 
qi»CB*B  IndigDSLtion.—Strype's  Whitgift,  p.  295.—Strype'i  jiylnur^p.  117. 
■   +  Strype's  Annals,  vol.  iii.  p.  340,  841.— Strype's  Whitgift,  p.2»5,  «86. 

i  Clark's  Lives,  p.  19. 

S  The  Earl  of  Warwick,  who  died  of  an  ampotatioa  of  his  leg,  wte  a 
fMMNi^of  "great  sweetness  of  temper,  and  of  unexceptionable  character. 
He  waa  aActioaate  to  his  relations,  kind  to  his  domestics,  and  gratefal 
to  hit  fHendi.  He  was  called  by  the  people,  long  before  and  after  his 
dcatli,  Tbb  good  Earl  of  Warwick.— JUiog.  Britan,  vol.  r.  p.  448>  444; 
Edit.  1TT8. 

f  Ki4pte»*s-MI.  QoUw.  Pi«f.  p.  33. 


borne  and  abroadi,  frequently  sought  his  adyioe  in  thi^^ 
most  weighty  matters.* 

In  the  year  1583,  Mr.  Cartwright  was  eamesUy  pressed 
by  many  learned  persons,  to  publish  a  refutation  of  the 
<^  Rhemist  Translation  of  the  New  Testament.'*  Thit 
translation  being  looked  upon  by  all  true  protestants^  as  a 
work  of  a  very  dangerous  tendency,  designed  to  promote 
the  errors  and  superstitions  of  popery,  most  persons 
wished  it  to  be  answered  by  the  ablest  pen  that  could  be 
found.  And  no  man  was  thought  so  suitable  to  undertalDe 
the  laborious  work  as  Mr.  Cartwright.  Indeed,  the  qaeei 
applied  to  the  learned  Beza  of  Geneva,  solicitiuff  him  to 
undertake  the  answer ;  but  he  modestly  declinea,  saYing, 
she  had  a  person  in  Iier  own  kingdom  far  better  quali&dto 
perform  the  work  than  himself;  and  deotarea  that  this 
was  Mr.  Thomas  Cartwright.f  Sir  Francis  WaIsin|^iaoi, 
who  in  this  affiiir,  as  well  as  many  others,  was  accounted  tke 
mouth  and  hana  of  the  queen,  wrote  to  Mr.  Cartwr^iU, 
earnestly  entreating  him  to  undertake  the  wori^  sending,  it 
the  same  time,  one  hundred  pounds  towards  the  expenie, 
with  assurance  of  sucli  further  assistance  as  he  mi|U 
afterwards  deem  necessary*  The  ministers  €f  London  m 
Suffolk,  in  like  manner,  urged  him  to  undertake  it.  He 
was  also  warmly  solicited  by  some  of  the  most  learned  and 
celebrated  divines  of  Cambridge.^  In  their  letter  to  him, 
they  express  themselves  in  the  following  manner  :-^"  We 
^^  are  earnest  with  you,  most  reverend  Cartwright,  thatjoii' 
'^  would  set  yourself  against  the  unhallowed  endeayoaiB  of 
<<  these  mischievous  men,  either  by  refuting,  the  whob 
^^  book,  or  some  part  thereof.  It  is  not  for  eveiy  one 
<<  rashly  to  be  thrust  forth  into  the  Lord^s  battles ;  but'sudi 
<^  captains  as  are  to  be  chosen  from  amongst  David*! 
*^  worthies,  one  of  which,  we  acknowledge  you  to  be,  by 
"  the  former  battles  undergone  for  the  walls  of  our  city, 
**  the  church.  We  doubt  not,  if  yon  will  enter  this  war, 
^^  but  that  you,  fighting  for  your  conscience  and  countiy, 
<<  will  be  able  to  tread  under  foot  the  forces  of  the  Jebnsitei, 
"  which  set  themselves  to  assault  the  tower  of  David. — Yaa 
'^  see  to  what  an  honourable  fight  we  invite  you.    Christ's 

•  Clark's  Lives,  p.  19. 

f  Dnriog  Mr.  Cartwrigbt's  exile,  travelliof  to  Geoenh  be  becMi 
particttlarly  intimate  with  Beza;  who,  at  that  time,  writing  toi  hit  Mad 
in  England,  gave  him  the  followiiig  character  :  '*  Here  is  now  with  «  joir 
**  countryman,  Thomas  Cartwright^  than  whom,  1  thinly  the  sun  docli  not 
**  see  a  more  learned  man/' — Ibid,  p.  18, 19. 

t  Fuller's  Church  Hist.  b.  iz.  p.  ni.---Sirype*0  Whitgift»p.  «63,9M. 


f  ^  business  shall  be  undertaken  against  Satan's  champions. 
**  We  stir  you  up  to  fight  the  battles  of  the  Lord,  where 
f^  the  Yictoiy  is  certain,  and  which  the  triumph  and  applause 
ff  of  angels  will  ensue.  Our  prayers  shall  never  be  wanting 
ff  to  vou.  Christ,  without  doubt^  whose  cause  you  defendi 
f^  will  be  present  with  you.  The  Lord  Jesus  mudh 
*^,  increase  your  courage  and  strength,  and  keep  yoi^  very 
ff  long  in  safety  for  his  church's  good."*  From  all  these 
jollcitaiions,  Mr.  Cartwright  was  at  length  induced  to 
iuidertake  the  laudable  and  arduous  work ;  and  having  once 
filtered  upon  it,  he  spared  no  pains  to  carry  it  on  to 
perfection.  But,  marvellous  as  it  will  appear  to  all 
posterity,  Archbishop  Whitgift,  by  his  own  sovereign 
authority,  forbade  him  to  proceed. f  Mr.  Caitwright 
meekly  cJbeyed  the  tyrannical  prohibition.  The  book  was 
Ml.  unfinished^  to  the  unspeakable  regret  of  the  learned 
inpild,  but  to  tlue  lasting  reproach  of  the  archbis;hop,  and  was 
*ii0t  published  till  the  y^ar  1618.  Fuller  says,  Mr. 
Jpartwright  perfected  the  work  to  the  seventeenth  chapter 
lif  Reirdation.  But  the  excellent  performance  being  laid 
•fislde  manv  years,  became  in  part  mouse  eaten ;  and  was 
jpU  published  till  the  above  year.  Notwithstanding  these 
Ifefects,  says  he,  it  is  so  complete  a  refutation,  that  the 
jtlbemists  durst  never  answer  it.t 

• .  Mr.  Cartwright  was  severely  persecuted  on  account  of 
Ms  nonconformity.  Although  his  hospital  at  Warwick  was 
exempt  from  the  jurisdiction  of  the  prelates,  their  out- 
itr^ttmed  and  tyrannical  power  would  not  suffer  him  to 
.jOijoy  peace.  He  was  accused  to  Bishop  Frekeof  Wor- 
.oeikcar,  a  zealous  ad vjooate^^^  the  church,^  and  summoned 
Jtb  ajqpear.  in  the  consistory  at  Worcester,  to  answer  such 
charges  as  were  alleged  against  him.  Upon  his  appearance 
liefore  his  lordship  and  others,  he  was  addressed  as  follows : 
r7^  Mr.  Cartwright,  you  are  here  accused  of  disturbing 
Hie  peace  and  quietness  of  the  church,  by  innovations,  and 
dbtniding  fancies  and  devices  of  your  own  or  others.  You 
Inve  brought  over  with  you  the  dregs  of  Geneva,  whereby 
.  you  would  instU  into  the  minds  of  the  queen's  sutgects,  that 
yonr  doctrine .  is   the   only  truth .  to  be  embraced  and 

P  Thii  letter  was  sabscribed  by  Roger  Goad,  V^iniam  WhiUker, 
Hhnmu  Crook,  John  Ireton,  William  Fulke,  John  Field,  Nicholai  Crane» 
fiMloi  Sutler,  Richard  Gardiner,  William  Cbarke,  and  othen,  celebrated 
Ibr  their  learning  and  piety.— C/arJi:*«  Lives,  p.  SO. — LetUr  prefixed  to 
CmrtwrigkVs  IMutaiion, 

f  Strype's  Whltgift,  p.  S53, 854.        t  Cbnrph  Hiit.  b.  iz.  p.  171,  ITS. 

J}  WoiDd'i  Athsas  Ozon.  sq\.  i^  p^  7SS. 


entertained.  'You  had  best  take  heed,  that  yon  nm  not 
upon  the  same  rock,  which  the  papists  themsdves  split 
upon,  and  draw  upon  yourself  the  same  penalty  ordained 
for  those  who  alienate  the  hearts  of  the  subjectB  both  from 
their  prince  and  rdi^on."  To  these  accusations  and 
foul  aspersions,  Mr.  Cartwright,  with  becoming'  chrisliao 
meekness,  only  said,  <<  I  have  the  word  of  Gm  for  ny 
warrant,  and  the  example  of  the  reformed  churches  for  h^ 
guide,  in  what  I  have  done."  Dr.  Longworth,  on  this 
occasion,  boldly  challenged  him  to  a  public  disputationi 
but  Mr.  Cartwright  wisely  declined.  He  waa,  tLcrefiMPe, 
dismissed  without  receiving  any  ecclesiastical  censure.* 

Mr.  Cartwright  was  undoubtedly  concerned  for  the 
reformation  of  the  church ;  and  he  laboured,  in  the  moiit 
peaceable  manner,  to  promote  it  to  the  utmost  of  hii 
power.  For  the  accomplishment  of  this  ^eat  obiect,^  he 
joined  with  his  brethren  in  their  associations,  and  united 
with  them  in  perfecting  and  subscribing  the  "  Book^  of 
Discipline.'*f  He  was  one  of  the  heads  in  these  BMsexniXes^ 
and  was  sometimes  chosen  moderator.  Though,  upon  his 
irelease  frpm  prison,  he  could  not  obtain  his  liberty  ia 
preach,  but  stdl  continued  under  suspension,  he  omstantly 
attended  to  his  ministerial  exerdse  in  his  hoepital,  and 

£  reached  occasionally  at  other  places,  particularly  at 
ianbury.  His  endeavours  to  carry  on  the  English  refoim- 
ption  towards  perfection,  were,  considered  as  a  violation  of 
established  customs,  and  disobedience  to  the  eccksi^siical 
Jaws ;  therefore,  in  the  year  1590,  he  was  summoned  to 
appear  before  the  high  commission.  Previous  to  his 
appearance  before  this  terrible  tribunal,he  wrote  the  fpXkm^ 
ing  excellent  and  generous  letter,  addressed  <^  To  the  xigU 
worshipful  Mr.  Puckering,  one  of  her  mi^jesty's  Serjeants  at 
law  :"t 

"  Having  received  Mr.  Puckering's  letter  <m  Wednesday, 
I  came  no  sooner  with  it :  the  cause  hath  been  in  patt  i 
strain  of  one  of  my  legs,  and  in  part  the  importunity  of  ay 
friends,  begging  me  to  stay  until  I  had  gotten  some  abBitgr 
of  my  leg,  to  travel  with  more  commodity.  And  nan  that 
I  am  come  to  the  town,  I  bring  not  the  letter  myself.  The 
cause  is,  that  being  sent  for  by  a  pursuivant,  I  was  loath  to 
be  attached  before  I  had  made  my  appearance  Ifithoat 
4ittachment,  and  that  I  might  as  it  were  be  mine  own 

•  Baker*!  MS.  Collec.  Tol.  zxviii.  p.  443,  444. 

+  Neal's  Paritans,  vol.  i.  p.  428. 

t  Baker*s  MS.  CoUec.  vol.  zr.  p.  105, 100. 

CAUTWRIGffiT.  t61 

Mntti^^ftiit:  and  partly  also  because  I  was  Joath  that  your 
mvour  toward  me  should  any  way  appear  to  any  manner 
tf  hurt  of  youiSy  and  no.  good  of  iminb. 
.  .  ^  And  now,  good  sU^  >CDnfessing>my6elf  greatly,  beholden 
onto  you  in  my  behrif  and  the  behalf  of  .nay  wife,  my 
faupble  desire  is,  that  1  may  yet  fiirther^Men  unto 
mil  in  the  behalf  of  the  .poor  churdh  at  Warwick,  that 
ukely  enough  may  be  deprived  of  all  manner  of  tolorablc 
Ministty,  b^h  for  the  goiod  of  yoiir  own  family,  which  is 
^f/xdlj  and  in  r^ard  of  toth^  poor  souls  there :  that  if  the 
times  will  not  bear  us  who  are  there  J10W4  y^  tfieve  may 
lie  flbcDe  such  provided,  as,  «diffiering  in  judgment  fiiom  ais, 
9nfey  notwithstanding,  both  in  seme  good  skill  and  caxe^ 
proceed  in  the  edification  of  >the  oburoh,  witliMit  bitterness 
wsjlirit  against  other  poor  men  who  acre 'othersidse.  minded. 
This  I  am  bolder  to«rave  at  your  worship^s  hand,  as  I 
tadentknd,  and  was  glad  of,  that  die  town  hath  'chosen  you 
to  the  iec<ndership,  which  mtfy  be  la,  singuhnr  means  of 
vnidi^ooduiito  Ihetewn,  and  amongst  others,  that 
ndiich  it  pleased  you  to^k  wkh  me  <£  This  I  was 
dd  to  write  in  fear  of  being  severed  from  doing  any 
service  there,  and  yet  not  known  to  myself  of  any 
Iveach  of  law,  whereby  1  may  be  touclied.  Only  I  fear 
to  be  conunitted  for  refusing  the  oath  .er  officio  taero*  Thus 
i  iiunibly  commend  you  to  the  gracious  keeping  and 
U0Mii«  of  Gpd  in  Jesus  Christ.  May  SO,  1590. 
^<  Yours  to  command  in  the  Lbr^  ... 

'1!  ^<  T^okAS  CARTlPltlt}!!^'' 

Thus  our  divine  prepared  for.^be  approachvig  stornu 
Xfe  im  tmtnediaJtel^  convened  before  the  bigh  commission^ 
JttdL'CiHt  into  prison.;  "and,  September  1st,  in  thos  year, 
iktriu^one  articlesiwere  exhibited  against  him,  the  substance 
nf  *TOich  is  the  following : 

2.  That  Mr.  Cartwright,  being  lawfdllv  made  tdeaedw 
according  to  the  church  of  En^and,  hath  forsakien  and 
mumnGm  Che  same. 

-  S.  That,  to  Bhew  his  yccdkcatpi  of  tins  cfdUngi,  be  Jiath 
obtained  a  new  ordination  in  foreign  parts,  not  according  to 
ilie4«WB  ecclesiastical  ot  this  realm. 
.  3.  That,  by  virtue  of  this  vocation,  he  hath  established 
it  Antwerp  and  Middleburg,  a  ceiiftain  presbytery  wad 
aidciiliipi'  ^eccVssiasticaL 

4.  That,  by  the  said  eldership,  certain  persons,  beu^ 
Englishmen^  were  ordained  to  be  ministers,  not  accoiding 
|p  tb^lhiiii ^cplep)i|8ticHl  of  this  realm. 


b.  That  this  ddership,  so  established,  hath  used  eccle- 
siastical  ceosures. 

6.  That. the  said  Thomas  Caitwright,  in.his  pnblic 
ministnr  there,  hath  not  used  the  Book  of  Commoa  nayer, 
but  bonformed  to  some  of  the  foreign  churches. 
^  7.  That  since  his  return  Irom  beyond  seas,  he  hath  pro- 
mised, to  the  utmost  of  his  power,  to  promote  the  peao^  of 
the  church* 

8.  That  he,  having  no  ministry  in  this  church,  and 
-without  any  license,  hath  taken  upon  him  to  preadi  at 
Warwick  and  other  places. 

,  9.  That  at  sundry  times,  he  hath  shewed  his  dislike  of 
the  government  of  this  church,  and  various  parts  of  .the 
liturgy ;  and  hath  persuaded  others  to  do  the  same. 

10.  That  he  hath  traduced  and  spoken  against  the 
bishops,  and  other  governors  of  this  charch. 

11.  That  he  hath  such  hatred  against  them,  he  bath 
prayed  publicly  to  this  effect :  ^^  B^use  they  who  on^t 
to  be  pillars  in  the  church,  do  bend  themselves  agaimt 
Christ,  and  his  truth,  O  Lord,  give  us  grace,  and  power,  all 
as  one  man,  to  set  ourselves  against  them." 

13.  That  at  sundry  times  and  places  he  hath  spokea 
against  the  laws,  government,  orders,  prayers,  and  ooe- 
monies.of  the  church. 

!  13.  That  preaching  at  the  baptism  of  one  of  Job 
Throgmonton's  children,  he  spoke  much  in  justification,^ 
government  by  the  eldership  m  every  coogr^tion. 

14.  That  he  could  not  endure  those  who  defended  the 
laws,  government,  and  orders  of  the  church. 

15.  That  in  his  sermons  at  Warwick  and  dacwhm^ 
be  hath  often  delivered  many  frivolous  and:  indiscreet 

16.  That  by  his  persuasions,  sundry  persons  refiised'io 
give  thanks  after  child-birth,  accoiding  to  the  onkr 

17.  That  at  sundry  times,  when  he  communicated  at  tho 
liord's  supper,  he  sate,  or  stood  upon  his  feet,  and  pasoaded 
others  to  do  the  same. 

18.  That  before  the  bishop  he  spoke  in  justification  of 
these  things ;  and  declared  the  Book  of  C^mm<m  Prayer 
was  not  es^blished  by  law. 

19.  That  in  contempt  of  the  ecclesiastical  authority,^le 
hath  preached  since  he  was  under  the  sentence:  of  .sos- 

SO.  That  his  man-iservant  having  abastaid  child  fathered 

CARTWttlOHT.  15S 

.^iipon  him,  he  caused  him  to  perfiwm  penance,  taking  upon 
him  the  authority  of  the  ordinaiy. 

*.  SI.  That  he  and  some  others  have  kept  diyers  public 
fieuta,  and  have  invited  more  to  join  them,  without  the 
adthojity  of*  the  queen. 

•  '£8.  That  since  he  came  to  Warwick,  he  hath  caused 
ABUich  faction,  by  distinguishing  the  people  into  godly  and 

r  23.  That  he  doth  know  who  were  the  writers,  printers,  or 
dispersers  of  the  writings  mider  the  name  of  Martin  Mar- 

*  S4f.  That  being  asked  his  opinion  of  these  books,  he 
•insinuated,  that  as  the  bishops  would  not  amend  by  grave 
-writings,  it  was  meet  they  should  be  dealt  with  to  their 
fgreat  shame  and  reproach. 

25.  That  he  penned  or  procured  to  be  penned,  all  or 
tome  part,  of- the  book,  entitled  DisctpHna  Ecclesice  sacra 

"Wrbo  Dei  descrij^a;  and  he  recommended  the  same  to  the 

jndgment  and  censure  of  others. 

.  1^.  That  the  said  Thomas  Cadwright  and  sundry  others 
have  met  in  assemblies,  termed  synods,  in  London,  Ojcfcnrd, 

^CSambridge,  Warwickshire,  Northamptonshire,  &c. 
^'87.:  That  at  such  synods,  it  hath  been  concluded|^^that 
all  ministers  should  subscribe  the  said  ^^  Book  o£  iJisci- 

•pline,"  and  be  governed  by  it. 

;    88.  That  at  such  synods,  a  moderator  was  by  him  and 

-them  chosen,  according  to  the  order  of  the  said  book. 

'    89.  That  at  such  assemblies,  he  did,  with  others,  dispute 

upon  <3ertain  articles,  and  set  down  their  determinations. 

.     30.  That  he,  with  others,  in  an  assembly  at  Cambridge, 

.did  conclude  upon  certain  decrees,  which  were  afterwa^dls 
considered  and  allowed  at  Warwick. 

I     31.  That  all  the  proceeding^  of  such  meeting  have 

;beeii  set  down,  fi-om  time  to  time,  by  the  said  Thomas 
Cartwright  and  others.* 

These  articles  are  presented  to  the  reader  as  a  curious 

"jpecimen  of -the  charges  alleged  against  the  puritans,  that 
he  may  judge  of  their  evil  nature  and  dangerous  tendency. 
Wa  may  suppose  this  long  list  of  crimes  contains  all  the 
evil  things  that  even  his  enemies  could  hiins  a^inst  him.^ 
They  were  exhibited  against  Mr.  Cartwright  by  Bishop 

•Aylmer  and  other  commissioners,  who  required  hun  to  take 
the  oath  ex  officio.    He,  indeed,  offered  to  clear  himself  of 

•  Fnller's  Cbnrch  Hiif.  b.  iz.  p.  108— SOS. 


The  above  prisoners,  in  answer  to  the  charges  broiigbt 
against  them,  maintained,  ^'  .That  their  associations  weie 
^rery  nsefiil,  and  not  forbKlden  by  any  law  of  the  realm :— • 
That  they  exercised  no  jurisdictioni  nor  moved  any  seditiooy 
nor  transacted  any  afiairs,  inconsistent  with  their  duty  to 
their  prince,  and  the  peace  of  the  church: — That  they  had 
agreed  upon  some  regulations  to  render  their  ministry  moie 
profitable,  but  all  was  voluntary,  and  in  breach  of  no  law :— » 
And  as  to  the  oath,  they  refused  it,  not  in  C(mtempt  of  the 
court,  but  as  contrary  to  the  laws  of  God  and  natare.*'*^ 
fiut  their  answers  proving  unsatisfactory,  they  were  sept 
back  to  prison,  where  they  continued  two  years  without 
any  further  process,  or  being  admitted  to.bail. 

During  their  confinement  in  prison,  Kinf  James  of  Scot- 
land, afterwards  the  inveterate  enemy  to  &e  puritanis,  in  a 
letter  to  Queen  Elizabeth,  dated  June  12,  1591,  warmly 
interceded  for  them.  In  this  letter,  the  king  most  earnestly 
requested  her.  majesty  to  shew  favour  to  Mr.  Curtwright 
and  his  brethren,  on  account  of  their  great  learning  and 
fiuthiul  travek  in  the  gospel.f  Mr.  Uartwri^t  himsdl^ 
being  exceedingly  afHicted  with  the  gout  and  sciatica,  which 
were  much  increased  by  lying  in  a  cold  prison,  petitioned  for 
fais  liberty.  He  wrote  a  most  bumble  and  pious  letior  lo 
I^ady  Russel,  and  another  to  Treasurer  Buridgh,  ~ 
them  to  intercede  with  the  queen  for  his  enlargement,  4 
it  were  upon  bond.  He  expressed,  on  this  occanOn, 
very  great  concern,  that  her  majesty  should  be  so  highfy 
otEsmed  at  him,  seeing  he  had  printed  no  books  for  the  last 
thirteen  years,  that  could  give  the  least  uneasinesB;  aod 
having  already  declared  his  dislike  of  Martin  Mar-Prelate^ 
and  tmit  he  never  had  a  hand  in  any  of  the  bo(du  wider  Us 
name,  nor  in  any  other  satirical  pamphlets;  ai^l  that  in  the 
course  of  his  ministry  at  Warwick,  during  the  last  fivd 
years,  he  had  avoided  all  controversy.^  Dr.  Ckxid,  Jhr. 
Whitaker,. and  other  celebrated  persons,  wrote  an  ezcellentt 
letter  to  the  treasurer,  in  favour  of  the  prisoners,  eamesliy 
beseeching  that  they  might  not  be  more  hardly  dealt  wiA 
than  papists.^  After  waiting  six  months  Imiger,  tliey  pie* 
suited  a  petition  to  the  lords  of  the  council,  dated  DeDUiiber 
4,  1591,  to:bc  enlarged  upon  bail.  They  wrote,  at  die 
same  time,  to  the  treasurer,  with  their  request  that  he  wovl4 

•  Baker'6  MS.  CoUec.  toI.  xt.  p.  148-^152, 
+  Faller*8  Church  Hist.  b.  i  j.  p.  ^OS,  204. 
i  Slrype'8  Aonals.  vol.  iy.  p.  48 — 53. 
^  Strype*s  Whitgift,  AppeB.p.  135,.I66. 


forward  it,  assaring  bim  of  their  loyalty  to  the  queen,  and 
their  peaceable  behaviour  in  the  church.  ^^  We  doubt  not,'* 
*<  Bay  they,  ^'  but  your  lordship  is  sensible,  that  a  yearns 
<^  imprisonmoit  and  more,  must  strike  deeper  into  our 
<' healths,  considering  our  manner  of  life,  than  a  number  of 
^^  years  to  men  of  a  different  occupation.  Your  lordship 
^  knows,  that  many  papists,  who  deny  the  queen's  supre- 
'^'macy,  have  been  enlarged ;  whereas  we  have  all  sworn  to 
^  it;  and  if  the  govemment  so  require,  are  ready  to  take 
'<  the  oath  again.  This  petition  was  subscribe  by  th« 
ibilowing  ministers,  all  prisoners  for  the  truth  of  Christ : 

Thomas  Cartwright,  Edward  Lord, 

Humphrey  Fenn,  Edmund  Snaps, 

Andrew  King,  William  Proudlove, 

Daniel  Wight,  Melanchton  Jewel.* 
John  Patne, 

The  prisoners  also  applied  to  the  archbishop,  who  re* 
fiiaed  to  consent  to  their  enlargement,  unless  they  would, 
under  their  own  hands,  declare  the  church  of  EIngland  to  be 
a  true  church ;  that  tl^  whole  order  of  public  prayers  and 
.ceremooies  might  be  lawfully  observed ;  and  renounce  in 
fhtme  all  their  assemblies,  classis,  and  synods,  as  unlawful 
and  seditious ;  which  they  utterly  declined.f  These  applica* 
tioos  piOYing  ineffectual,  they  resolved  at  length  to  aadress 
the  queen  herself;  for  which  purpose  they  drew  up  a  de- 
cliumtioii,  dated  April,  1592,  containing  an  impartial  state- 
ment of  their  case,  and  a  full  answer  to  the  several  charges 
brought  against  them.)  Notwithstanding  all  these  endea- 
vouTB,  Mr.  Cartwright  did  not  obtain  his  release  for  some 
time.  But  at  length,  by  the  favour  of  the  archbishop,  who 
it  was  said,  <^  feared  the  success  of  so  tough  a  conflict  fH  he 
was  released  upon  promise  of  his  quiet  and  peaceable  be* 
berionr,  and  restored  to  his  hospital  at  Warwick,  where  h» 
made  his  promise  good,]  and  continued  without  further  mo* 
lestation  the  rest  of  his  days.  His  fellow-prisoners  were 
ndeased  most  probably  about  the  same  time ;  but  of  this  we 
luive  obtained  no  certain  information.  It  is,  indeed,  ob* 
served  of  Mr.  Cartwright  and  his  brethren,  <<  That  it  pleased 
Grod  so  to  order  it,  that  those  very  witnesses  who  were 
brought  to  accuse  them,  did  so  clear  them,  that  they  were 

•  Strype*!  Annab,  vol.  !▼.  p.  72,  73. 

f  Strype'i  Wbitgift,  p.  S70i  App«a.  p.  ISS— IM. 

^  Strype*!  Aooab,  vol.  i?.  p.  85---01. 

iFaller't  CliorGh  Hist.  b.  is.  p.  20i. 
P^vIb*s  Wkitf  ifl,  p.  7«. 


dismissed  and'seut  home,  much  more  honoured  and  beloved 
than  before/'* 

The  pardon  and  release  of  Mn  Cartwright  and.  his 
brethren  was  procured  of  the  queen,  as  Sir  George  Bank 
asserts,  by  the  intercession  of  Archbishop  Whitgill.  Jl^ 
also  observes,  that  when  Mr.  Cartwright  was  freed  from  hdl 
troubles,  he  often  rispaired  to  the  archbishop,  who  lased  him 
kindly,  and  for  several  years  tolerated  his  preaching  at 
Warwick,  upon  his  promise  not  to  impugn  the  hiws,  orders^ 
and  government:  of  the  church  of  LngkUid,  but  psomcit&^ 
JxAh  publicly  and  privately,  tlie  estimation  and'peace  of  tlM 
same.  With  these  terms,  it*  is  said,  he  complied.  Not* 
withstanding,  when  the  queen  understood  that  he  preached 
again,  though  in  a  temperate  manner,  according  to  his  pro* 
mise,  she  would  not  permit  him  any  longer  without  sub- 
scription; and  she  was  not  a  Uttlc  displeased  with  the  arch- 
bishop for  his  past.connivance.f 

l^hough  Mr.  Cartwright  never  groaned  any  more  under 
the  iron  rod  of  persecution,  his  cuaracter  was  afterwards 
slanderously  aspersed.      Many  writers  of  the  episcopal 

Eirty,  have  reproached  him  as  being  concerned  with 
acKet,  Coppinger,  and  Arthin^n,  in  their  mad  conspiracy 
and  other  singularities.  This  reproach  was,  however^ 
made  abundantly  manifest,  to  the  great  honour  of  Mr.  Cart- 
wright and  his  brethren,  and  the  shame  of  their  enemiies; 
He  published  an  '^  Apology"  of  himself,  a^inst  the  slanders 
of  Dr.  Sutcliff ;  and,  says  my  author,  <<  I  have  Mr.  Gsut^ 
Wright's  own  answer  to  Dr.  Sutcliff,  in  manuscript,  WbicH 
doth  so  fully  confute  the  shameful  ^story  of  hisxonfederaqy 
with  these  men,  as  will  shame  the  slanderer  to  any  impartial 
reader.''^  Fuller  himself  acquits  Mr.  Cartwright  wA  his 
brethren  in  these  words :  "  True  it  is,"  says  he,  "  they  as 
cordially  detested  Hacket's  blasphemies,  as  any  of  the  epis? 
copal  party;  and  such  of  them  as  loved  Hacket  the  nonam" 
formist,  abhorred  Hacket  the  heretic^  after  he  had  mounted 
to  so  high  a  pitch  of  impiety/'^ 

Mr.  Cartwright,  in  his  old  age,  was  much  afflicted  wi^ 
the  stone  and  gout,  by  lying  in  cold  prisons ;  yet  he  did  not 
i^linquish  his  public  labours ;  but  continued  to  preach  wlien^ 
with  the  utmost  difficulty,  he  could  scarcely  creep  into  iip 
pulpit.  The  Lord's  day  before  his  death,  he  preached  hb 
last  sermon,  from  Eccl.  xii.  .7. — Then  shall  the  dust  return 
to  the  earthy  and  the  spirUishall  return  to  God  who  gave  d* 

•  Clark*!  Uvea,  p.  18.  •      +  Faale's  Whitgift,  p.  70~^i. 

t  MS.  Remarkt,  p.  170.  S  CburcliUipt.  b^  ix.  p.  SOS. 


The  Tuesday  morning  following,  after  spending  tiyo  bourn 
apon  bis  knees  in  private  prayer,  be  signified  to  Mrs.  Cart-^ 
wrigfat  that  he  haa  found  unutterable  joy  and  comfort,  and 
that  Grod  bad  given  bim  a  glimj^  of  heaven  before  bis  de-^ 
parture;  and  in  a  few  hours  be  departed  in  peace,  enjoying 
the  salvation  of  Jesus  Christ  He  died  December  27, 1603; 
aged  sixty-eight  years.*  His  mortal  remains  were  interred 
in  his  own  hospital  at  Warwick,  when  Mr.  John  Dod 
preached  his  funeral  sermon.  He  married  the  sister  of  th« 
fiimous  Mr.  John  Stubbs,  whom  he  left  to  bemoan  her  paiii>i^ 
fill  loss. 

During  the  whole  of  his  life,  Mr.  Cartwright  was-  ind^* 
fiitigably  laborious.  He  was  a  constant  preacher  when  be 
enjoyed  his  liberty.  During  his  abode  at  Warwick,  besides 
taking  the  most  exact  care  of  the  hospital,  he  often  preached 
at  both  die  churches  on  the  Lords  day,  and  at  one  off 
them,  on  the  Saturday.  This  he  did  without  receivin|f 
any  reward  for  his  services.  It  does  not,  therefore^ 
appear  very  probable,  that  before  his  death  be  was  grown 
rtchj  as  some  of  our  historians  insinuate  ;f  especially  as  the 
income,  of  his  hospital  was  only  about  one  hundred  pounds 
aryear.  •  Indeed,  ne  was  not  concerned  to  be  rich  in  thit 
world.  For.  when  he  was.  preacher  to  the  merchants  at 
Antwerp^  and  found  by  their  losses  that  their  estates  were 
decreased,  he  returned  them  the  salary  which  they  allowed 
him.  And  when  he  was  a  prisoner  in  the  Fleet,  a  present 
of  thirty  pounds  was  sent  him  by  one  of  the  nobility,  but  he 
todk  only  ten  shillings,  returning  the  rest  to  the  donor,  with 
Huiny  thankful  adknowledgments.  Also,  when  the  Earl  of 
Leicester  ofiered  him  the  provostship  of  Eton  college,  say* 
ing,  it  was  one  hundred  pounds  more  than  enough,  besides 
the  conveniency  of  the  place ;  Mr.  Gaitwright  replied,  ^^  that 
the  hundred  pounds  more  than  enough  was  enough  for  bim.^f 

Few  persons  whose  names  are  handed  down  to  posterity 
hove  beien  treated  by  party  historians  with  greater  misre^ 
presentation  and  abuse.  Some  of  them  have  vaitured  to  inti^^ 
mate,  that  before  bis  death  be  changed  his  sentiments  about 
nonconformity ;  for  which,  however,  there  is  no  certain  evi* 
dence;  at  least,  they  have  produced  none.  Dugdale  call^l 
ham  tfauB  standaid-bearer  of  the  puritans,  and  says,  he  was  the 
first  in  the  church  of  England,  who  began  to  pray  extem- 
pore before  sermon*     Mr.  Strype  very  unjustly  denominates 

«  Clark^sLives,  p.  SI. 

4-  Fuller*!  Charch  Hist.  b.  z.  p.  2.— Chartoo*s  Life  of  Nowell,  p.  916. 

t  Clark's  Livei,  p.  18— SI . 


bim,  <^  the  first  broacher  of  piuitianisin."*  Mr.  Clark^  wW 
treats  his  memory  with  great  impartiality,  says,  ><  he  was  0 
hard  student,  cootinuing  his  assiduity  and  close  applicatiQiif 
to  the  end  of  his  days.  Although,  on  account  of  exaessivtl 
pains  and  bodUy  infirmities,  be  was  obliged,  towards  the 
close  of  life,  to  study  continually  upon  his  Knees,  he  rose  ak 
usual,  at  three  o^clock  in  the  morning;  which  practice  h^ 
continued  to  the  last.  His  humility  and  meekness  weienail 
the  least  conspicuous  features  in  his  character.  He  was  fin 
from  courting  the  applause  of  men ;  nor  could  he  endnie  tid 
hear  himself  commended,  or  to  hear  any  titles  ascribed  tc 
himself,  which  at  all  savoured  of  ambition.  Though  be 
was  uncommonly  popular,  he  did  not  seek  popularity,  but 
laboured  to  avoid  it  as  much  as  possible.  With  these 
thoughts  of  himself,  it  is  added,  he  could  not  endureta. 
hear  even  his  adversaries  reproached ;  and  if  any  pmBom, 
spoke  disgracefully  of  them  in  his  presence,  he .  wouU 
sharply  reprove  them,  saying,  ^  It  is  a  christian's  dntyly 
pray  for  his  enemies,  and  not  to  reproach  them.'  "f  Vnf|^ 
what  degree  of  truth  then  does  a  late  writer  assert,  <^  thatljk 
was  highly  conceited  of  his  own  talents  and  learning  l'!| 
Indeed,  his  highest  ambition  was  to  debase  himselt^  moA  Ift 
advance  the  ^ory  and  kingdom  of  Jesus  Christ  He  lOM 
an  acute  disputant,  an  acfmired  preacher,  and  eminenHlf. 
liberal,  especially  to  poor  scholars ;  and,  says  Fuller,  ^,it 
was  most  pious  ana  strict  in  his  convenation,  a  vm 
Latinist,  an  accurate  Grecian,  an  exact  Hebrean^  anioyiK 
short,  a  most  excellent  scholar."^  .  •;;  < 

Notwithstanding  all  these  excellent  .qualifications^  U 
piety,  his  learning,  and  his  good  sense  are  most  wana^ 
censured  by  a  modem  writer.  He  charges  Mr.  Cartwri^ 
in  his  correspondence  with  Sir  Michael  Hickes,  with  sayug, 
^^  that  prayer  was  as  it  were  a  bunch  of  k^s,  whereby  ne 

g 9  to  all  the  treasures  and  storehouses  of  the  Lord;  Ml 
utteries,  his  pantries,  his  cellars,  his  wardrobe.?  Mr.  GhIU 
Wright  might  use  these  words  in  a  familiar  correspcmdcoeef 
aniT what  does  it  prove?  This,  it  is  readily  admitted,  wii 
too  much  the  taste  of  those  times :  but  our  author  makif 
ahnost  every  4;hing  that  is  bad  of  these  few  words.  Foctt 
immediately  bredu  forth  into  a  strain  of  most  triumphMl 

:   iff 

•  Stripe's  Whit^ift,  p;  554.— Fuller*!  Cbarch  Hiit;  b.  z.  p.  S.— DvgdiMI 
Aotiq.  of  Warwiduhire,  vol.  i.  p.  443.  Edit.  1780.— Scry pc*s  PwfcflTi 
Pref.  p.  6. 

f  Clark's  Liv«f^  p.  1»H21.  t  Chnrton's  Uie  of  Nowdl,  p.^Uft 

S  Ckarch  Hiit.  b.  z.  p.  8. 


iBtenonlion,  saying,  ^^  Does  fiinaticisBi  cxtin^ruiNh  aU  UMt 
and  juugiuent?  or  is  it  only  in  minds  original  i^  i^x^ak*  tliai 
the  infection  can  fix  itself?  Which  ever  ^-av  the  reader 
nay  solve  the  problem,  he  wiU  naturally  aslu  \l*as  this  (he 
man  that  was  to  improve  what  had  been  done  by  Cranmer 
and  Ridley,  by  Parker  and  Nowell,  and  their  <>nadjtttat«  ? 
to  give  us  a  form  of  worship  more  pure  and  edifyinj^,  nxH^ 
dignified  and  devout  ?'*  But  this  eloquent  calunmiaior  does 
jttt  stop  here.  lie  felt  the  poetic  flame  arise ;  and  theivfoir 
Jamediately  asks,* 

**  Is  this  the  region,  this  the  soil,  this  the  clime. 

That  wc  mniit  change  for  heaven  T  this  mournliil  gtoom 

For  that  celestial  light  T 

We  do  confess,  that  so  much  bombast,  scurrility,  and 
hue-faced  misrepresentation  were  scarcely  ever  found 
within  so  small  a  compass.  The  reader  will  at  the  sune 
time  easihrperceiyc,  tliat the  whole  is  designed  to  extol  the 
church  of  Edigland,  if  not  above  perfection,  at  least  beyond 
the  possibility  of  amendment ;  and  to  blacken  the  character 
and  displace  the  memory  of  that  man,  who  was  justly 
esteemed  one  of  the  most  celebrated  divines  of  the  age  in 
lAich  he  lived.  But  whether  the  treatment  which  Mr. 
Cartwrigbt  received,  was  not  extremely  unjust  and  cruel ; 
and  wb^ber  it  does  not  stand  as  a  monument  of  lasting' 
reproach  to  those  prelates  who  took  an  active  part  in  pro- 
moting it,  is  left  with  every  impartial  reader  to  judge.  Dr. 
Thomas  Cartwright,  bishop  of  Chester  in  the  reign  of 
James  II.,  and  who  went  the  most  uifamous  lengths  in  sup- 
port of  that  monarch's  measures,  is  thought,  with  some  ap« 
peanmce  of  probability,  to  have  been  the  grandson  of  our 

.  Bk  WoBSJ,  in  addition  to  those  whose  tiUes  have  been  already 
iNcirf^i.  A  Brief  Apulo^'  ai^ainst  all  such  Slanderous  AccuMatkini 
^Ufitmaelk  Mr.  Sutclifl',  in  hU  iMOuplilettt,  moti  iiijuriuuHly  to  load 
fawtth,  1S0C.— 2.  A  Body  of  Divinity,  WW.-^.  A  Cuiil'utatioii  of 
tke  UmM*  Traaalatioii,  Olowies,  and  Auuotalions  on  the  New 
i0l(l«— 4.  Cummentaria  practica  iu  tutain  JliKtorlam 
^aatotiriivaiigeiiitlik  Larmonire  coiK-iiiJiatani.  MViO. 
of  tius  work  wah  urintcd  at  Auislfrdarii,  iu  (017, 
Evai]||;eUca,  Commf.'iitario.  (Uiahlicri,  rtj«'U^ 
■itrata,  fac^/J — 5.  Crmim^'r-Vdiii  'su«-«iii«ii  ^c 
I,  M88^-^.  M«.'Ulphra^i^  tw  liotnihv'  in 
k,  1047  ■ -7.  01ooM;fc  jmd 

IblfflU  t   IM  p.  Wj 


Bdward  Philips,  A.^M.^ — ^Tbis  lealons  pwitaB  ' 
educated  in  Pembroke  ocdkge,  Oxford.  Attenmds  ht 
settled  in  London,  and  became  preacher  at  St.  SaTionrX 
Southwark,  wheie  be  had  a  large  congregaiioD,  mostly  pa* 
sons  of  puritan  principles,  bj  whom,  savi  Wood,  w  wss 
esteemed  ^<  a  person  zealous  for  the  tmth  of  God,  pivwcr* 
ful  in  his  calling,  faithful  in  his  ministry,  careful  of  his  flock, 
peaceable  and  blameless  in  his  life,  and  'constant  and  con- 
fertable  in  his  death.'*  And  suiely  the  people  of  his  own 
particular  charge  were  as  likely  to  know  these  thincs  as-tirf 
others.  Our  author  denominates  him  a  zealous  GalYinist, 
an  avpwed  enemy  to  popery,  and  constantly  bboriout  in  the 
propagation  of  puritanism  and  practical  religieo.* 

His  excellent  endowments  were  not,  indeed,  a  suflicieDt 
protection  a^inst  the  oppressions  of  the  times.  For^  inths 
year  1596,  he  was  cited  before  Archbishop  Whiteift  and 
other  high  commissioners,  wlien  he  was  suspended  nom  hu 
ministry  and  committed  to  the  Gatehouse.  The  crimes  far 
which  he  was  thus  .punished,  were  contained  in  the  fidlow* 
ing  articles : — 1.  <^  That  he  broke  the  order  appmnted,  bj 
preaching  on  a  Thursday y  instead  of  Wednesday^  which  was 
appointed  to  be  observed  as  a  day  of  fasting  and  prayer.— 
9.  That  by  preaching  on  Thursday,  he  turned  a  daif  of  le* 
joicing  and  feasting  mto  a  day  of  mourning  and  absonence; 
which,  by  hindering  hospitality,  made  the  case  wme.— 
S.  Hiat  be  continued  the  service  much  too  tongj  even  jBromnine 
o'clock  till  one.— 4.  That  as  soon  asrthe  service  was  cndedi 
he  very  schismatically  led  many  people  to  hear  Mr.  Qiown; 
ham's  sermon. — ^5.  That  he  agreed  with  Mr.  Downham  to 
keep  his  exercise  with  festing  in  die  afternoon.'^  ^Tfafsc 
were  the  marvellous  charges  au^ged  against  him,  for  y^iiA 
he  met  with  the  above  oppressive  treatment.  Ourleaiiied 
htslorian,  indeed,  says,  <^  It  is  but  jiut  to  observe,  AatHr. 
Philip  did  observe  the  Wednesday j  only  he  preached  on 
the  Thursday,  because,  being  his  regular  lecture  day,  he  vas 
likely  to  have  a  larger  congr^tion:  that  he  went  not  to 
Mr.  Downham's  church  till  an  Sour  and  a  half  after  he  lied 
finished  at  his  own  :  that  when  he  went  he  had  onl v  the 
company  of  Mrs.  Ratcliff  mid  his  fellow  minister,  and  bsth 
their  wives ;  and  that  he  did  not  persuade  Mr.  Downhamio 
keep  his  exercise  in  the  afternoon;  but  he  had  purposed  w 
to  do,  even  before  he  spoke  to  him  about  it,  as  Mr.  Dowv* 
ham  himself  confessed  before  the  hieh  commissianeni*'^^  ' 

♦  Wood's  Atbenae  Oxon.  voLI.  p.  STO,  S71. 
+  Sirype'g  Wbitgift,  p.  400, 491. 

.:  %  PHII^IPS— MIDGLEY.  i  163 

¥nm  tbk  impeitial  statement,  it  may  be  doubted  M4iether 
io^escoeUeiit  and  useful  a  ndnister  of  Christ  was  ever  sus- 
Imided  and  cast  into  prison  upon  such  trivial  and  ridiculous 
chugiBB  before* 

rt  It  does  not  appear  how  l(nig  the  good  man  continued  in 
lk«lftte'  of  confinement.  If  his  persecutors  considered  the 
^bUre  charges  so  dangerous  to  the  episcopal  authority  and 
ihe  charch  c^  England,  as  to  justify  their  proceedings,  he 
njgiit  remain  a  lopg  time.  He  died  about  the  year  1603. 
Mr.  Philips  most  probably  never  published  any  thing  him- 
self; but  after  his  death,  in  1605,  Sir  Henry  Yelverton, 
afterwards  judge,  who  having  been  his  coiistant  hearer,  had 
taken  down  some  of  his  sermons  as  they  were  delivered, 
mblished  a  tolunfe,  entitled,  ^'  Two  and  tirirty  godly  and 
feuned  Sermons."* 

jt  ■ 

'.  .(Mr.  Midgley  was  many  years  vicar  of  Rochdale  in 
Lancashire,  and  a  man  of  high  reputation  in  his  tiine.  He 
ia  denmninated  a  grave  and  godly  minister,  whose  praise 
was  -ifreat  in  the  gospeLf  In  the  year  1585,  he  was  ap- 
poiiit^  by  the  Bishop  of  Chester,  to  be  one  of  the  modera- 
ton  of -thd  religious  exercises  in  that  diocese.}  He  was 
gKffOy  admired  and  beloved  by  the  puritans.  Dr.  Chad- 
oMon  maide  mention  of  him,  at  the  Hampton-court  con- 
jcnotee,  in  1603.  He  requested  on  that  occasion,  that  the 
Hearing  of  the  surplice,  and  the  use  of  the  cross  in  baptism, 
niffbt  not  be  urged  upon  certain  ministers  in  Lancashire, 
and  paiticularly  upon  the  vicar  of  Rochdale.  The  request 
WA  no  sooner  presented,  than  Archbishop  Whitgift  replied, 
Mtylng,  '^  You  could  not  have  light  upon  a  worse.  For  not 
lAaoy  years  ago  it  was  proved  l^fore  me,  that  by  his  irre- 
}rereiit  usage  of  the  eucharist,  in  dealing  the  bread  out  of  a 
fmsk^if  every  one  putting  in  his  hand  and  taking  out  a 
pfeoe,  .be  noade  many  loathe  the  communion,  and  refuse  to 
ONne  to  church."^  His  grace  in  this  statement  was  certainly 
miitaken.  It  could  not  be  Mr.  Midgley 's  ^^  irreverent  usage 
<f 'the  eucharist,*'  in  the  way  described,  but  their  own  igno- 
nnoe,  bigotry,  and  superstition,  which  produced  those  evils. 
jjl  Bfr*  Imdgley  was  the  pious  and  laborious  minister  of 
fUiebdale  nearly  fifty  years,  and  is  said  to  have  been  instru- 

*  Wood's  AtheosD  Oxon.  vol.  i.  p.  277. 

"f  Clark*8  Lives  aonexed  to  Martyrologip,  p.  68. 

1  Strype's  AoDals,  toI.  ii.  Appen.  p.  75. 

S  Fbller*!  Cburch  Hist.  b.  x.  p.  SO. 


inental in  ibe  conrersion  of  thousands  of  soob;  yet  he  mi 
silenced  and  deprived  by  the  Bishop  of  ChesCiCT  for  noooim* 
formity.*  He  was  the  happy  means  in  the  conyenion  €€ 
Mr.  Richard  Rothwell,  another  worthy  puritan  diyhie. 
Mr.  Jdidgley's  son  was  also  vicar  of  Rochdale,  and  a  man  of 
distinguished  eminence.  He  presented  <^  The  Abridppmut 
of  the  Lincolnshire  Ministers'  Reasons'*  to  Bishop  BwrtoiL 
who  afterwards  puUished  an  answer  to  it.  Both  rather  and 
son  were  deprived  for  nonconformity.  The  latter,  afber  hiit 
deprivation,  turned  physician,  and  was  afierwaida  pioae? 
cuted  for  refusing  to  kneel  at  the  sacrament,  t 

William  Hubbock,  A.  M. — He  was  bom  in  the  caaaij 
of  Durham,  in  the  year  1560,  and  educated  first  in  Mag' 
dalen-hall,  then  in  Corpus  Christi  collie,  Oxford.    After* 
wards  entering  upon  the  sacred  function,  says  the  Oxfind 
historian,  he  was  in  great  repute  for  his  learning  ;t  and '^  he 
jnight  have  added,  that  he  was  a  divine  of  distinguished 
worth,  on  account  of  his  .christian  piety,  his  excelkttt! 
preaching,  and  his  manifold  labours ;  and  that  he  was  lugUj 
esteemed  and  admired  by  some  of  the  most  worthy  pcfr 
sons  in  the  nation.    Mr.  Strype  denominates  him  one  of 
Mr.  Cartwrighf  s  fraternity,  yet  a  modest  nonconfonnisit.    ' 
^  In  the  year  1590,  Mr.  Hubbock  was  cited  before  Aick* 
bishop  Whitgift,  and  other  high  commissioners,  at  Lombetlii 
when  he  was  charged  with  having  preached  a  sennani  «t 
Oxford,  in  which  he  made  some  reflections  upon  a  certaxBi 
great  person  (this  was  the  archbishop,)  which  the  cmttmi^^ 
sioners  held  to  be  undutiful  and  seditious.  He  was  thensfixe 
required,  as  a  just  punishment  of  his  crime,  to  enter  into 
bonds  that  he  would  preach  no  more,  nor  come  again  .wjthio 
.  ten  miles  of  Oxford.     Upon  the  proposal  of  these  demand^ 
he  thus  replied,  in  the  presence  of  hisju^^ees:  <<  I  cannot^ 
with  a  safe  conscience,  enter  into  any  such  bondsjuor  do 
any  thing  by  which  I  should  willingly  exclude  myself 'fiom 
ihe  exercise  of  my  ministry.    Nevfsrtheless,  if  I  must  betiiit 
to  silence,  I  had  rather  be  committed  to  prison,  than  ihos 
silence  myself;   especially  unless  I  had  committed. -sioivt 
faiSt,  by  preai^iiig  some  false  doctrine,  or  by  pubUahlpK 

some  offence,  for  which  I  justly  deseryed  to  be  puniahtt). 
Whitgift;,  at  the  same  time^  required  him  to  subscribe,  siff- 
^fy^y  ^^U  ^  be  would  comply,  he  should  be  disniusM, 

•  Borges*!  Aatwer  Rijoinedy  p.  S18.    Edit.  IHSI. 

f  PHet*i  Defeocey  Flrtf.        i  Wood*i  Athems  Oiob.  ?o1.  !•  p.  881. 


HUBBOCK.  165 

and  his  troubles  endeck  Bat  the  good  man  refused  sub- 
abt^tfton,  as  urell  as  entering  into  bonds;  and,  accordingljr, 
ttioeived  the  ecclesiastical  censure.* 

' ,  In  Ibis  state  of  perplexity  and  distress,  Mr.  Hubbock 
inade  application  to  Sir  Francis  Knollys;  who,  most 
Wifndj. espousing  his  cause,  immediately,  wrote  to  the  Lord 
xtoaunn^r  Burleigh,  recommending  his  distressing  case  to 
Uir  IcH]Gbhip*s  consideration.  But  the  zealous  intercessions  of 
uicse  great  statesmen  were  of  no  avail  whatever.  Whitgift 
sbd  his  brethren  had  passed  a  decree  against  Mr.  Hubbock, 
ivbfch,  like  the  laws  of  the  Medes  and  Persians,  could  not 
be  altered.  With  this  decree,  however,  the  treasurer  was 
much  displeased.  Though  our  learned  historian  has 
altogether  failed  in  saying  what  the  decree  was,  we  may 
cftnJj  conjecture,  that,  as  it  proceeded  from  Lambeth,  and 
'wni  a^inst  a  divine  of  puritan  principles,  it  savoured  not 
of  the  things  of  Jesus  Christ. 

.  'Bbt  tlie  treasurer  did  not  immediately  relinquish  the  cause 
qf  this  imuiied  servant  of  Christ.  One  repulse  frpm  the  arch- 
HfailiOp-  did  not  discourage  him.  Beholding  the  severity 
wlBk  indhioh  the  good  man  was  treated,  he  still  took  his  part, 
fhA  lyiote  again  to  the  archbishop,  boldly  declaring,  '^  That 
w*  Hobbbck  had  committed  no  offence,  only  he  had  said 
in  his  sermon,  that  a  great  nobleman  (meaning  the  arch-. 
bishop)  had  kneeled  down  to  her  majesty^  for  staying  and 
hhtderittg,  her  intent  to  reform  religion.^'  Sir  Francis  Knollys 
illfay wrote  again  to  the  treasurer  in  these  words:  ^<  Vou 
)di€iw  how  greatly  and  how  tyrannically  the  archbishop 
Jfarth  jurgcd  subscriptidn  to  his  own  articles  without  law  ;  and 
llia^  lu^T^as  claimed  a  right  of  superiority  in  the  bishops 
ifferfhe  inferior  clergy,  from  God's  pwa  prdinance,  to  the 
great  injury  of  her  majesty's  supreme  government.  Though 
at  preset  he  does  nqi  profess  to  clai[n  it ;  yet  I  think  he 
mi^t  openly  to  retract  it."f 

l!pe  worthy  endeavours  of  these  illustrious  statesmen 
pfcrred  altogether  ineffectual.  The  iiiflexible  prelates 
"tliAiild  not  uter  their .  purpose.  The  ^ood  man  cpn- 
fi$i|ed  qnder  the  sentence  of  his  spirituq.1  judfes ;  but  how 
Idbgi  or  whether  he  was  ever  restored,  pur  niaterials  fail  to 
ittofcd  sufficient  information.  Mr.  Hubbock  published 
^An  Oiation  Gratulatory  upon  King  Japies's  Coronation," 
IfKM;  and  several  sermons. 

>  Strjpe'i  Wkit|;irt,  p.  841.  f  Ibid.  p.  841,  S4S, 


Thomah  Carew  Has  bom  of  (he  ancient  and  "worthy 
femily  of  his  name  in  Cornwall,  educated  in  the  unrveisity 
of  Oxford,  and,  entering  upon  the  sacred  function^  became 
a  frequent  and  zealous  preacher.  He  received  ordination 
from  the  Bishop  of  Worcester,  and  \?as  licensed  by  Arch- 
bishop Grindal  and  Bishop  Aylmer,  from  whom,  on 
account  of  his  excellent  preaching,  he  received  high  com- 
mendations. He  afterwards  became  minister  at  Haitfidd 
Peverel,  in  Essex;  but  having  acquainted  the  bishop  by 
letter,  that  in  the  county  of  Essex,  within  the  compass  of 
sixteen  miles,  there  were  twenty-two  nonresidents,  thirty 
insufhcicnt  and  scandalous  ministers,  and,  at  the  same  time, 
nineteen  ministers  silenced  for  refusing  subscription,  Ms 
lordship,  instead  of  being  pleased  with  the  information, 
convened  Mr.  Carew  before  the  high  commi^on,  and 
charged  him,  without  the  smallest  evidence,  with  setting  up 
a  presbytery,  and  contenming  ecclesiastical  censures.  It 
was  further  alleged  against  him,  ^<  That  he  was  chpseq'by 
the  people;  that  he  had  defaced  the  Book  of  Conunoti 
Prayer ;  that  he  denied  that  Christ  descended  into  tbe 
regions  of  the  danmed ;  and  that  he  kept  persons  from  fle 
conununion,  when  there  was  more  need  to  allure  them  to 
it."*  These  charges  beu3g  brought  against  him,  the  bislic^ 
;to  make  short  of  it,  tendered  him  the  oath  ex  officio;  upon 
the  refusal  of  which  ]Vfr.  Carew  was  immediately  committed 
to  the  Fleet,  and  another  minister  sent  to  supply  the  phce. 
ttis  successor  was  soon  found  guilty  of  adultery;  and 
when  the  parishioners  petitioned  Bi^op  Aylmer  for  his 
removal,  and  the  restoration  of  their  former  minister,  Ids 

frace  said,  ^^  That  he  would  not,  for  all  the  living  lit 
ad,  put  a  poor  man  out  of  his  living  for  the  fiict  cf 

Mr.  Carew  having  left  an  account  of  his  troubles^  Hi  ifi 
hear  him  speak  for  himself.  "  The  bishop,"  says  he,  **  fiirt 
granted  me  a  license  to  preach,  and  much  commended  mj 
preaching;  but  afterwards^  upon  the  complaint  of  sedMt 
.enemies, lie  sent  for  me,  and  took  it  from ine.  Befbrei  Iluid 
been  at  Hatfield  above  seven  weeks,  because  I  woiiild  not 
wear  the  surplice,  he  suspended  me,  and  I  continued  under 
suspension  half  a  year.  My  parishioners  were  at  coilsidh';- 
able  expense  and  trouble  in  presenting  many  supplicqtiQns 
unto  him,  that  I  might  be  released  from  suspension  and 
restored  to  my  ministry,  but  without  success.    Afterwards 

*  ■  *  ^ 

«  MS.  Register,  p.  651,  652.— Strype's  Aylmer,  p.  180,  181. 
-f  MS.  Regiiter,  p.  659,  654. 

CAREW.  167 

I'  weot  to  his  lonkhip  mrself,  to  know  the  reasons  of  his 
diipleasure;  and  when  I  said  I  would  yield  in  all  things 
acrording  to  the  word  of  God,  he  replied,  <  That  addition, 
according  to  the  word  of  God,  is  your  knavish  trick;  but 
jrcm  shall  observe  all  things.^  At  length,"  says  Mr.  Carew, 
5<  ia  about  a  tweWemonth  after,  by  the  kind  favour  of  one 
^Ji0  was  intimate  with  the  bjshop,  my  liberty  was  obtained, 
lifeverthdiess,  by  further,  complaints  of  known  enemies,  I 
jnm  again  suspended;  ^d  after  I  was  cleared  by  my 
judges,  I  obtained  my  release  from  suspension.  Soon  after 
this,  I  was  again  brought  into  trouble ;  and  refusing  to  fake 
ihe  oath  to  answer  their  articles  against  myseU^  I  was 
ixmmutted  to  the  Fleet."*  His  commitment  was  dated 
November  16,  1585. 

Mr.  Carew,  and  Mr.  AU^,  his  patron,  were  both  com- 
;aaitted  to  prison  at  the  same  time.  They  both  offered  bail, 
-iHit  it  iras  refused.  Afterwards,  it  was  offered  them  by  the 
Ixtthon,  /Upon  these  conditions :  ^^  That  Allen,  the  patron, 
woula  not  disturb  the  minister  who  was  appointed  to  preach 
jfljeie,  nor  disquiet  him  in  reading  the  service ;  and  that 
ICr.  Calvw  would  prea<;h  no  more  in  his  diocese,  without  a 
^irflier  lioense/'f  These  conditions  did  nol^  however, 
aeet  their  approbation.  During  their  imprisonment  in  the 
fjlee^  'Hba.  Clarew  presented  a  supplication  to  the  queen,  for 
ihe  idease  of  her  husband,  in  which  she  addressed  her 
JDDqcsty  as  follows : — <<  This  most  humbly  beseecheth  your 
jVnost  royal  majesty,  to  relieve  the  distrained  state  of  your 
foot  hai^nmid,  who  sueth  to  your  highness  in  behalf  of 
Aer  husband,  a  minister  of  the  gospel,  who  hath  been 
apcused  by  certain  papists,  and  who  incensed  the  Bishop  of 
l^ondoh  Mainst  him.  And  for  refusing  to  subscribe  to  two 
of  thearcmbishop'fl  articles,  which  appear  to  him  to  be  con* 
to  iheword  of  God  and  the  laws  of  the  realm,  the  bishiqp 
.liatB  suspended,  deprived,  and  twice  committed  him  to 
miai(fik ;  and  hath  now  a  third  time  conunitted  him,  because 
Be,jf  uiiwillii^  to  give  up  preaching  till  the  bishop  license 
Jm^.  .  Whereforo,  I  heartily  beseech  your  majesty,  that 
jnoOtiriU  flet  my.  husband  ai  liberty ;  that,  by  preaching  the 
word,  he  may  fiirther  instruct  the  people  now  to  pray  for 
rtfae.  present  peace  and.  everlasting  felicity  *of  ycKii  most 
''C»beilent  inij^y.''}:  ^ 

Mr:  Cardw  and  his  worthy  patron,  having  suffered  impri* 
souQcot  for  some  time,  made  application  to  the  privy  council, 

•  MS.  Regiiter,  p.  653—655.  f  Strype*s  Ajflmer,  p.  Ilil,  18S. 

t  MS.  Rciiiter,  p.  6S8»  650. 


and  ivere  both  released  from  prison.  This  so  greatly  dia- 
pleued  Bishop  AyUner,  thai  he  sent  to  the  council  a  Tiefy 
BD&y  letter,  calling  the  prisoners  hunes^  rebds^  ratee&j 
ftmsj  petty  gentlemen^  precisionsy  &c. ;»  and  told  their 
Donours,  iiiat  if  such  men  were  countenanced,  he  mint 
yield  up  his  authority.  But  the  bishop  never  left  our  pious 
divine  till  he  bad  hunted  him  out  of  his  diocese,  f  Mn 
Carew  was  author  of  ^^  Several  Sennons/'  1603;  iemd 
<<  Four  Godly  Sermons/'  1605.  He  was  living  at  Uie 
period  last  mentioned. 

George  Co RYAT,  B.  D. — ^He  was  bom  at  Salisbury^ 
educated  in  grammar  leamine  at  Wickham  school,  and 
admitted  perpetual  fellow  of  New  College,  Oxford.    Jn  the 
year  1566,  when  Que^  Elizabeth  visited  the  university,  he,^ 
together  with  Mr.  William  Rainolds,  received  her  majesty 
and  her  train  at  New  CoU^ ;  on  that  occasiim  he  de- 
livered an  oration,  for  whicn  he  received  great  apfdaiue 
and  a  handsome  purse  of  gold.t .  He  afterwards  took  Iris 
degrees;  and,  in  1570,  became  rector   of  Odcomb,'  in 
Soidersetshire,  where  he  continued  to  the  end  of  his  days. 
In  1594,  he  was  preferred  to  the  prebend  of  Warthd,  in 
the  cathedral  of  York.   'He  was  a  perscm  much  admiied 
for  his  refined  taste  in  Latin  poetry,  and  his  excellent- phH 
ductions  are  often  quoted  by  the  learned  men  of  niqte 
times.    He  died  at  Odcomb,  March  6,   1606,  and  liis 
remains  were  intened  in  the  chancel  of  his  own  church. 
Wood  denominates  him  a  most  accomplished  scholar,  and 
an  excellent  and  admired  poet  ;^  but  says,  he  was  a  poritaii, 
and  no  true  son  of  the  church  of  England.)    Mri  Coiyat 
had  a  son  called  Thomas,  author  of  <<  Crudities  ;^liaisfily 

Sobled  up  in  five  Months  Travels,"  and  some  other  pieoes; 
ut  was  a  man  of  great  eccentricity,  having  much  learajni^ 
especially  in  the  original  and  eastern  languages,'but  wanted 
judgment.  He  travelled  through  a  great  ^But  of  Eumei 
and  the  various  countries  of  ue  east,  on  foot;  and  :m»- 
tinguished  himself  by  walking  nine  hundred  miles  in  ope 

*  While  this  tyraooical  prelate  abased  and  penecated  .the  plooi  tfi  , 
■sefol  paritam  with  the  ataost  cruelty,  be  made  his  own  porter  ■ilBy^i' 
PlAddiogtoo,  who,  io  a  few  years,  through  blindness  and  old  afe»  bcM« 
tnable  to  serve  the  cure.— S«ry|i0*«  Aylmer^  p.  818,  SIS. 

f  Strype*s  Aylmer,  p.  188.-- Neal's  Hist,  of  Paritam,  tqL  I«  p.  M^  ' 

i  Biog.  Britan.  vol.  It.  p.  873.    Edit.  1778. 

4  Wood's  Hist,  et  AnUq.  lib.  ii.  p.  141. .  *  | 

I  Wbad*0  AtbeoK  Ozeo.  vol.  U  p.  886,  Sift,  ...         -  ^       .  H 




Siir  of  shoes,  which,  as  he  infonns  us^  he  got  mended  at 
lurich.    He  did  not  live,  however,  to  complete  hia  travels, 
but  dUed  at  Surat  in  India.*    He  was*  author  ci-^^  Poemata 

Vfttia  Latina,"  1611;    wid  '^  Descfiptio  Angliae.  Scotise; 

'  Fbanois  Trigge,  a.  M. — ^He  was  bom  in  Lincolnshire^ 
in  the  year  1544,  and  educated  in  University  college, 
Oxford,  where  he  took  his  degrees.  Aflerwalds,  he  entered 
upon  the  christian  ministry,  and  became  rector  of  Welbom, 
near  Buckingham.  He  was  the  founder  of  the  public 
library  at  Grantham  in  Lincolnshire,  on  the  wall  of  which 
18  a  Latin  inscription  descriptive  of  his  great  charity  and 
other  excellencies.  He  gave  a  certain  sum  to  the  town  of 
Grantham,  to  be  distributed  annually  among  its  poor 
inhabitants.  He  died  May  12, 1606,  aged  sixty-two  years ; 
and  his  remains  were  interred  in  tlus  chancel  of  Welbom 
cbuich.  Wood  styles  him  a  noted  and  godly  preacher^ 
but  a  very  strict  puritan.t 

Wb  Works. — 1^  An  Apology,  shewing  that  the  days  wherein  w« 

livcf  are  more  ^obd  and  blessed  than  those  of  our  Forefathers,  1589. — 

^L  CkMnment  m  cap.  12.  ad.  Rom.,  1500. — 3.  Ck>mment.  in  Rev.  S. 

.  'JFttli^  UiOO.— 4.  Analysis  capitis  24  Evangelii  secandnm  Matthaeuim, 

:1G9^«''=*^  A  Sermon  preached  at  Grantham,  1594. — 6.  Touchstone  of 

SalboUc  Faith,  1599.-- 7.  The  true  Catholic  formed,  according  to 
le  Troth  of  the  Scriptures,  1602. 

'  Percival  Wyburn,  D.  D. — The  earliest  account  w« 
'meet  mth  of  this  excellent  divine,  is  in  March,  1560,  ^hea^ 
tjy  an  oyderfrom  Qishop  Grindal,  he  was  ordained  by 
Iwhop  Davies.t  He  was  chosen  proctor  of  the  cathedral 
of  Rochester,  in  the  convocation  of  1562 ;  when  he  sat  in 
'tkat  learned  assembly,  and  subscribed  the  articles  of 
.'rdmra.^  During  the  same  year  he  became  prebendary 
'  of  iVestminster,  and,  the  year  following,  vicar  of  St. 
tt^pnlchre's,  London.)  The  last  he  did  not  hold  very  ^ 
1(»g;  for  in  1564,  being  convened  before  Archbishop 
Banier,  and  refusing  subscription,  he  was  sequestered  and 
wpnyei.t    He  remained  under  his  lordship  s  censure  till 

*  Wood's  AthcBS  Oxen.  toI.  i.  p.  968— 362. -Granger's  Biog.  HitC 
^e|L  U.  p.  35.       .  .  f  Wood's  Atbenie,  vol.  i.  p.  883, 284. 

{8ti^pb*s  Grindal,  p.  SO.  S  Strype's  Annaliy  toI.  i.  p.  S90. 

Newcoan's  Repert.  Eccl,  TOl.  I.  p.  634. 
I  Sbype's  erlndal,  p.  98. 


Ibe  year  1567,  at  ^bich  tinfe,  because  he  was  of  tbe  number 
of  those  divines  who  were  styled  peaceaUe  nonconfiMinistB, 
be  was  treated  with  some  decree  of  gentleness^  and  ofateiied 
(I  license  to  preach;  or,  atTeast, a  conniranoe  to c#nturae 
in  the  minist^.* 

In  the  year  1571,  he  was  again  convened  before  the  arch- 
bishop and  other'  high  commissioners,  at  Lambeth,  when  he 
imderwent  an  examination.  Mr.  Christopher  Goodman,  Mr, 
fldward  Deering,  and  Mr.  John  Field,  were  convened  at 
the  same  time.    Dr.  Wybum,  k^ther  with  his  brethren^ 

E resented  on  this  occasion  the  foUowing  proposals  to  ihm 
irdships : — 1.  ^^  I  am  ready  to.subscribe  to  the  true  christian 
iaith,  and  the  doctrine  of  the  sacraments,  as  contained  in 
the  Book  of  Articles^*— 8.  As  to  the  Book  d  Common 
Prayer,  appointed  by  public  authority,  it  contains,  even  as 
you  confess  yourselves,  some  imperfections ;  and  I  confess 
the  same.  Yet,  that  I  may  testify  my  great  desire,  of 
brotherly  concord,  I  will  subscribe  to  the  doctrine  of  fatith^ 
and  administration  of  the  sacraments,  in  the  same  bodi ;  m 
far  as  they  make  for  edification,  and  are  agreeable  to  the  lore? 
said  .Book  of  Articles. — And,  3.  As  to  the  appard  appointed, 
because  it  seemeth  not  unto  me  to  be  sufficiently  antboiizqd 
by  the  word  of  Grod,  for  the  ministers  to  be  required  to  nsc 
i^  I  dare  not  use  it,  for  fear  of  ofifence,  humb^  beseechjag 
your  honours'  consideration  thereof.  Yet  I  do  not  jndg^ 
or  condemn  others  in  using  the  same ;  for  to  the  Lord  thejr 
stand  or  fall,  as  I  also  do.  Neither  would  I  break  the 
unity  of  the  christian  faith,  by  withdrawing  my  duty  from 
preaching  the  truth  and  faith,  as  in  the  &6k  of  Aitielei 
contained :  to  the  end,  that  we  may  not  go  backwards,  but 
forwards  to  perfection."f  It  does  not,  however,  appear 
what  was  the  result  of  his  examination,  or  of  tnese  pro- 

In  the  year  1573>  Dr*  Wybum,  with  many  of  hi^ 
l)rethren,  was  again  brought  before  the  high  commissioiiy 
and  convened  before  the  council,  when  certain  articles  were 

{)resented  to  him,  requiring  his  subscription,  But,.afler:a 
ong  examination,  refusing  to  subscribe,  he  was  suspended 
from  preach ing4  About  the  same  time,  he  wrote  the" 
excellent  letter  generally  ascribed  to  him,  in  defence  cf 
'himself  and  his  brethren,  who  were  deprived  by  the  arbi- 
trary proceedings  of.  the  prelates,^ 

«Strype'8Park«!r,  p.  243,325,413.  f.MS.  Regi6ter;,p.  117. 

i  Newcbdrt's  Itepert.  Eccl.  vol.  i.  p.  534. 
S  Parte  of  a  Register,  p.  1—12.  ' 

BOUND.  171 

Though  it  does  not  appear  how  long  he  continued  under 
Hie  above  suspension,  he  was  afterwards  restored  to  his 
aiinifitfy,  and  was  preacher  at  Rochester.  In  the  jeat 
I6SI9  he  was  one  of  the  learned  divines  who  were  deemed 
mc^t  pn^r  to  dispute  with  the  papists,  and  w^  n(^inated 
for  that  purpose.*  However,  the  peaceable  exercise  of  his 
millistly  Was  not  of  long  continuance.  The  extended  arms 
of  the  high  commissioners  soon  a^in  laid  hold  of  himi 
He  was  again  suspended,  and  continued  under  suspension 
at  least  five  years.f  Towards  the  close  of  life,  he  preached 
statedly  at  Battersea,  near  London,  where,  by  a  fall,  he 
btdke  his  leg,  and  was  for  some  time  disabled  from  attending 
to  the  public  duties  of  his  ministry ;  but  had  the  assistance  of 
Mr.  Richard  Sedgwick,  another  puritan  divine.j:  He  was  a 
learned  and  pious  divine,  a  zealous  enemy  to  popery,  a 
constant  advocate  for  a  further  reformation,  and  a  firm  and 
peaceable  nonconformist.  He  died  about  the  year  1606^ 
at  an  advanced  ase.^  He  sddom  or  never  wore  the  hood 
and  surplice  for  t£e  space  of  forty  years.) 

Nicholas  Bound,  D.  D. — This  learned  and  religious 
divine  wias  educated  at  Cambridge,  where  he  took  his 
degrees,  and  was  afterwards  beneficed  at  Norton  in  th^ 
county  of  Sufiblk.  A  divine  of  the  same  name  was  rect<^ 
of  iVIckford  in  Essex ;  but  whether  the  same  person,  we 
'€»mnot  fully  ascertain.^  In  the  year  1583,  when  subscription 
to  Whitgift's  three  articles  was  rigorously  imposed  upon  the 
deigy^  about  sixty  worthv  ministers  in  Suffolk  refused  to 
snb^Dribe^  and  were,  thererore,  suspended  from  the  ejl^ercise 
of  their  ministry.  Dr.  Bound  was  one  of  those  who  received 
tliis  ecclesiastical  censure.** 

That  which  rendered  him  most  famous,  was  the  publi- 
cation of  his  book,  entitled  "  Sabathum  veteris  et  novi 
TeJstam^iti ;  or,  the  true  Doctrine  of  the  Sabbath,"  aboiift 
the  year  1595.  In  this  book,  he  maintained  that  the 
seventh  poxt  of  our  time  ought  to  be  devoted  to  the 
'service,  of  God ;  that  christians  are  bound  to  rest  on  the 
Lord's  day,  as  much  as  the  Jews  were  on  the  M osaical 
sabbath^  the  commandment  about  rest  being  moral  and 

•  Strypf^*8  Parker,  Appen.  p.  116.  +  MS*  Register,  p.  585*  . 
1  Ciark^t 'Lives  annejced  to  Martyrologie,  p.  158. 

^  MS.  Cbroiiology,  vol.  i.  p.  129.  (8. 1.) 
I  ^ood^  AtheDie  Ozon.  vol.  i.  p.  834. 
1  Newcoart*8  Repert.  Eccl.  toI.  ii.  p.  656. 

•  •  MS/ Ri^itter,  p.  436, 487; 


perpetual ;  and  that  it  was  not  lawful  for  persons  to  follow 
their  studies  or  worldly  business  on  that  day,  nor  to  user 
such  pleasures  and  recreations  as  were  lawful  on  other  daysi.; 
The  tx)ok  soon  obtained  an  extensive  circulation,  and  iHror 
duced  a  most  pleasing  reformation  in  many  parts  of  tbe. 
kingdom.  The  Lord  s  day,  formerly  proffmed  by  interr 
ludes,  may-games,  morrice-dances,  and  other  sports  «£id 
recreations,  now  began  to  be  observed  with  greater'  exact* 
ness,  especially  in  corporations,*  "  This  doctrine,"  say*  Jhi: 
Heylin,  '^  carrying  such  a  }air  shew  of  piety,  at  least  in 
the  opinion  of  the  common  people,  and  such  as  did  not 
examine  the  true  grounds  of  it,  induced  many  to  embrace 
and  defend  it ;  and,  in  a  very  little  time,  it  became  the  mosi 
bewitching  erroTy  and  the  most  popular  infatuation^  that 
ever  was  embraced  by  the  people  or  England  !"f  In  this^ 
the  zealous  historian  at  once  dis^vers  what  maI^ler  of  spirit 
he  was  of. 

Dr.  Bound'^  book  had  not  been  long  published  before  it 
excited  the  enmity  of  persons  of  a  contrary  opinion, 
especially  among  the  ruling  clergy.  They  exclaimed 
against  it,  as  putting  a  restramt  upon  christian  liberty,  as 
putting  too  great  a  lustre  upon  the  Lord's  day,  and'  as 
tending  to  eclipse  the  authority  of  the  church  in  appointiajp 
festivals.  This  was  a  shorter  and  an  easier  methcidc^  coqt 
tending  with  an  author,  than  by  publishing  an  impartial 
answer  to  his  work.  And,  indeed,  though  there  was  sp 
great  an  outcry'  against  the  book,  no  one  even  attempted  tp 
publish  •  any  sort  of  a  reply  for  several  years.  The  fii4 
who  took  up  his  pen  against  it,  was  Mr.  Thomas  Roge& 
in  his  ^<  Exposition  of  the  thirty-liine  Articles."  Id 
.the  preface  he  declared,  <<  It  is  a  comfort  to  my  soul,  and 
will  be  to  my  dying  hour,  that  I  have  been  the  mai^ 
and  the  means  of  bringing  the  Sabbatarian  errors  and 
impieties  to  the  light  and  knowledge  of  the  state. "{  Bitt» 
surely,  it  would  have  looked  as  well  in  a  clergyman,  airi 
would  hs^ve  afforded  him  an  equal  degree  of  comfort  Qn  a 
dying  beid,  if,  instead  of  opposing  an  exact  regard  ii^ 
the  sabbat|i,  he;  had  spent  hjs  zeal  in  recommending  a  lelir 
gious  and  holy  observance  of  that  day  !§  * 

'     «  FuUer's  Cbarch  Hist.  b.  ix.  p.  227.     f  HejfHo*8  HNt.  of  Prei.  p.  S4d 

i  Fullef'^  Cburcb  Hi^t.  b.  ix.  p.  228. 

^  Mr.  Rogen  was  beneficed  at  HorpiDgibeath.  ip  Safiblk,  and  once  a 
professed  puntap,  wben  be  discovered  bis  zeal  for  nonconformity.  Ift 
1583,  be  was  suspended  for  refosing  subscription  to  Wbitgift't  tbvM- 
articles  {  but  afterwards  be  altered  bis  mind,  and  became  a  sealoni  tMn 
formist,— IfS,  H^^Uttr^  p.  43t.— TTpoiTt  Mfuna:  0x0%,  vol,  I.  p.  ^}v 

BOUND.  '  178 

'Dr.  Boimd  might  carry  his  doctrine  too  high  by  ad- 
yaEncing  the  Lord's  day  in  all  respects  to  a  perfect  level 
with  the  Jewish  sabbath.     But  it  was  certainly  unworthy 
the  character  of  divines,  to  encourage  men  in  shooting, 
fimdng,  bowling,  and  other  diversions  on  the  Lord's  day, 
CBpeciaUy  as  they  were  sufficiently  forward  in  such  prac- 
tices without  the  countenance  and  example  of  their  spi- 
ritual guides.    Nevertheless,  in  the  year  1599,  Archbishop 
WhitgijEt  called  in  Dr.  Bound's  book,  and  conunanded  that 
it  should  not  be  r^rinted;   and  the  year  following,  the 
Lord  Chief  Justice  Popham  did  the  same.    These,  indeed, 
were  eood  remedies,  says  Dr.  Heylin,  had  they  been  soon 
etiough  applied:   yet  not  so  good  as  those  which  were 
formeirly  applied  to  Copping  and   Thac^er,  who  were 
hanged  at  Bury,  for  spreading  Brown's  books  against  the 
dmrch.*    Did  Dr.  Bound  then  deserve  to  share  the  same 
fiite,    for  writing   in    defence    of  the    sabbath?      This, 
however,  was  the  shortest  way  of  refuting  his  arguments. 
They  both  declared,  that  the  doctrine  of  the  sabbath  agreed 
neither  with  the  doctrine  of  the  church  of  England,  nor 
with  the  laws  and  orders  of  this  kingdom;   and  that  it 
disturbed  the  peace  of  the  church  and  commonwealth,  and 
tended  to  promote  schism  in  the"  one,  and  sedition  in  the 
other.f    JNothing,  surely,  could  appear  more  absurd,  or 
more  contrary  to  truth.    Notwithstanding  all  tliis  care  and 
labour  to  suppress  the  book,  it  was  read  and  circulated  in 
private  mdre  tnan  ever.    Many  persons  who  never  heard  of 
it  when  printed,  inquired  for  it  when  prohibited. 
*    Tbe  archbishop's  head  had  not  lon^  been  laid  in  the  dust, 
when  Dr.  Bound  prepared  his  book  lor  another  impression; 
ttid  in  1606,  he  published  a  second  edition  with  large 
additions.     And,   indeed,  such  was  its  reputation,  .  that 
scMcely  any  comment  or  catechism  was  published  by  the 
fltiioter' divines,  for  many  years,  in  which  the. morality 
of  the  sabbath  was  not  strongly  recommended  and  enforced.} 
But  to  counteract  the  influence  of  this  Sabbatarian  doctrine, 
Abut  twelve  jrears  after  the  above  period,  came  forth  the 
Declaration  for  Sports  upon  the  Lord's  da  v.     This,  having 
the  sanction  of  public  authority,  opened  a  flood-gate  to 
all-  manner  of  licentiousness. 

Hjs  .WomL8,r-l.  The.Holy  Exercise  of  Fasting,  in  certain  Homi- 
fiet4Nr'SmBeiis,  1004. — ^2.  A  Storehouse  of  Comfort  for  the  Afflicted 
in.  JSpiffit,  in  ^Tweniy^ne  Sermons,  1604.— 3.  The  Unbelief  of  St. 
Tbonas  the  Apostle  laid  open  for  Believers,  1608. 

•  !&nrlin*s  TnctMf  p.  491.  f  Strvpe'i  Whitgift,  p,  531. 

t  fWfier**  Charch  Hist.  b.  1x.  p.  9S9. 


Ekbchias  Moblbt  was  minister  tft  Walsham  in  tbe 
Willows  in  Suffolk,  and  afterwards  at  several  other  placesi 
He  was  a  zealous  and  laborious  preacher,  but  suflfeied 
numerous  oppressions  on  account  of  his.  nonconformity. 
Mr.  Morley  has  left  a  circumstantial  account  of  the  trouUct 
he  underwent,  which  it  may  not  be  improper  to  lay  befiupe 
the  reader. 

''  For  three  years,"  says  he,  "  I  have  been  so  molested  by 
the  commissary,  that  I  could  not  remain  to  do  the  work  of 
God,  for  any  long  time  in  any  one  place.  They  SnX 
arrested  me  by  a  warrant  from  the  bishop,  when  they  said, 
I  muat  be  bound  to  appear  before  him  at  Norwich  by  tm 
o'clock  next  morning,  or  go  to  prison.  The  time  appomted 
being  so  very  short,  I  yielded  my  body  to  the  piisoD. 
This  was  in  the  year  1582. 

^^  Having  obtained  my  liberty,  I  became  minister  of 
Denton ;  then  the  commissary  caused  an  act  of  excpnunn- 
nication  to  be  entered  against  me,  of  which  I  had  no 
knowledge  till  about  a  week  after.  I  then  resorted  to  Dr. 
Day,  and  desired  he  would  not  proceed  against  me,  seeiiig 
he  had  already  done  me  so  much  injury.  Therefore,  afler 
much  entreaty,  he  promised  that  he. would  not  hinder  melD 
my  ministry,  and  so  gave  the  bis  word  to  stay  the  examumvu* 
cation.  Notwithstanding  this,  in  six  weeks  after  my  remefal 
to  Denton,  he  published  an  excommunication  against  me, 
and  jBixcd  it  upon,  the  door  of  the  church  at  Walsham, 
being  unknovmto  me,  and  fifteen  miles  from  the  jribiee  ^ 
my  abode. .  Aftowards,  I  was  arrested  on  the  Lotd^s  day  in 
(he  church-yard,  when  the  Lord^s  supper  was  about  to  have 
been  administered.  When  the  warrant  was  read,  I  told.the 
<^cer,  that  I  would  remain  in  a  bcmd  of  twenty  ppiipd* 
to  appear  the  iiext  day,  which  he  utterly  refosed.  W^ 
a  friend  offered  his  bond  of  twenty  pounds,  he  vefqied 
this  also. .  And  when  my  friends  proposed  to  entle^  a 
bond  of  three  hundred  pounds  for  m^  appearance  tk 
Xiext  day,  this  in  like  manner  was  renlsed.  As.  I  pit- 
pared  to  go  with  him,  he  would  have  taken  bond ;  bat  h 
being  i^orant  of  the  law,  refused  fats  offer,  and,  thenfyjOj 
went  with  him  to  the  high  sheriff  to  Bury.  Here  notiung 
was  objected  against  me,  only.  I  was  bound  over  ib  -ttt 

<<  At  the  assizes,  I  was  indicted  for  having  deviated  fion 
the  order  of  baptism,  in  baptizing  a  chud  a 'low  tine 
before  I  left  Walsham.  In  thb  incuctment^  I:wds  cuumd 
with  having  said,  <  do  t/ou  forsake  the  deril?*  inftead  of 

M0RLE7.  )  175 

trying,  ^.dost  thou  forsake  the  devil?'— -and  <  will  you 
kme  this  child  baptized  ia  thi»  faith  ?'  for  <  wilt  thou  be 
iNqptiaBd  in  tfais-faitti  V  Upon  the  reading  of  the  indictment, 
the  judge  asked  me  what  I  had  to  saj  why  sentence  should 
Mllbe  executed  against  me.  I  answered,  that  I  had  endured 
ipaidfiiiaient  already  from  the  conmiissary.  And  when  the 
judge  inquired  whether  I  had  been  so  punished,  the  com* 
missary  said  I  had ;  but  he  did  not  know  whether  it  was  for 
tius  ems&oe^or  some  oth^*  I  was,  therefore,  committed  to 

-  In  the  year  1584,  Mr.  Alorley  mad^  the  following 
MM>id>— ^<  The  first  day  of  June  was  two  years,  I  was 
oommitted  to  the  Clink,  by  the  Archbishop  and  the  Bishop 
oC  London.  I  was  there  confined  seven  weeks,  and  to  this 
hour,  I  know  not  for  what  cause.  I  was  fetched  by  the 
puisiomnt  upwards  of  forty  miles,  which  was  attended 
with  great  e^qiense,  as  well  as  hinderaiice  of  my  usefulness, 
i  haive  never  received  any  recompence  for  false  and 
imjust  imprisonment;  neither  can  I  obtain  liberty  to 
use  my  ministry  with  a  good  conscience.  So  that  I  am 
now  ready  to  go  a  begging;  yei^  if 'allowed,  I  might, 
through  the  blessing  of  Grod,  do  some  good  to  myself 
and  &  aflUcted  church  of  Christ,  of  which  I  am  a  poor 
meaibiBi'.  I 


It  appears  iroiu  the  above,  that  Mr.  Morley  was  for  a  long 
tiine  suspended  from  the  exercise  of  his  ministry.  After- 
wards, being  driven  out  of  Norfolk,  he  preachea  at  Ridg^ 
well  in  Essex.  And  during  the  above  year,  warrants  were 
issued  by  Archbishop  Whitgift,  the  Bishop  of  London, 
«nd  other  ecclesiastical  commissioners,  requiring  certain 
hymea  ta  appear  before  them  at  St.  PauFs,  to  prove 
several  charges  against  Mr.  Morley.  Upon  their  appear* 
anoe  before  their  lordships,  they  were  required  to  answer 
the  f<dlowing  articles  of  inquiry : 

.'.   1.  ."Do  you,  and  all  of  you,  know  Ezechias  Morley, 
picacher ;  and  how  long  have  you  known  him  ? 
!   9L."  It  is  objected  against  you,  that  you  have  been  at 
jdivers  preachings  and  lectures  of  the  said  Morley,  in  the 
church  of  Ridgwell  in  Essex,  since  Easter. 

3.  '^  That  you  have  often,  or  some  times,  been,  within 
theie  V90  yean,  at  the  said  Morley's  lectures,  pieachings 


•  MS.  Rifitter,  p.  MO-^HlSS.  t  Ibid. 


and  expositions,  in  some  bouse  or  other  place,  oot  of  any 
church  or  place  appointed  for  public  prayers.  Where  are 
those  places  ?  Who  were  present  ?  And  how  often  haYC 
you  been  ? 

4.  ^'  That  you  did  hear  or  know,  that  the  churchwardens 
of  Ridgwell  in  !E^x,  or  some  other  who  had  authority  so 
to  do,  did  give  admonition  and  warning  to  the  said  Morley, 
that  he  should  not  preach  in  the  said  church  until  he  lilid 
shewed  sufficient  license,  and  brought  authority  from  the 
ordinary  so  to  do."* 

Mr.  Morley  was  convened,  ^t  the  same  time,  and,  for  re- 
fusing to  subscribe,  was  obliged  to  enter  into  a  bond  of  one 
hunted  pounds  not  to  preach  any  more  in  the  diocese  of 
Loodon.f  But  it  does  not  appear  what  other  hardships  he 

He  beoune  rector  of  Roding-Alta  in  Essex,  July  23^ 
1601;  but  resigned  it  by  death,  previous  to  Febniaiy 
18,  1607,  when  the  next  incumbent  entered  upon  tbs 

John  Rainolds,  D.  D. — This  celebrated  divine  wai 
bom  at  Penhoe,  near  Exeter,  in  the  year  1549,  and  educated 
in  Corpus  Christi  college,  Oxford.  At  first  he  was  i 
zealous  papist,  and  his  brother  William  a  professed  protest- 
ant;  but  engaging  in  conference  and  disputation,  tlie 
brothers,  it  is  said,  converted  each  other ;  WiUiam  becoftn- 
ing  a  most  inveterate  papist,  and  John  an  avowed  protest- 
ant.^  The  latter  no  sooner  changed  his  views,  than  he 
applied  himself  to  the  study  of  the  holy  scriptures,  and 
soon  became  a  celebrated  preacher. 

In  the  year  1578,  he  was  chosen  to  perform  the  two  acts  of  • 
the  university,  which  gained  hini  great  applause ;  and  the 

£ear  following  was  appointed  to  the  reading  of  the  sentences. 
!y  these  exercises  he  was  soon  draiwn  into  the  popish  con<^ ' , 
troversy,  when  the  papists  sought  to  eclipse  his  reputation.'  ' 
This  did  not  in  the  least  discourage  him  in  his  pursuits; 
but,  in  order  that  he  might  be  the  better  qualified  for  dis* 
cussing  this  subject,  he  read,  with  indefatigable  pains,  all 
the  Greek  and  Latin  fathers,  and  perused  all  the  ancieni 
records  of  the  church  he  could  meet   with.     By  thestf 

•  MS.  Register,  p.  48a-^«2.  +  IbM.  p.  14».    " 

1  Newcourt's  Repert.  Eccl.  voL  ii.  p.  501. 
S  FbUer't  Abd  AedWiTns)  p.  478, 479, 

•  t 

^  i*iK- 


Herculean  labours,  Be  shdiily  became  so  well  acqiiainted 
irith  'ihe  elrors  and  superstitions  of  popery,  that  he  vffka 
ftccotliited  a  complete  master  of  tlie  controversy. 

About  this  time,  the  famous  John  Hart,  a  zealous  papist,* 
had  thie  boldness  to  challenge  all  the  learned  men  in  the 
natiotf,  to  try  the  doctrine  of  the  church.  No  one  was 
Aonght  better  qualrfied  to  encounter  the  daring  champion 
than  Rainolds ;  who  was,  therefore,  solicited  by  one  or  her 
Biajesty's  privy  council.  After  several  combats,  the  popish 
antagonist  was  obliged  to  quit  the  field ;  as  appears  front 
lis  bwn.  letter  written  from  the  Tower.*  This  conference, 
nbscribed  by  both  parties,  was  afterwards  published ;  whick 
gare  abundant  satisfaction  to  all  unprejudiced  readers,  aiiH 
80  neatly  raised  the  fame  of  Rainolds,  that  he  was  immedi- 
aUuv  taken  notice  of  at  court.  After  taking  his  degrees  in 
divuiity,  the  queen  appointed  him  divinity  lecturer  at 
Oxf<Mra.  In  these  lectures  he  encountered  Bellarmine,  the 
Rnowned  champion  of  the  Romish  church.  Bellarmine  was 
public  reader  in  the  English  seminary  at  Rome ;  and  as  he 
delivered  hig  popish  sentiments,  they  were  taken  down  and 
H^ularly  sent  to  Dr.  Rainolds ;  who  from  time  to  time  com- 
muted upon  them,  and  refuted  them  at  Oxford.  Thus 
fidlainune*8  books  on  controversy  were  answered,  even 
b^re  they  were  printed. 

We  are  informed,  indeed,  that  this  divinity  lecture  was 
*^  up  on  purpose  to  widen  the  breach,  and  increase  the 
difeience  betwixt  the  church  of  England  and  the  church  of 
Home;  and,  to  accomplish  this  design.  Dr.  Rainolds,  a 
violent  anti-papist,  was  first  placed  in  the  chair.  His  lectures 
^Kie  numerousi  V  attended  and  highly  applauded.  But  it  is 
AirUier  observed,  <^  that  Dr.  Rainolds  made  it  his  btisiness 
^rcad  against  the  hierarchy,  and  weaken  the  authority  of 
Uic  Wshops."*  How  far  this  account  is  correct,  we  shall 
M  attempt  to  determine ;  but  the  queen,  hearing  of  his 
It  fiune,  and  his  good  services  in  opposing  the  church  of 

K referred  him  to  a  deanery  in  Lincoln,  and  even 
im  a  bishopric.  The  latter  he  modestly  refused^ 
diooBing  an  academical  life  rather  than  the  riches  and 
Splendour  of  any  ecclesiastical  preferment  whatever,  t. 

Dr.  Btmcroft^  chaplain  to  Archbishop  Whi^ifl,  in  a  ser^ 
inopy.  January  12, 1588,  maintained^  '^  that  bishops  were  a 

•  f%11cr*t  Abdt  RedivWas,  p.  482. 

f  CoUler^t  Eccl.  Hist.  vol.  ii.  p.  597. 

tFidler't  Abel  Redivivoi,  p.  482,  483.— Wood's  Ackens  Ozon.  Tol.  U 

Toil.  II.  N 

ITS  uVes'of  the  puritans. 

distifict  order  from  priests ;  and  that  they  had  a  superiorify 
over  them  by  droine  right,  and  directly  from  God."  In 
those  times  this  Mras  new  and  strange  doctrine,  even  to. 
churchmen  themselves.  Hitherto  it  had  been  maintained, 
that  all  the  superiority  of  bishops  over  pastors  or  presbv- 
ters,  was  wholly  of  human  appointment,  devised  in  the 
third  or  fourth  century.  WhQe  his  sermon  was  hiMj 
gratifying  to  most  of  the  ruling  prelates,  it  gave  great  ofl^ice 
to  many  of  the  clergy,  and  to  all  the  friends  of  the  puritans 
at  court.  Sir  Francis  Knollys  «  told  the  archbishop,  that 
Bancroft's  opinion  was  contrary  to  the  command  cf  Christ, 
who  prohibited  all  superiority  among  the  apostles.  .  fiot 
this  eentleman,  not  relying  on  his  own  judgmrait,  requested 
Dr.  Rainolds  to  give  his  opinion  of  this  new  doctrine; 
which  he  did  in  a  letter  at  considerable  lengths 

Dr.  Rainolds,  in  this  letter,  observes,  ^^  that  all  who  have 
laboured  in  reforming  the  church,  for  five  hundred  years, 
have  taught  that  all  pastors,  whetlier  they  are  entitled 
bishops  or  priests,  have  equal  authority  ai|d  vov^ci  hj 
God's  word :  As,  the  Waldenses,  next  Marulius  ntavinm^ 
then  Wickliffe  and  his  scholars,  afterwards  Husse  and  (be 
Hussites ;  and  Luther,'  Calvin,  Brentius,  BuUingcT}  vA 
Musculus.  Among  ourselves,  we  have  bishops,  the  queen's 
professors  of  divinity,  and  other  learned  men :  as,  BiadfiNd, 
Lambert,  Jewel,  Pilkinjgton,  Humphrey,  Fulke,  Sec*  But 
why  do  I  speak  of  particular  persons?  It  is  the  cminioii  of 
the  refcMTmed  churches  of  Helvetia,  Savoy,  France,  ScotlaDd, 
Germany,  Hungary,  Poland,  the  Low  Countries,  and  oar 
own.  I  hope  Dr.  Bancroft  will  not  say,  that  all  these  have 
approved. that  for  sound  doctrine,  which  was  condemned 
by  the  general  consent  of  the  whole  church  as  lienstf  ^  in 
the  most  flourishing  time.  I  hope  he  will  acknowledge 
that  he  was  overseen,  when  he  avouched  the  superiority  of 
bishops  over  the  rest  of  the  clergy,  to  be  God*i  ovm  orSr 


About  the  year  1599,  Dr.  Rainolds  gave  up  his  d^j/aaaj 
of  Lincoln,  and  his  mastership  of  Queen's  college,  when  te 
was  chosen  president  of  Corpus  Christi  college.  Tho«i|^  B 
the  last  situation  he  did  not  continue  above  eight  years,  bis 
presidency  was  rendered  eminently  useful.     In  lOttS,  be 

*  Sir  Francis  Knollys  was  one  of  ber  majesty's  privy  comicilv  a  ■■■  ^ 
iistingaigbed  learning  and  piety,  a  most  able  siateiniao,  and  a  casstait 
patron  of  tbe  persecuted  noncoDformists ;  on  Hrhich  accomit  he  ups  Bot  «cU 
esteemed  by  some  of  tbe  prelates.— Faiflrr's  AM  RMd.  p.  ai&— Wtfi* 
fiifig.  vol.  lii.  p.  371. 

f  Strype's  Whitglft,  p.  S99,  !293.*-8trype'8  Annals,  voU  Ul*.p.  57T,«T8. 



was  nominated  one  of  the  puritan  divines  to  attend  the 
fMoference  at  Hampton-court.  On  the  side  of  the  episco- 
palians,  were  Archbishop  Whitgifi,  eight  bishops  and  eight 
deans^  with  the  king  at  the  head ;  and  on  the  side  of  the 

Critans,  were  Dr.  liainolds,  Dr.  Thomas  Sparke,  Mr. 
wrence  Cliadderton,  and  Mr.  John  Knewstubs,  all  no- 
minated by  the  king.*  Dr.  Rainolds,  in  the  name  of  his 
hrethieiK  humbly  presented  the  following  requests: 
-  1.  ^^  That  the  doctrine  of  the  church  might  be  presenred 
pare,  according  to  God's  word. 

S.  ^<  That  good  pastors  might  be  planted  in  all  churches, 
to  preach  the  same. 

3.  <*  That  church  government  might  be  sincerely  minis- 
tered, according  to  God's  word. 

4.  "  That  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer  might  be  fitted  to 
more  increase  of  piety." 

These  requests  contained  all  or  most  of  what  the  chief 
pmitans  desued ;  and  however  reasonable  they  may  appear, 
iiot.oiie  of  them  was  granted.  When  the  puritan  ministers 
wished  to  discuss  those  things,  for  which  they  were  pro- 
fessedly called  together,  the  kin^  would  not  allow  them  to 
]lrooeed:  but  rising  from  his  chair,  he  said,  ^^  If  this  be  all 
^  ihat  your  party  have  to  s^iy,  I  will  make  them  conform, 
*  or  I  wiD  hurnr  them  out  of  the  land,  or  else  do  worse." 
Theyweie  much  insulted,  ridiculed,  and  laughed  to  scorn.f 
Sir  jBdwaid  Pejrton  confessed,  that  our  divine  and  his 
bteChien  had  not  freedom  of  speech ;  and  finding'  it  of  no 

I  to  attempt  a  reply,  they  held  their  peace. t    This  con- 

ence  was  therefore  justly  called.  The  mock  conference 
of  Mampion^couri ;  and,  says  the  judicious  historian,  was 
ODhr  a  blind  to  introduce  episcopacy  into  Scotland.^ 

Li  the  year  1604,  the  king  appointed  Dr.  Rainolds,  on 
acodiuil  of  his  unconunon  skill  in  Greek  and  Hebrew,  to  be 
of  the  translators  of  the  Bible ;  but  he  did  not  live  to 
the  work  completed,  y  He  was  seized  with  the  con- 
iption  of  which  he  died,  when  in  the  midst  of  this  labo- 
undertaking ;  yet  he  continued  to  afford  his  assistance 
efen,  to   the    last.       During  his  sickness,    his   learned 

.  •  nner't  Church  Hiat.  b.  ix.  p.  7.--8tryp€'8  Whitgift,  Appeo.  p.  »7. 

i*  FnUer's  Charcb  Hist.  b.  x.  p.  19.— Barlow's  Account,  p.  170. 

1  Neal'tPwltBiis,Tol.  ii.p.  18. 

S  lUpiii's  Hilt,  of  £Dg.  Tol.  H.  p.  162. 

I  ThU  wai  the  present  aatborized  translation,  which  his  migesty  com* 
mmaA  to  the  carie  of  forty-seven  reverend  and  learned  persons,  divided 
iMo  aiz  CMtpuies,  to  whom  he  cave  the  requisite  iostroctions  for  the 
mtk^BUg.  mUm.yol.  ii;  p.  588.  Edit.  1778. 



biethren  in  Oxfonl  met  at  hiis  lodgings  regularly  once  a 
week,  to  compare  and  perfect  their  notes.  This  learned 
man  was  thus  employed  in  translating  the  word  of  life,  e?eq 
till  he  himself  was  translated  to  life  everlasting.*  -•     ■ 

In  his  last  sickness,  all  his  time  was  spent  in  prajrer  io 
God,  in  hearing  persons  read,  and  in  conferring  with  the 
translators.  He  remained  in  a  lingering  state  tillt  AscensioR* 
day,  when  he  addressed  his  friends,  saying,  <<  I  hoped  to 
have  ascended  on  the  very  day  of  our  Lord's  aJscension; 
but  I  shall  stay  with  you  a  little  l(»]^r,.in  which flimf 
I  entreat  you  to  read  nothing  to  me,  omy  such  chaptexft  of 
scripture  as  I  shall  appoint.  t    •:  ft) 

This  reverend  and  learned  divine,  during  his  life,  bad 
been  a  famous  opposer  of  the  errors  of  popery ;  and  noW 
upon  his  death-bed,  the  papists  propagated  scandalinis 
reports  concerning  the  nature  of  his  commaint,  and  beffion 
to  insinuate  that  he  now  recanted.      To  coonteiact  Siis 
vile  calumny,  his  friends  desired  him  to  give  some  testimoojp 
of  his  faith,  previous  to  his  departure.    This  bein^ap  signified 
to  him,  he  shook  his  head,  and  seemed  mnch  aftected^ibot 
was  not  able  to  speak.    His  friends,  obsorvi&g  this,  adoed 
him  whether  a  form  might  be  drawn  tip  in  Writing;  tp 
which  Grod  might  enable  him  to  set  hi$  hand;-  and  Jie 
signified,  by  certain  signs,  his  full  approbation.  Then  iJmj 
drew  up  the  following  paper : — ^'  These  are  to  testify  (p  aS 
<^  the  world,  that  I  die  m  the  profession  of.  that  feith  whidi 
^  I  have  taught  all  my  life,  both  in  my  preaching  andin 
<^  my  writings,  with  an  assured  hope  pf  my  salvatusi,  op^ 
^<  by  the  merits  of  Christ  my  Saviour." — Thiis  paper  bshig 
twice  distinctly  read  to  him,  and  having  seriond j:.  ]XM|* 
dered  every  word  of  it  himself,  he  put  on  his  spectadtty 
and  subscribed  his  name  in  very  fair  characters.f    Theda^ 
following,  with  his  eyes  lifted  up  to  heaven,  he  breathed  hii 
soul  into  the  hands  of  his  dear  Redeemer.  He  died  'May  SI^ 
1607,  in  the  sixty-eighth  year  of  his  age.     His  miAaini 
were  interred,  with  great  funeral  solemnity,  in  the  eo|lce0 
chapel,*  beiog  attended  by  the  vice-chancell(nr,  the  hem 
of  ccAeges,  and  the  mayor  and  aldermen  of  the  city.  J}rv 
Henry  Airay ,  the  vice-chancellor,  preached  his  fimeial 
sermon;   and  Mr.  Isaac   Wake,   the    universijty  dpraiol,} 

•  Faller's  Abel  Redivivus,  p.  487,  488.  +  Ibid.  p.  489.' 
i  Wake,  is  said  to  have  been  an  elegant  scholar,  and  no  mean  ojdM^'^ 
but  King  James  thought  Sleep  of  Cambridge  much  siiperior  fo  himf  wbieh 
occasioned  his  saying,  <*  That  he  was  inclined  to  sleep,  wbeb  he  j^iMt 
Wake;  and  to  vrake,  when  he  heard  Sleep.'*— Granxer^f  l|l^.  i^*' 
f  ol.  i.  p.  812.  .  *^  "        -  ■  -      ' 


delivered  a  funeral  oration,  in  T^hich  be  gave  him  the  fol- 
lowin^f  character : 

**  However  others  admired  his  knowledge,  lowliness  of 
mind^  and  incredible  abstinence,  in  all  which  he  excelled, 
9B  evjtti  exceeded  wonder ;  yet  I  do,  and  ever  shall,  chiefly 
admire  his  slitting  and  neglecting  all  ways  of  preferment. 
Neither  Luther,  nor  Calvin,  nor  Beza.  nor  Whitaker,  caa 
challei^  any  honour  which  Rainolds  nath  not  merited.    I 
caimot  out  exoeiedinglv  congratulate  our  country,  where  he 
was  iMNTti,  our  mother  the  university ,  where  he  was  educated, 
and  that  most  pregnant  house  or  excellent  wits,  where  he 
learned 'the 'first  rudiments  cif  most  exquisite  liteiature."* 
Dr.  Crackenthorp,  his  intimate  acquaintance,  gave  this 
acdoant  of  him:   <^  He  turned  over  all  writers,  profane, 
ecdesiastical^  and  divine ;  and  all  the  councils,  fathers,  and 
historieft  of  the  church.    He  was  most  excellent  i|i  au 
tongues,  useful  or  ornamental  to  a  divine.    He  had  a  sharp 
ana- ready  wit,  a  •grave  and  mature  judmient,  and  was 
iodefii^ably  industrious.    He  was  so  well  skilled  in  all 
iMs  anosciefices,  as  if  he  had  spent  his  whole  life  in  each 
Sifi^eoL    And  as  to  virtue,  integrity^  pi^^J)  <uid  sanctity 
of  life  he  was  so  eminent  and  conspicuous,  that  to  name 
Rainolds  is  to  commend  virtue  itself'f    Bishop  Hall  used 
to  iBay,  fS  That  Dr.  Rainolds  alone  was  a  well->furnished 
libnm  fiill  of  all  faculties,  all  studies,  and  all  leam^ ; 
an4  ^at  his  memory  and  reading  were  nearly  a  miracle.'* 
And  olir  author  adds,  ''  he  was  a  prodigy  in  reading, 
AnuMSB  in  doctrine,  and  the  very  treasury  of  erudition ; 
and  in  a  word,  nothing  can  be  spoken  against  him,  only  ihdk 
lie  was  the  piUar  of  puritanism^  and  the  grapd  favourer  of 
mmamformkjf.^^t      Indeed,   Fuller   insinuates,    and    Dr, 
Cradkeyitjiorp  laboured  to  prove,  that  he  was  not  a  puritan, 
but  an. exact  conformist.^     In  this,  however,  they  have 
mpvcid'UnsucceBsful.  For,  besides  subscribing  the  ^'  Book  of 
Puciuliue^"  he  utterly  disapproved  of  certain  ecclesiastical 
(;i»ei^onies ;    and  tnough  he  wore  the  round  cap  as  a 
epBegUMf  he  refused  wearing  the  clerical  habits 4    Gnuiger 
savs,  tliat  Dr.  JK^tinolds  was  generally  reputed  the  greatest 
schcdar  of  His  age  and  country :  tliat  his  memory  was  so 
retentive  he  hardly  knew  what  it  was  to  forget;  that  he 

•  FUlcr't  Abel.  Red.  p.  496.  f  Ibid.  p.  483, 484. 

L Wood's  AthensD  Oxon.  vol.  i.  p.  290. 
FaUer's  Cborcb  Hist.  b.  x.  p.  48.  —  Barksdale't  RemeiobraDCCfr, 
-il..  Edit.  1670. 
~  1 118.  BoMTjU  on  Hilt.  p.  88.  (8.) 


was  esteemed  a  match  for  Bellarmine,  the  Goliah  of  4lie 
church  of  Rome ;  and  that  he  was  styled  a  liying  litvaiy^ 
or  a  third  imiversity.* 

His  Works.— 1.  Two  Orations,  1576.— 2.  Six  Theses,  1679.-^ 
3.  A  Sermon  on  the  Destruction  of  the  Idumeans,  1584^-4  A 
Sermon  to  the  Scholars  of  the  University,  1586. — 5.  The  Sum  of  a 
Conference  between  *lohn  Rainolds  and  John  Hart,  1588.— 6.  Dd 
Romanae  Ecclesias  Idolatria,  1506. — 1,  The  Oyerthrow  of  Stage-' 

5 lays,  1509. — 8.  An  Apologie  of  bis  Theses,  1602. — 9.  An  Epistle  to 
'homas  Pye,  1606.— la  A  Defence  of  the  Judgment  of  the  lUformfld 
Churches,  1609. — 11.  Censura  Librorum  Apocryphorum  veteris  '^es- 
tamenti,  1611. — 12.  The  Prophcsic  of  Obadlah  opened  and  applied* 
1613. — 13.  Letter  to  his  Friend,  concerning  the  Study  of  Divimty; 
1613. — 14.  Orationes  Duodecem,  1638. — 15.  The  Discovery  of 'tbe 
Man  of  Sin,  l&ll.— 16.  A  Letter  to  Sir  Francis  Knolljs,  1641.— 
17.  The  Original  of  Bishops  and  Metropolitans  briefly  laid  opeip 
1641. — 18.  Judgment  concerning  Episcopacy,  1641. — 19.  The  no* 
phesie  of  Haggai  interpreted  and  applied,  1649. — 20.  Commentaiii 
in  tres  bib.  Aristot  De  Ketorica. — ^21.  Answer  to  ^Hch.  Sannden 
his  Books,  De  Schitmate  Anglicano,  in  Defence  of  our  ReformatMNP— 
22.   A  Defence  of  our  English  Litui^  against  Rob.  Afowiio  Ui 
Schismatical  Book. — ^23.  A  Treatise  of  the  BeginniDg  and  PktimM 
of  the  Popish  Errors. — He  also  published  seyeral  TranidatiiHIs  or  the 
works  of  other  learned  men.  ' .  * 

Thomas  Brightman  was  bom  at  Nottingham)  in  tbe 
year  1556,  and  educated  in  Queen's  college  Candiri^gei 
where  he  became  fellow.  Though  he  was  a  champion  in 
the  cause  of  nonconformity,  he  did  not  despise  toose  of 
the  contrary  sentiments,  but  was  charitable  to  all  who 
differed  from  him  in  matters  of  discipline  and  ceremonies.f 
Upon  his  leaving  the  university,  he  was  presented  by  & 
John  Osboume,  a  man  of  ^reat  learning  and  piety^  to  the 
rectory  of  Hawnes  in  Bedfordshire,  where  he  sport  the 
remainder  of  his  days  in  hard  study,  and  a  constant  appli^ 
cation  to  his  pastoral  duties.  Sir  John  was  his  cxMuUnt 
find  liberal  benefactor.  He  ¥ras  a  man  of  a  most  annelical 
life,  and  uncommon  learning,  which  was  .acknowtodged 
even  by  his  enemies.  He  lived  so  much  under  the  infinenoe 
of  divine  grace,  that  he  was  never  known  to  be  anffiy; 
and  always  carried  with  him  his  Greek  Testamen^  which 
lie  read  through  regularly  once  a  fortnight.  His  dailv 
conversation  was  a^inst  the  episcopal  government,  whidoi 
he  declared  would  shortly  come  dowu4     Though   Mr. 

•  Biographteal  HM.  toI.  i.  p.  SI 2. 

f  He  is,  by  mistake,  called  William.  ^JPViIbr'j  FTarfUM,  •  part  Hi 
p.  619,  aaO.  %  Faller'i  Cborch  HUt«  b.  z.  p.  40|  50, 


Brightman  wrote  against  the  prelacy  and  ceremonies  of  flie 
church,  land  subscribed  the  ^^  Book  of  Discipline,"*  he  was 
no  friend  to  separation.  He  published  a  ^^  Disputation 
about  Antichrist ;"  a  "  Refutation  of  Bellarmine ;"  a  "  Com- 
mentary of  the  Song  of  Solomon;"  and  another  on  the 
"  Revelation  of  St.  John."  «  This  last,"  says  Granger, 
^  made  a  great  noise  in  the  world."  In  that  book,  he 
makes  Arcm)ishop  Cranmer  the  angel  haying  power  oyer 
the  fire,  the  Lord  Cromwell  the  angel  which  came  out  of 
(he  temple  cf  heayen,  haying  the  sharp  sickle,  and  the 
Lord  Treasurer  Cecil  the  angel  of  the  waters,  justifying 
the  pouring  out  the  third  yial.  The  church  of  £ngland 
is  the  lukewarm  church  of  Laodicea ;  and  the  angel  that  God 
loyed,  is  the  anti-episcopal  church  of  Geneya,  and  that  of 
Scotland :  and  the  power  of  the  prelacy  is  antichrist.  In 
the  reign  of  Charles  I.  he  adds,  when  the  l)ishops  were 
ez|ielled  the  house  of  peers,  and  seyeral  of  them  imprisoned, 
Bn^htman  was  cried  up  for  an  inspired  writer,  and  an 
abndgnient  of  his  book  was  printed  in  1644,  entitled  <^  The 
BevwUion  of  the  Revelation. "+  He  desired  to  die  a  sudden 
death, 'and  the  Lord  granted  him  his  desire.  He  died  very 
tuddcaily,  as  he  was  travelling  with  Sir  John  Osboume  in 
his  coach,  with  a  book  in  his  hand,  August  24,  1607,  aged 
SR^^ooe  years.  Fuller  has  classed  him  among  the  learned 
wnteiK^  of  Queen's  college,  Cambridge^  He  was  a  most 
puMU^  laborious,  and  learned  divine ;  whom  Mr.  Cartwright 
Vied  to  dencnninate  '^  the  bright  star  in  the  church  of 
GkxL'H    Dr«  Buckley  preached  his  funeral  sermon. 

RfCAARD  Maunsel  was  minister  of  Yarmouth,  and 
aeverdy  persecuted,  together  with  Mr.  Thomas  Lad,  a 
merchant  of  that  place.  They  were  brought  before  the 
Chancellor  of  Norwich,  for  a  supposed  conventicle; 
because,  on  the  Lord's  day,  after  public  worship,  they , 
joined  with  Mr.  Jackler,  their  late  minister,  in  repeating 
the  heads  of  the  sermons  which  had  that  day  been  preached 
hi  the  church.  Mr.  Lad  was  compelled,  upon  his  oath,  to. 
answer,  certain  articles  relating  to  the  supposed  con- 
venticle, which  he  could  not  see  till  after  he  had  taken 
the  oath.  Haying  been  twice  convened  before  the  chan- 
cellor, he  was  carried  before  the  high  commission  at  Lam- 

•  Neal'i  Paritans,  toI.  i.  p.  483. 

f  Gnuiger'i  Biog.  HiiL  Tol.  i.  p.  280.  t  Hist,  of  Can.  p. 8. 

^  Le^  OB  ReligioB  and  Learniof » p.  143. 


beth,  and  required  to  answer,  upon  a  new  oath,  such  inquiriei 
as  his  ecclesiastical  judges  were  pleased  to  propose.  This^ 
indeed,  be  refused  without  a  sight  of  his  former  answers; 
9ad  was,  therefore,  cast  into  prison,  where  he  remained  a 
long  time,  without  l^eing  admitted  to  bail.  Mr.  Maonsei 
was  further  charged  witli  signing  a  petition  to  the  house  of 
commons,  and  with  refasing  the  oath  ex  officio;  for  which 
he  was  treated  in  the  same  manner,  itaying  suffered  a 
long  and  painful  confinement,  the  prisoners,  about  the  year 
1607,  were  brought  to  the  liar  upon  a  writ  of  habeas 
corpus;  and  having  Nichohis  Fuller,  esq.  a  bencher  of 
Gray's-inn,  and  a  roost  learned  roan  in  his  profesaiim,  for 
their  counsel,  he  rooved,  that  the  prisoners  ought  <to  be 
released ;  because  tlie  high  conunissioners  were  not  empow- 
ered by  law  to  imprison,  or  to  administer  the  €mtk.ex 
officio^  or  to  fine  any  of  his  majesty^s  subjects.  These 
points  he  laboured  to  prove  in  a  most  learned,  aijgamcft* 
lative,  and  perspicuous  manner,  which  was  looked  upoa  ai 
an  unpardonable  crime  ;•  and  instead  of  serving  hissdieDti^ 
brought  the  heavy  indignation  of  the  commisaionea  opaa 
liimself.  Archbishop  Bancroft,  now  at  the  head  ^of  the 
high  conunission,  told  the  king,  that  Fuller  wa&  tJheiGhaiH 
pion  of  the  nonconformists;  and^  therefore^  ought . to U 
made  a  public  example,  to  terrify  others  from  appearing 
hereafter  in  defence  of  the  puritans.f  Accocdingly^  Jiftim 
shut  up  in  close  prison ;  from  whence,  neUber  by  Ihe  inter- 
cession of,  fri^pds,  nor  by  his  own  most  humUe  «nppli* 
cations,  couldJie.cMain  release;  but  after  dosei  confineDieBl 
about  twelve  years,  he  died  in  prison,  February  83, 1619, 
aged  seventy-six  year84  What  became  of  Mr.  Bfaonsel 
and  Mr.  Laid,  his  clients ;  whether  after  ihebi-  trial  they 
were  released,  or  suffered  some  othec  punishment,  we  hash 
not  been  able  to  learn. 

«  Fuller's  Arfrnment  in  the  caie  of  Thomas  Lad  aod  Richard  Manmrli 
edit.  1607. — ^Tbis  most  learned,  cqrioni,  and  Taloable  Tract,  ooBiifting  ft 
3S  pages  in  quarto,  was  repnblished  in  Id4l. 

f  Fnller^s  Church  Hut.  b.  z.  p.  66. 

X  Nicholas  Fuller  was  member  of  the  parliament  of  1608*  whM  ha 
brought  in  two  bills :  the  one  concerning  Ecclesiastical  JnrisdictloBy  the. 
other  concerning  Subscription;  both  with  a  view  to  ease  the  borileili  of  the 
persecuted  puritans.  He  was  a  person  of  great  learBiiyaad  pMy; 
i^id  finding  the  nooconformisis  grievously  oppressed  jn  their  Iibertlea,  their 
estates,  and  their  consciences,  contrary  to  law,  he  laboured  boAh  in  the 
Inmsle-of  commons,  and  in  the  courts  of  judicature,  to'proctn^  tbefr 
deliyerance  from  the  cruel  oppressions  of  their  persecntorB*— JTS*  Chrf- 
nologtff  vol.  ii.  p.  667.  (2.) 


.    Thomas  Wilcocks,  A.  M. — This  celebrated  divine  was 
born  about  the  year  1349,  and  educated  in  St.  Jofan^f 
coUege,  Oxford.    Upon  his  leaving  the    university,  he 
became  a- learned,  zealous,  and  usefiil  preacher  in  Honey-* 
lane,  London.    In  the  year  1572,  he  was  an  active  persqia 
in  the  erection  of  the  presbyterian  church  at  Wandsworth 
}n  Surrey.     During  the  same  year  he  was  brought  intp 
much  trouble  for  his  nonconformity.     Th^  puritans  havi^ 
for  a  long  time  sought  in  vain  to  the  queen  and  prelates, 
for  a  further  reformation  of  the  church,  now  resolved  to  apply 
to  the  parliament,    Accordingly,  Mr.  Wilcocks  and  Mr. 
John  Field  published  ''  An  Admonition  to  the  Parliament,^' 
xirhich  they  presented  to  the  house  of  commons  lyith  .the|r 
oWn  hands.     Though  the  book  was  much  esteemed,  and 
soon  passed  through  four  editions^  the  ai^thqiis  were  appre- 
hefided  and  committed  to  Newgate,  where  they,  remaiped 
a  long  time,  in  close  and  miserable  confinement.*    A  par* 
ticular  account  of  these  cruel  proceedings,  together  wifli 
their  other  troubles,  will  be  found  in  another  place,  f. 
.'   The  character  and  sentiments  of  these  excellent  divifie? 
iiaving  greatly  suffered  by  reproach,  th^  publis^ied.^ 
vindication  of  themselves,  againk  the  false  iipputations  of 
imsound  doctrine,  and  disloyalty  to  the  queen.    The  piece 
Ib  entiiOed' <(  A  Copie  of  a  Letter,  with  a  Confession  of 
Faith,  written  by  two  faithiul  Servants  of  Gpdji  ufito  a^i 
lioiioiiiable  and  virtuous  Ladie.^t    It  is  subscribed,  with 
their  aim  hands;  but  whether  it  was  published  before,  or 
4<uing  their  imprisonment,  we  are  not  able  to  l^m.  ^  it  is, 
however,  a  different  confession  from  that  which  is  noticed  in 
the  pkoe  referred  to  above,  but  was  penned  most  probably 
on  the  same  occasion.    During  their  confinement  in  New- 
gat^  Archbishop  Parker  sent  nis  chaplain,  one  Pearson,  to 
confer  with  them.    This  conference,  dated  September  11  ^ 
J[57S,  was  in  ibe  presence  of  Mr.  Mondes  their  keeper, 
and  is  as  follows : 

Pearson.  Is  your  name  Wilcocks  ? 

"Wilcocks.  Yes,  verily. 
.   PI  desire  to  become  acquainted  with  you ;  for  I  know 
you  not. 

W.  Neith^  do  I  know  you. 

•  Mr.  Thomas  Woodcock,  a  bookseller  in  London*  for  vending  the 
Adnonitibn,  Was,  at  the  sane  time,  comnitted  to  Newgate  by  Bishop 
Aylmer. — Strype's  Aylmtry  p.  57. 

f  See  Art.  Field. 

X  Bute  Af  a'Ref  iste>,  p,  598— M6. 


P.  I  am  come  to  conyerse  with  you^  by  wanant  from  my 
lord  of  Canterbury. 

W.  Indeed  it  is  high  time.  I  have  been  in  close  prisad 
almost  three  months,  and  no  one  has  yet  been  seqt  to  confier 
with  roe,  and  reclaim  me  from  error,  if  I  be  in  any. 

P.  I  am  come  to  you,  and  your  companion,  Mr.  Fidd, 
about  a  letter  from  you,  delivered  by  your  wives  to  his 
grace  of  Canterbury;  wherein  you  charge  him  with 
unjust  dealing  and  cruelty.  He  would  gladlv  know  in  what 
particular  instance  you  can  accuse  him  of  injustice  and 

Field.  To  charge  him  with  cruelty  we  mind  not:  neith^ 
did  we  write  any  such  thing.  But  we  may  justly  charge 
him  with  unjust  dealing. 

P.  Why  so  2   What  is  the  special  cause  of  it  ? 

W.  Because  he  hath  kept  us  in  close  prison  almost  three 
months  without  a  cause. 

P.  I  judge  it  is  not  so.  • 

F.  We  wrote  a  book  in  time  of  parliament,  justly  craTiag . 
a  redress  and  reformation  of  many  abuses,  for  which  we 
are  thus  imprisoned  and  uncourteously  treated. 

P.  That  book  I  read  over  at  the  time  of  its  ^first  comiiig 
out ;  but  since  that  time  I  have  not  read  foiu:  lines  of  it 
To  speak  my  mind,  though  some  thingis  in -it  be  good,  I 
dare  not  justify  all. 

W.  What  are  the  points  which  you  so  much  dislike? 
Mention  some,  and  we  will  gladly  talk  about  them. 

P.  So  far  as  I  can  gather,  you  would  have  in  the  church 
an  eouality  of  ministers. 

W.  We  would  not  have  it  of  ourselves;  but  God*s 
word  requireth  it.  ' 

P.  No:  God's  word  is  against  it. 

F.  I  pray  you  let  us  see  the  place. 

P.  Before  I  proceed,  let  me  ask  you  one  question.  Do 
you  both  agree  in  this  point  ?  For  if  you  do  not  agree,  I 
shall  labour  in  vain. 

F.  We  agree  both  in  this  point,  and  all  others.  For,  the 
Lord's  name  be  praised,  there  is  no  contrariety  of  judg- 

P.  You  will  allow  of  the  name  of  a  bishop* 

W.  Yes,  verily. 

P.  And  why  so  ? 

W.  Because  Grod's  word  alloweth  the  same,  in  the  ordi* 
narv  government  of  the  church. 

r.   xou  wiU,  also,^  allow  the  name  of  an  apostle. 


F.  In  one  respect  vfe  do,  and  in  another  respeet  we  do 
not.  As  it  signifieth  cme  sent  of  God  to  preach  the  gospely 
we  aUow  it. 

P.  And  in  what  respect  do  you  not  allow  it  ? 

W«  As  it  signifieth  one  sent  to  preach  to  all  creatures,  it 
hath  no  place  in  the  church. 

P.  my  so? 
^    W.  Beoiuse  the  calling  of  the  Gentiles  is  ended,  and 
that  office  was  only  temporal,  enduring  only  for' a  season.   * 

P.  I  know  many  good  writers  are  of  your  opinion.  But 
how  do  you  prove  that  from  scripture  ?  . 

W,  £asily  enough.     It  is  scripture  itself. 

P.  Let  this  be  granted.  Doth  an  equality  of  ministers, 
therefore,  follow  ?  St.  Paul  saith,  God  gave'' to  his  church 
some  i^ibstles,  some  prophets,  some  eyangdists,  some  pastors, 
and  fiome  teachers. 

F.  That  place  maketh  most  for  us,  as,  by  the  assistance 
of  Grod,  we  hope  to  make  evidently  appear. 

W.  Seeing  we  are  dealing  in  matters  which  concern 
Ood^s  glofy,  and  we  cannot  of  ourselves  speak  to  his  praise, 
nor  wi3iout  the  teaching  of  his  Spirit,  let  us  crave  his  divine 
aaristanee  in  the  exercise  of  prayer. 

P.  Will  you  use  private  or  public  prayer  ? 

W.  Nay,  in  my  judgment,  the  more  public  the  better. 

^Mr»  Field  then  engi^ed  in  pnn^er,  which  being  finished, 
they  lesnmed  the  conversation  as  rollows :] 

W.  No?w,  if  it  please  you,  let  us  begui'  where  we  left  off. 

P;  From  the  words  ot  Paul,  I  reason  thus:  In  his  day 
thore  was  a  distinction  of  callings ;  therefore,  there  can  be  no 
parity  of  ministers. 

F.  That  place  of  Paul  proveth  no  such  thing.  For  he 
thene  speaketh  of  those  exiraor^nary  offices  which  were 
peculiar  to  the  state  of  the  church  in  the  time  of  the 
apostles:  as  apostles,  prophets,  and  evangeli^s.  Also  he 
speaks  of  those  offices  which  are  ordinary^  and  to  continue 
to  the  end  of  time :  as  pastors  and  teachers,  which  differ 
not  in  authority  and  dignity,  though  they  may  in  gifts  and 

■    P.  I  understand  your  meaning.     I  perceive  you  will 
have  no  minister  to  preach  out  of  nis  own  charge. 

F.  That  is  our  opmion. 
,    p.  And  why  so  ? 

F.*  Because  every  pastor  hath  work  oiouffh  to  take  proper 
eaite'  of  his  own  flock ;  therefore,  he  needeth  not  to  thnuit 
hiiDidlf  opoa  another  ma&*8  Jabour. 


P«  It-  is  not  thrusting  himself  upon  another^  prorided  he 
cometh  called  ? 

F.  Indeed,  if  the  minister  had  nothing  more  to  dp  thwi 
to  preach  a  sermon  or  two  a  week,  this  might  be  plqa^ed ; 
but  seeing  he  must  visit  the  sick,  comfort  the  mpumen, 
strengthen  the  weak,  and  admonish  {^id  instruct,  all.  ftom 
house  to  house,  through  the  whole  of  his  charge,  I  warrant 
you  he  will  have  little  desire,  and  less  leisure,  to  preqdl  in 
other  men's  cures. 

P.  It  is  said,  in  the  acts  of  the  apostles,  th^t  vrheii  th^ 
apostles  laboured  to  appease  the  contention  bet^inxt  tin 
Greeks  and  the  Jews,  deacons  were  chosen  to  provide  for 
the.  poor,  that  thclymiffht  give  themselves  to  prayer,  and 
the  ministry  of  the  wora. 

W.  That  is  not  contrary  to  what  my  brother  hatlf  said, 
but  serveth  very  aptly  to  confirm  it ;  fpr  there  the  Holy 
Ghost  includes  their  whole  office  in  two  particular  .duties. 
And  if  the  apostles  did  well  in  communicating  the  tenqioisl 
part  of  their  office  to  others,  that  they  might  give  tnenw 
selves ,  the  more  to  prayer  and  preacb^ng^  whfit  cah.  v» 
jud^e  of  those  who  unite  dvit  functions  to  their  eCcAesiaflf 
tical  offices  ?  But  a  wandering  ministry  is  to  be  avoided^ 
because  it  is  an  ignorant  and  unlearned  ministrj^,  the  udbr* 
matioA  of  which,  with  the  banishment  of  the  pbpe*9  cUnoD 
law,  we  have  particularly  set  forth  in  our  late  h^dk.  And 
because  it  is  directly  contrary  both  to  reason  and  soriptiirR 
.  P.  I  wish  to  hear  that  reason^  and  see  that  scriptncNu 

F.  You  know  that  a  father  hath  much  rcsgard  for  hit 
children,  because  they  are  nearly  related  to  him :  so^,  cm  Ui6 
same  account,  hath  a  pastor  for  the  children  of  his  flock* 
And  the  scripture  saith,  <'  Take  heed  Onto  yourselves,  and 
to  all  the  flock  over  which  the  Holy  Ghost  hatb  mad^  ydkk 
overseers,  to  feed  the  church  of  God.  Feed  the  Bocli:  nf 
God  which  is  among  you." 

P.  May  I  not  then  preach  in  other  men's  charges  } 

F.  Upon  certain  conditions  you  may. 

P.  If  I  see  the  people  lacking  instruction,  aind  out  of 
compassion  preach  to  them,  do  you  think  I  do  evil  ?  . . 
.  F.  It  is  hot  for  us  to  condemn  another  mab's  serv^: 
to  his  own  master  he  standeth  or  falletli.  Yet  you. will  dt 
well  to  take  heed  to  your  own  calling.  But  having  youf 
own  flock,  and  intermeddling  with  other  mens' 
which  Grod  hath  not  commanded,  you  do  hot  weU*.  Jf, 
indeed,  there  be  a  defection  among  the  churches,  etllMf  IB 
faith  or  practice,  and  God  stir  you  up  by  an  exbnmdiBUf 


wUiDgy  fliQfagh  you  preach  in  other  places^  I  condemn  you 
not.   .  .  .  ■  I  .  », 

Pi  Whai  are  the  reasons  -why  I  may  not  come  into 
toipther  man;*s. charge  i 

W.'  If  our  chui^  were  so  reformed,  that  there  was  a 
kaxnedaad  painful  ministry,  with  a  godly  sincerity  in 
evenr  oon^n^ation^  then^  with  a  view  to  end  a  controvtersy^ 
conmrm  a  dodnne,  or  refute  an  error,  you  might  preach  in 
MMrthfaT'  man^s  charge :  yet  you  might  ■  not  do  this,  .unless 
ybtf  were  requested  by  the^  minister  and  seniority  of  the 
cfaurclK  and  permitted  ^y  your  own. 
'  '  P/'Yoa  seem  to  have  written  your  book  in  choler  against 
flonie  pefsohs,  rather  than  to  promote  a  reformation  of  tha 

W.  I)iuppose  you  are  displeased  witli  the  sharpness  of 
Ae  language.  .  We  are  willing  to  bear  the  Uame  of  that. 

P,  I  think  it  did  not  proc^  from  a  spirit  of  love,  and 
charity,  and  meekness. 

F;  That  toucheth  me,  and  therefore  I  answer;  as  God 
bafli  his  Mose^'  fib  he  hath  his  £l|jah.  Isaiah  calleth  the 
ndioca  iof  hiisf  time,  princes  of  Sodom*  .  John  calleth  the 
acribes  and  pharisees,  a  generation  of  vipers.  Jesus  Christ 
Adietfi  them  adders,  and  aii  adij^lterous  generation.  And  the 
acriptores^  especially  the  prophets,  are  full  of  6uch<  wannq 
ezpresnoDs.  We  have  used  gentle  words  too  long :'  we 
pooeiTe  they  have  done  no  good.  The  wound  is  tecome 
eksperate;  it  therefore  needeth  a  strong  corrosive,  ft  is 
no  time  to  flatter  men  in  their  sins.  Yet  God  knoweth,  we 
meant  to  speak  against  no  man's  person^  but  their  places f* 
odd  eiuting  ctyrruptions. 

'  P.  Wiir  you  tnen  tike  away  all  ecclesiastical  policy  f 
Ilrpleaseth  the  prince,  in  pplic^,  to  make  the  ministers  lord^ 
kkfttps  and  archbishops.  I  confess,  this  cannot  be  warranted 
hjj^  G(A\  word ;  but  as  the  christian  magistrate,  in  policy^ 
eitiseineth'it  good,  and  not  against  God's  word,  I. doubt 
whether  they  may  not  do  it. 

' "  W^  We  praise  God  for  having  made  you  confess  thi» 
truth;  But,  from  your  words,  we  must  consid^.whetlier 
the  policy  concerning  ecclesiastical  matters,  as  contained  ia 
Gbd'S'Word,  be  not  all-i^ificient,  and  that  alone  whieh  is  to 
Mellowed.  The  miitdgters  of  Christ  may  take  unto  than-; 
t^is^  ho  other  titles  than  those  which  are  allowed  and 
a^n'^^'^^^  ^  God's  word,  though  the  christiw  ApmcM 
would,  in  policy,  make  them  ever  so  liberal  an  olBfer  otthem. 

F.  No.    Thou^  the' prince,  would'  give  them  such 


offices  and  titles,  they  ought,  according  to  the  urcnd  of  CSod^ 
to  refuse  them. 

P.  When  in  honour  they  are  offered,  would  yod  have 
them  wilfully  and  unthankmlly  to  refuse  them  ? 

F.  Whenever  the  prince  is  so  disposed,  they,  in  the  feu 
of  God,  should  say,  ^^  A  greater  charge  is  alreadT  laid 
upon  us  than  we  are  well  able  to  fulfil.  We  cannot  faboiir 
so  faithfully  in  this  function  as  the  Lord  requireUt ;  there- 
fore, we  most  humbly  desire  your  majesty  to  lay  the  chaige 
of  chil  matters  upon  those  who  have  time  and  tldllto 
manage  them,  and  to  whom  in  duty  they  belong ;  and  kt 
us  exercise  ourselves  in  the  office  of  the  ministnr  fdone.**.  No 
names  can  be  more  blasphemous  than  those  of  brd-iitkopt 
and  archbishops.  They  take  that  honour  to  themselves  which 
belongs  to  Jesus  Christ  alone,  as  lord  and  king  in  ZUm, 

P.  if  for  religion  the  prince  appoint  fasts,  we  oiupht  not 
to  obey ;  but  Sf,  in  policy,  when  victuals'  are  mar,  he 
appoint  them,  we  arc  bound  in  conscience  to  obey. 

F.  As  you  plead  so  much  for  policy,  we  saSkt  ifluptisoD- 
ment  for  opposing  the  popish  hierarchy,  the  policy  of  which 
is  directly  contrary  to  that  which  was  used  in  the  piimitive 

P.  Must  we  then  in  every  point  follow  the  apostles  and 
primitive  church  ?  «— — — 

W.  jy^  i_  unless  a  better  order,  can  be,  foumL^  In  matters 
of  govemmenfand  discipline^lhe  word  of  God  is  our  only 
warrant ;  but  rites  and  ceremonies  not  mentioned  in  scrip 
ture,  are  to  be  used  or  refused,  as  shall  best  appear  to  toe 
edification  of  the  church.* 

Here  the  conversation  closed;  and  soon  oiler  this  Mr. 
Wilcocks  and  Mr.  Field  presented  a  supplication  to  Laid 
Treasurer  Burleigh,  written,  says  Mr.  Strype,  in  a  good 
Latin  style.  In  this  they  vindicate  their  own  innooenoei 
and  petition  his  lordship  to  procure  their  libMy,  by 
addressing  him  as  follows : — <^  Confiding  in  your  singular 
benevolence,  we  were  induced  to  address  you,  hoping  to 
obtain  our  liberty,  and  to  propagate  the  truth.  We  aie 
aware  that  we  are  spoken  against  and  slandered  by  many*' 
But  let  the  truth  speak  for  itself— it  never  seeks  to  lie  hid  m 
comers.  While  we  commend  the  innocency  and  eqaifj 
of  our  cause  to  your  consideration,  we  humbly  and  eariKsdy 
beseech  you  to  grant  us  favour.  We  have,  indeed,  latdy 
^tten  a  book,  urging  the  reformation  of  horrid  abases;  ana 

•  lis.  Register,  p;  139-1S7. 



that 'true  religion  may  be  freed  from  popish  superstition, 
^d,  witb  the  queen's  approbation,  be  again  restored  by 
the  parliament.  But  of  ourselves  we  have  never  attempted 
to  correct  or  change  any  thing.    We  referred  alL  to  their 

judgments,  according  as  the  case  may  seem  to  them  to 
lequire.  And  vre  hoped  that,  by  this  means,  the  peace  of 
the  church,  and  the  reconciliation  of  brethren,  might  have 
been  happily  promoted. 

^^  By  dais  ecclesiastical  establishment,  which  is  so  con- 
trary to  the  word  of  God,  we  have  all  seen  a  sad  schism  in 
the  church ;  and  that  most  desirable  blessing  of  peace,  which 
ought  to  abound  among  those  of  the  same  religion,  has  been 
destroyed.  We  said  nothing  of  the  contempt  of  good 
learning,  the  corruption  oftrue  religion,  the  depmvingofthe 
ininistry,  and  the  increase  of  sin  which  it  hath  occasioned. 
All  this  is  a  sufficient  justification  of.  our  book.  And  the 
corruptions  and  abuses  which  we  have  mentioned,  are  unani- 
moujuy  acknowledged  by  all  the  foreign  reformed  churches, 
and  by  the  writings  of  men  of  eminent  learning,  to  be  very 

.  foul.'^ 
.  In  the  conclusion  they  humbly  and  earnestly  entreat 
him  to  be  a  means  of  procuring  their  liberty.  They  also 
pregsaited  other  petitions  to  other  persons  of  distinction,  but 
^ppaxeaUy  to  little  effect :  for  they  were  confined  in  close 
priflon  in  Newgate  at  least  fifteen  months  •  A  further  account 
of  theseproc^dings  will  be  found  in  another  place.f 

Mr.  Wilcocks  at  length  obtained  his  release  from  prison, 
bat  was  at  the  same  time  deprived  of  his  living  in  Honey- 
lane.  Beiiiff  driven  from  his  flock  and  his  benefice,  ho 
prei|Ched  where  he  could,  as  he  found  an  opportunity, 

-  thoogh  not  without  frequent  molestation  from  the  persecute 
ipg  prelates.  For  the  greatest  part  of  ten  years  he  preaclied 
Vojr  frequently  at  Boyington,  in  Hertfordshire,  tie  spent 
a  considerable  portion  of  his  time  and  pains  in  his  epistolary 
correspondence  with  his  numerous  friends ;  and  in  his 
lettea  he  commonly  subscribed  himself,  ^^  Thomas  Wil- 
cocks, the  Lord's  unworthy  servant."  Among  his  numerous 
and  learned  correspondents,  was  the  venerable  Mir.  Anthony 
iGMIby,  €£  Asbby  de  la  Zouch,  in  Leicestershire,  to  whom 
ha  addressed  the  following  epistle,'  descriptive  of  the  cruel 
ioppmtuons  of  thetime:} 
.  ,>*  Good  Father  Gilby,  since  my  separation  from  you  I 

bare  jnceivcd  letters  from  London,  whierein  was  certified  the 

•  -■-..  .'  ..• 

«  8tnrpe*t  Annals,  vol.  ii.  p.  186.  f  See  Art  Field. 

t  BalMr*t  BU.  CoUec.  toI.  xssii.  p.  441, 448. 


stirs  and  troubles  there.  When  I  had  read  them,  I  thou^' 
it  meet  to  make  you  partaker  of  such  news  as  was  sent  unto 
me,  to  the  end  that  you  and  all  the  godly  there  with  you 
may  pour  forth  earnest  supplications  tor  our  brethren  wliO 
are  now  in  bonds,  and  under  the  cross,  for  the  testimony  of- 
the  truth.  Thus  standeth  the  case.  Mr.  Fulwer,  our  dear 
friend  and  brother  in  the  Lord,  with  divers  other^  are  pri- 
soners in  the  same  Compter,  and  for  the  same  cause  that  our 
brother  Edmunds  is.  Our  brother  Johnson,  minister  of  the 
church  without  Temple-bar,  and  others  with  him,  are  laidf 
in  the  Gatehouse  at  Westminster.  Our  brother  Wight  ai^d 
others  with  him  are  committed  to  Newgate. 

^<  The  ministers  of  London  were  callra  by  the  arehdeaconC 
and  Dr.  Hames,  tliebishop^s  chancellor,  to  Lawrence  church 
in  the  Jewry,  and  then  subscribed,  and  were  commanded 
to  put  on  their  trash ;  as  surplices,  &c.  on  the  Sunday  fol- 
lowing. Amon^  them,  none  bad  more  deceived  ihd 
^odly  than  one  W  a^er,  who  had  many  times  been,  but  jodI^ 
m  words,  against  tne  popish  regimen  and  ceremonies. re-' 
tained  and  used  in  the  English  church;  but  now  hyhU 
subscription  hath  allowed  all.  The  Lord  grant  that,  as  he 
hath  fallen  with  Peter,  aild  denied  the  trum,  so  he  may,  if 
it  be  his  will,  rise  with  him  again.  This  subscriptioal  is 
required,  not  of  ministers  alone,  but  of  the  common  peoplei 
such  as  they  cdUpurilans.  Scribbled  in  haste  from  Coyai- 
try,  this  21st  of  December,  1573. 

'^  By  yours  to  command  in  the  Lord  Jesus, 

"  Thomas  Wilcocks." 

Mr.  Wilcocks,  in  about  six  weeks  after  the  above,  ad- 
dressed another  epistle  to  the  same  venerable  divine,  ccmbk 
taining  a  further  account  of  oppressions  and  cruelties  exer- 
cised upon  the  poor  persecuted  puritans.  It  contamS| 
indeed,  some  other  interesting  fsicis  worthy  of  being  coiia- , 
municated  to  posterity ;  and  the  whole  is  so  excellent,  and 
BO  exactly  characteristic  of  the  writer,  that  it  would  bewail 
inexcusable  omission  to  withhold  it  from  the  inquisitive 
reader.     The  following  is  an  exact  copy  :• 

*<  Grace  and  peace  from  God. 

"  Father  Gilby,  news  here  is  none  gpod ;  for  how  naay 
we  look  for  good  in  these  evil  times  ?  The  commissioiieA 
go  forwards  m  their  haughty  proceedings :  God,  if  it  hej^ 
will,  stay  their  rage.  Three  of  them  that  they  have  1111* 
ptis(Oned  are  dead  already.    What  shall  become  of  the  rest 

•  Baker*s  MS.  Coliec.yol.  zzzii.  p.  439, 440. 


the  Lord  knoweth.  We  here  persuade  MUdives  of  nothing 
bat  great  extremity.  The  Lord  grant  us  patience  an3 
strength  in  his  truth  for  ever.  The  godly  here  desire  your 
earnest'  prayers  to  the  Lord  for  them,  and  heartily  salute 
you  in  the  Lord,  especially  my  brother  Edmunds,  tba 
Lord's  prisoner,  tinto  whom  you  promised,  at  my  being 
with  you,  to  write  some  letter  of  comfort.  Surely  a  letter 
fifom  you  to  him  would  much  encourage  him  in  the  ways 
of  the  Lord ;  and,  therefore,  I  desire  you  at  your  convenient 
leisure  to  write  somewhat  as  it  shall  please  the  Lord  to 
move  you. 

^^  Dr.  Whit^Ul^s  book  is  not  yet  come  out,  but  we  look 
for  it  daily.  Our  brother  Cartwright  is  escaped,  Grod  bo 
praised,  wad  departed  this  land  smce  my  coming  up  to 
London,  and,  I  hope,  is  by  this  time  at  Heidelberg.  The 
Lord  bless  him,  and  direct  him  in  all  things  by  his  Holy 
Spirit,  that  he  may  do  that  which  may  serve  for  the 
aovanoement  of  his  glory,  and  the  profit  of  his  church. 
His  earnest  desire  is,  that  you  and  all  the  godly  should 
remember  him  in  your  earnest  and  hearty  prayers ;  therefore^ 
I  the  more  boldly  and  willingly  now  make  mention  of  him. 

<^  The  commissioners  caused  Beza^s  Confession,  translated 
into  English,  to  be  burnt  in  Stationers*-haIl,  on  Thursday 
the  88th  o£  January  last.  The  pretence  was,  that  it  was 
ill  translated  :  but  I  suppose  rather  because  it  over  plainly 
dissolveth  the  popish  hierarchy,  which  they  yet  maintain. 
From  my  house  in  Coleman-street,  this  Sd  of  February, 
1S74.    Tours  assured  in  the  Lord, 

"  Thomas  Wilcocks*" 

Bfany  of  the  letters  written  by  Mr.  Wilcocks  were 
aniwers  to  cases  of  conscience.  He  was  highly  celebrated 
finr  his  knowle(^  of  casuistical  divinity.  Multitudes  who 
applied  to  him  undcfr  spiritual  distress,  obtained,  through 
me  blessing  of  God,  both  peace  and  comfort.  Most  of  his 
episOes  were  written  particularly  to  promote  family  and 
poBonal  rdUgion  among  his  numerous  connexions.  Our 
author  observes,  that  he  had  seen  a  large  folio  volume  of 
his  letters  in  manuscript ;  and,  from  the  long  list  now  before 
me,  it  appears  that  many  of  them  were  adcuessed  to  perscms 
of  quality.  Mr.  Wilcocks  was  intimate  with  the  celebrated 
Sir  Peter  Wentworth,  who  had  the  highest  respect  and 
esteem  for  him.* 

•  sir  FMer  Wentworth,  member  in  lefcral  of  Qneen  Enttbeth'spsrlla* 
amtB,  was  a  man  of  great  piety,  stronf  reiolation,  exceUent  abilities,  and 
^wayt  sealotti  for  ite  prlfUqe**  ^  pwliameati  and  a  flnrtliec  reformation 

toXm  li.  o 


Thoogh  our  divine  was  a  decided  nonconformifll^  he 
a  penoa  of  great  modeiation.  He  acknowledged  the 
chnrch  of  England  to  be  a  true  church,  and  her  ministrf 
to  be  a  true  ministry,  but  greatlj  encumbered  wi£h  the 
superstitions  and  corruptions  of  ^papery.  He  also  coca* 
sionally  attended  the  public  service  of  the  church,  and  was 
a  divine  of  great  learning  and  piety;  yet,  for  the  sinifc 
sin  of  nonconformity,  be  was  often  prosecuted  in  the 
ecclesiastical  courts,  and  often  suspended  and  d^imdl 
In  tbe  year  1581,  he  was  convened  before  his  snperion 
and  suspended  from  his  ministry ;  and,  in  I59I,  he  was  cut 
into  pnson.  He  died  in  tbe  year  160S^  and  flie  fifty<4iiiitli 
of  his  age.*  Wood,  not  knowing  that  he  was  a  muritaD; 
gives  a  very  higli  character  of  him,  styling  him  a  fieqMit 
writer  and  translator,  a  laborious  preacher,  a  noted  cMdflt^ ' 
a  grave  divine,  and  a  person  greatly  esteoned  in  his  day.f 

Hii  Works.— 1.  An  Exposition  on  the  book  of  Cantidss, « 
Solomon's  Song,  15S5. — 2.  An  Exposition  on  psrt  of  Romans  viB; 
1587. — 3.  A  short  and  sound  Commentary  on  the  ProTeriM  of 
Solomon,  1689. — 4.  An  Exposition  on  the  whole  book  of  Pnlmi^ 
wherein  is  contained  the  division  and  sense  of  erery  Psalm,  Ace,  \M. 
(These  four  articles  were  collected  and  published,  in  1094^  nnder 
the  care  of  Dr.  John  Burgess,  who  married  the  author's  dangMar* 
It  was  in  one  volume  folio,  entitied,  ''  The  Works  of  the  Refsnail 
Divine,  Mr.  Tho.  Wilcocks.'Ot-^  A  Summary  of  short  MeditatioBi» 
touching  certain  Points  of  the  Christian  Kcligidn,  1579. — 61  A 
Concordance  or  Table,  containing  the  principal  Words  and  Mattiw 
which  are  comprehended  in  the  New  Testament,  1690^ — 7.  Ai 
Answer  to  Banister  the  Libertine,  1581. — 8.  A  Glass  for  GhuBestBtl^ 
or  such  as  delight  in  Cards  and  Dice,  wherein  they  may  see  no|only 
the  Vanity,  but  idso  the  Vileness  of  those  Plays,  plainly  disco^Qsm 
and  overthrown  by  the  Word  of  God,  1681.— 9.  A  Form  of  I¥^iiift- 
tion  for  the  Lord's  Sapper,  1681. — 10.  The  Substance  of  thvLsfdV 
Supper  shortly  and. soundly  set  forth,  1681. — 11.  A  oomfertshlp 
Letter  for  afilicted  Consciences,  written  to  a  godly  Bfaii  gVMtty 
touched  that  way,  1684. — 12.  Three  large  Letters  for  the  Instraolln 
and  Comfort  of  such  as  are  distressed  in  Conscience,  1560^^18. 
The  Narration  of  a  fearful  Fire  at  Wobum  in  Bedfordshirey^fi66>^ 
He  also  pubHsbed  the  following  translations  into  English  s-^i.  A 
Catechism,  1678,  by  Fountein.— 2.  Three  Propositions,  IfiSOy.l^ 
Calvin. — 3.  A  Treatise  of  the  Church,  wherein  the  godly  inay 
discern  the  true  Church  from  the  Romish,  1682,  by  BertJmnd'de 
Loques.— 4.  A  Discourse  of  the  true  visible  Maiiu  of  the  CAtbofio 
Church,  1688,  by  Beza.— 6.  Two  Sermons  on  the  Sacrament  of  the 

of  the  charch.  In  tbe  year  1598,  for  making  a  motton  in  tbe  ho«e  sf 
commons  for  entailing  tbe  voccession,  he  was,  by  the  queen's  tyrannical 
order,  committed  to  the  Fleet|«»d  three  other  memben  to  tlw  T6wMr»Tor 
the  same  oirence.-^Jir8.  Chronology^  vol.  ii.  p.  417.  (SO.)  617.  («.) 

•  Ibid.  p.  617.  (4.)    f  Wood'i  AtheniB  Oson.  vrt.  i.  p.  861.     %  ML 

J*  SMYTH.  m 

Jkird'i  Snipper,  1688,  by  Beza. — 6,  Bertram  the  Priest  cdncemiiiip 
the  Body  and  Blood  of  Christ,  1582.-7.  Meditatioips  on  Psalm  ci^ 
lifi99,  by  PhiL  Morney  Lord  of  Plcssis. 

John  Smyth,  A.  M.— «TIiis  zealous  puritan  was  fellow  of 
Ghiist's  college,  Cambridge,  and  a  great  sufferer  for  non- 
confbnnity.  He  was  a  popular  preacher ;  and  hayio^,  in 
0De  of  his  sermons  before  the  university,  maintained  the 
iBilawiiilness  of  sports  on  the  Lord's  day,  he  was  summoned 
before  the  "nce-chancellor.  During  his  examination,  he 
flffeied  to  prove^  that  the  christian  sabbath  ought  to  be 
obierved  by  an  abstinence  from  all  unnecessary  worldly 
bttdness,  and  spent  in  workR  of  piety  and  charity ;  though 
ii  does  not  appear  what  punishment  was  inflicted  upon  him.* 
A  divine  of  his  name,  beneficed  atMitcham  in  Surrey,  was 
a  member  of  the  presbyterian  church  erected  at  Wands- 
worth in  tiiat  county,  in  the  year  1572 ;  but  it  is  not  easy  to 
aiceitain  whether  he  was  the  same  person.^ 
r  Mr.  Smyth  afterwards  separated  from  the  established 
ehurch,  and  embraced  the  principles  of  the  Brownists. 
la  the  year  159S,  he  was  one  of  their  leaders,  and 
OMt  into  prison,  with  many  of  his  brethren,  for  their 
Bonoonformity.  After  being  confined  more  than  eleven 
BBanths,  he  was  called  before  the  tribunal  of  the  high  com« 
miigion,  when  be  expressed  his  great  surprise^  that  in 
luaUteis  of  religion  and  conscience,  his  spiritual  judges 
ahoold  censure  men  with  imprisonment  and  other  grievances, 
laflier  than  some  more  christian  and  equitable  methods. 
In  the  course  of  his  examination,  one  of  the  commissionera 
wiring  him,  whether  he  would  go  to  churchy  he  answered^ 
that  Be.  should,  dissemble  and  play  the  hypocrite,  if  he 
dumld  do  it  to  avoid  trouble ;  for  he  thought  it  was  utterly 
vdawfid.  The  commissioner  then  said,  ^  Come  to  church 
and  obey  the  queen's  laws,  and  be  a  dissembler j  an  hypocrite^ 
«r  a  deM,  if  thou  wilt.''^  Upon  his.  refusal,  he  was  sent 
back  to  the  Marshalsea,  some  of  his  brethren  to  the  Clink^ 
aftd  others  to  the  Fleet;  where  they  were  shiit  up  in  close 
vooms,  not  being  allowed  the  commcm  liberty  of  the  prison* 
Beie  they  died  like  rotten  sheep,  some  through  extreme 
mmti  .some  from  the 'rigour  of  their  imprisonment,  and 
withers  of  infectious  distempers.  §     Though    Mr.  I^ytt^ 

.•  .^  some's  AaoaU,  vol.  Hi.  p.  341. 
f  tiS&T\  Cborcb  Hist.  b.  Ix.  p.  103. 
%  Strype's  Aooals^  toI.  iy.  p.  134.  \  tbUkp.  IMr^lSa. 


samved  these  calamities,  it  does  not  appear  at  wliat  period- 
he  was  released  from  prison. 

Previous  to  his  total  separation  from  the  clmrch  of 
England,  he  spent  nine  months  in  studying  the  ^rounds  of 
conformity  and  nonconformity;*  and  held  a  disputatioo 
with  Messrs.  Dod,  Hildersham,  and  Barhon,  on  thepoiirffof 
contcNTmity,  and  the  use  of  prescribed  forms  of  prayer.f 
He  was  preacher  in  the  city  of  Lincoln,  and  afterwaids 
beneficed  at  Gainsborough.  In  the  county  of  LinoolD,  and 
on  the  borders  of  Yorkshire  and  Nottinghamshire,  the 

?rinciples  of  the  Brownists  gained  consicbarable  gioand. 
'wo  churches  were  formed,  over  one  of  which  Bfr.  ShnjA. 
was  chosen  pastor ;  and  over  the  other  Mr.  Richard  Clinaij 
who  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  John  Robinson.t  After  endnrr 
ing  numerous  hardships  and  incessant  persecution  fran  the 
high,  commission,  they  fled  from  the  storm,  and  went  (9 
Holland.  Mr.  Smyth  and  his  followers  settled  at  Antfter- 
dam,  in  the  year  1606,  and  joined  themselves  to  the  Engliih 
church  at  that  place,  of  which  Mr.  Francis 
pastor,  and  Mr.  Henry  Ainsworth  teacher. '  Itwasnotlmit 
however,  before  a  very  serious  breach  took  place.  Tb 
subjects  of  debate,  which  gave  rise  to  this  division,  wen 
c:ertain  opinions  very  simimr  to  those  afterwards  eapooael 
by  Arminius.  Mr.  Smyth  maintained  the  doctrines  oSf  fiEce- 
will  and  universal  redemption ;  opposed  the  predtestination 
of  particular  persons  to  eternal  lire;  as  also  the  doctrine  f£ 
original  sin ;  and  maintained  that  believers  might  fidi  fiooiB 
that  grace  which  would  have  saved  them,  had  ihev  cotf 
tinned  in  it.  He  seems,  hideed,  to  have  entertained  aoioiie 
very  singular  notions :  as,  the  unlawfidness  of  leodiott  tke 
scriptures  in  public  worship;  that  no  translation  of  the 
Bible  was  the  word  of  God ;  that  singing  the  piaisei  of 
Grod  in  verses,  or  set  words,  was  without  authonty ;  .thai 
flight  in  time  of  persecution  was^  unlawful;  that  the  newr 
creature  needed  not  the  support  of  scripture  and  ordinanoep^ 
but  was  above  them ;  ana  that  perfection  was  attainable  k 
this  life.§ 

Mr.  Smyth  differed  also  from  his  brethren  on  Uie  subject 
of  baptism.  The  Brownists,  who  denied  the  dmrdi  U 
Engkmd  to  be  a  true  church,  maintained  that  her  minirtaii 
actra  without  a  divine  commission ;  and,  consequently,  th^t 

•'  Life  of  Aintwortb,  p.  36. 
-f*  Cotton's  Congrentional  Charchei,  p.  7. 

t  Prince*!  Chron.  Hist«  vol.  i.  p.  19.  SO.— Mone  and  Fui•b^l  New.Etag. 
p.  6. 
S  Life  oif  Ainf worth,  p.  S8. 

J.  SMTTH.  197 

v^ery  ordinance  administered  by  them,  was  null  and  void* 
They  were  for  some  time,  however,  guilty  of  this  incoo- 
«stency,  that  while  they  re-ordainra  their  pastors  and 
teachen,  they  did  not  repeat  their  baptism.  This  defect 
was  easily  mscovered  bv  Mr.  Smyth ;  whose  doubts  con- 
cerning the  validity  of  baptism,  as  administered  in  the 
national  church,  paved  the  way  for  fiis  rejecting  the  baptism 
of  infants  altogether.  Upon  further  consideration  of  the 
mibject,  he  was  led  to  conclude^  that  immersion  was  the 
trae  and  only  meaning  of  the  word  baptism;  and  that  the 
ordinance  should  be  administered  to  those  only  who 
anpelued  to  believe  in  Jesus  Christ.  But  the  absurdity  o£ 
Mr.  Smyth's  conduct  certainly  appeared  in  this,  that,  refus- 
i^  to  apply  to  the  German  baptists,  and  wanting  a  proper, 
administrator,  according  to  his  views  of  the  ordinance,  he 
baptized  himself;  on  which  account  he  was  stigmatized  by 
the  name  of  a  Se-bapiist.  This  is  related  as  a  tact  by  moot 
of  our  historians ;  and  one  of  them  affirms,  that  he  was 
baptized  no  less  than  three  times.*  Crosby  has,  however^ 
tazen  great  pains  to  vindicate  him  from  the  charge  of  having 
baptized  himself;  yet  it  does  not  appear  that  he  has  been 
verv  successtul.f 

Mr.  Smyth's  principles  and  conduct  deeply  involved  him 

hi  public  controversy,  and  soon  drew  upon  him  an  host  of 

opponents,   the  chief  of  whom  were  Messrs.  Robinson^ 

Ainsworth,  Johnson,  Jessop,  and  Clifton.     The  controversy 

commenced  soon  after  his  setdement  at  Amsterdam,  and  was 

carried  on  with  too  much   asperity  by  both   parties.^ 

Many  writers  observe,  that  soon  after  this  unhappy  con- 

tio?ersy  broke  out,  Mr.  Smjrth  and  his  followers  removed 

fixHn  Amsterdam,  and  settled  at  Leyden ;  whereas  it  is 

extremely  obvious,  from  the  testimony  of  persons  who  lived 

ia  those  times,  and  even  in  those  places,  that  both  he  and 

his  people  continued  at  Amsterdam  till  the  day  of  his  death,§ 

^ch  happened  about  the  close  of  the  year  1610.    Tte 

year  following  appeared, ''  A  Declaration  of  the  Faith  of  the 

fiaglish  People  remaining  at  Amsterdam,  in  Holland,'' 

being  the  remainder  of  Mr.  Smyth's  company :   with  an 

appendix,  giving  some  account  of  bis  sickness  and  death. 

•  Piget'g  Heresiography,  p.  66.— -Ncars  Puritans,  vol.  il.  p.  46.— Life 
^'  AinBworth,  p.  38— 42.— Clark's  Lives  annexed  to  Marty rologie,  p.  56. 
^  Crosby's  Hist,  of  Baptists,  vol.  i.p.  95—98. 
t  Ufe  of  Aioiwortb,  p.  42. 
)Cotton*i  Congregational  Churches,  p.  7.*Prioce*8  Chron.  Hist.  yo\,  u 


A  copy  of  fliis  declaration  is  stiU  preserved.*  Soon  aifiev 
his  death,  his  followers  returned  to  England ;  and,  as  it  iff 
generally  supposed,  they  were  the  first  of  those  now  called 
general  baptists  in  this  country.  Mr.  Smyth  possessed  good 
abilities,  was  a  learned  man,  and  an  able  preacher,  but  he 
often  changed  his  opinions,  even  to  the  very  close  of  life« 
This,  however,  was  undoubtedly  from  conviction,  as  he 
himself  declared.  '^  To  change  a  false  religion,*'  says  h^ 
<<  is  commendable,  and  not  evil ;  and  to  tall  from  the  pro* 
fession  of  Puritanism  to  Brownism,  and  from  Brownism  to 
true  Christian  baptism,  is  not  evil  or  reprovable  in  itself 
except  it  be  proved  that  we  fall  from  true  religion.*'f 

Mr.  Smyth  and  his  company  were  certainly  very  much 
reproached  by  their  enemies.  This,  as  well  as  their  drfenoe^ 
we  have  from  his  own  pen.  "  We,"  says  he,  **  disclaim 
the  errors  commonlv,  but  most  slanderously  imputed  onto 
us.  We  are,  indeed,  traduced  by  the  world  as  atheists,  by 
denying  the  Old  Testament  and  the  Lord's  day ;  as  tiaiton 
to  magistrates,  in  denying  magistracy ;  and  as  heretics^  in 
denying  the  humanity  of  Christ.  Be  it  known,  therefore, 
to  all  men ;  first,  that  we  deny  not  the  scriptures  of  the  Ola 
Testament,  but,  with  the  apostle,  acknowledge  them  to  be 
inspired  of  Grod;  aiM  that  we  have  a  sure  word  of  the 
prophets  whereunto  we  ought  to  attend  as  to  a  light  shinii^ 
in  a  dark  place;  and  that  whatsoever  was  written  aforetinw 
was  written  for  our  instruction,  that  we,  through  patience 
and  comfort  of  the  scriptures,  might  have  hope. — Secondly, 
we  acknowledge,  that,  according  to  the  precaient  of  Christ's 
disciples  and  the  primitive  churches,  the  saints  ought,  ttpon 
the  first  day  of  the  week,  which  is  called  the  Lord's  aay^ 
to  assemble  together  to  pray,  prophesy,  praise  God,  bceak 
bread,  and  pertbrm  other  parts  of  spiritual  communion.  fi>r 
the  worship  of  God,  their  own  mutual  edification,  and  the 

? reservation  of  true  religion  and  piety  in  the  churchd-^ 
^hirdly,  concerning  magistrates,  we  acknowledge  them  to 
be  the  ordinance  of  the  Lord ;  that  every  soul  ouffht  to  be 
subject  unto  them ;  that  they  are  the  ministers  or  Grod  for 
our  good;  that  we  ought  to  pray  for  them  that  are  in 
authority,  and  not  speak  evil  of  them,  nor  despise  govern*- 
ment,  but  pay  tribute,  custom,  &c. — Finally,  concerning 
the  fiesh  of  Christ,  we  do  believe  that  Christ  is  the  seed  m 
Abraham,  Isaac,  and  Jacob,  and  of  David,  according  te  the 
prophecies  of  the  scriptures ;  and  that  he  is  the  son  w  Maiy 

*  Crosby's  Baptists,  vol.  i.  aod  ii.  AppcD. 

f  Smyth's  Character  of  the  Beast,  Pref.    Edit.  1610. 

CUFTON.  199 

Ub  modiery  made  of  her  subBtance,  the  Hol^  Ghost  over- 
shadbwing  her :  also  that  Christ  person  in  two  distinct 
natures,  me  Godhead  and  manhood;  and  we  detest  the 
contraiy  errors."* 

>  His  Works. — 1.  Parallels  and  Censures,  1609.-— 2.  The  Character 
of  the  Beast:  or,  the  false  Constitution  of  the  Church,  (discovered  in 
certain  Passag^es  betwixt  Mr.  R.  Clifton  and  John  Smyth,  concerning 
tme  Cbn^tian  Baptism  of  New  Creatures,  or  new-bom  Babes  ia 
Christ,  and  false  Baptism  of  Infants  born  after  the  Flesh,  1610. — 
9.  IKIfereiiees  of  the  Churches  of  the  Separation. — 1.  A  Dialogue  oF 
Baptism.-*^  A  Reply  to  Mr.  Clifton's  Christian  Plea. 

-  Richard  Clifton  was  a  person  of  a  grave  deportment, 
ami  a  successful  preacher,  but  severely  persecuted  for  non- 
conlbnnitjr.f  He  was  pastor  to  one  of  the  Brownist  churches 
in  the.  north  of  England,  and  by  his  ministerial  labours, 
many  souls  were  converted  to  Christ  The  celebrated  Mr.. 
John  Robinson  was  a  meml)er  of  his  church,  and  afterwards 
Us  socoessor  in  the  pastoral  office.}  These  worthy  persons 
endnred  most  cruel  persecution,  and  for  a  long  time  were 
^acoeedin^y  harassed  by  the  high  commission,  and  were  at 
length  dnven  out  of  the  kingdom.  About  the  year  1606, 
ICr.  Clifton  remov^  to  Holland,  and  settled  at  Amsterdam  ;^ 
where  he  became  teacher  to  the  church  of  which  Mr. 
Fxancis  Johnson  was  pastor.  He  carried  his  views  (tf  separa- 
fion  much  fiulher  than  Mr.  Robinson,  and  imbibed  many 
of  the  opinions  of  Mr.  John  Smyth ;  but  it  appears  that  he 
was.  afterwards  reclaimed  from  so  rigid  a  separation.||  He 
is  denominated  the  principal  scribe  among  the  separatists, 
and  is  said  to  have  writt^i  most  to  the  purpose  in 
defence  o£  separation.!  As  his  writings  were  published 
during  his  exile  in  a  foreign  land,  we  have  not  been  able  to 
odlect  the  title  of  more  than  one  of  his  pieces ;  which  was, 
^  A  Hea  for  Infants  and  elder  People  concerning  thek 
Baptism ;  or,  a  Process  of  the  Passages  between  M.  John 
Smyth  and  Richard  Clifton,*'  1610.  Having  renounced  the 
firinciples  of  rigid  separation,  he  wrote,  as  in  the  work  jost 
mentioned,  with  great  warmth  against  Mr.  Smyth.  He  is 
said  to  have  been  one  of  Mr.  Smyth's  most  violent  adver* 

•  8ayth*s  Character  of  the  Beast,  Pref . 

-f-  Cotton's  Congregational  Churches,  p.  7. 

t  Moneand  Parish's  New  Eng.  p.  6.         §  Life  of  Ainsworth,  p.  ST. 

I  Clark's  Lives  annexed  to  Martyr,  p.  56. 

1  Paget's  Arrow  against  Separation,  p.  8. 


•aries.*    Mr.  Clifton  ivas  probably  living  when  ihe  alxmf 
piece  was  puUisbed ;  but  when  he  died  we  cannot  aaoartaiik 

Nicolas  Rush  was  fellow  of  Christ's  college,  Cam- 
bridge,  and  one  of  the  preachers  to  the  university,  but 

Srsecuted  lor  his  noncontbrmity.  In  his  sermon  at  St 
ary's  church,  September  10,  1609,  it  is  said  that  he 
doliyered  divers  opinions  contrary  to  the  religion  of  the 
established  church ;  for  which  he  was  convened  before  the 
vice-chancellor.  Dr.  Jegon,  and  the  heads  of  houses,  and 
required  to  deliver  up  a  copy  of  his  sermon.  Having  com- 
plied with  their  demands,  certain  offensive  opinions  weie 
extracted  from  his  sermon,  for  which  he  was  immediiiiely 
suspended  from  preaching,  and  enjoined  to  make  a  puUicf 
recantation  from  the  pulpit  of  the  above  church.  This 
degrading  recantation,  containing  an  account  of  his  oflSsosite 
crimes,  was  the  following : 

^'  Whereas  many  christian  auditors,  wis^  tS9^^7  '^' 
*^  religious,  have  been  offended  with  many  things  which  I 
^^  not  long  since  uttered  in  a  sermon  in  this  putce,  justly 
^'  reprehending  not  only  my  great  indiscretion,  presumptioto, 
<<  uncharitableness,  rash  and  bold  censuring,  but  also  some 
^<  strange  and  erroneous  opinions  I  then  was  taken  to 
^^  deliver;  I  am  now  come  to  the  same  public  place  (after 
^<  sundry  conferences  had  with  divers  grave  and  teamed 
'<  divines  of  this  university)  to  acknowledge  my  £ralt  and 
^^  make  satisfaction. 

«  And,  first,  in  my  prayer,  where  I  used  very  irreverent 
<<  and  reproachful  speech  against  the  clergy,  or  aome  of 
^^  them,  terming  them  gorbellied  clergy ;  and  abo  some 
<<  ofiensive  speeches,  which  might  be  ts^en  to  touch  avtho- 
^^  rity,  or  some  attending  at  court,  calling  them  devilish 
^^  parasites,  in  flattering  and  attributing  overmuch  to  some 
^'  u  higher  place :  upon  better  advice,  I  now  admowledge 
<<  niy  presumptuous  boldness  therein,  {•'urther,  in  tluit  1 
*^  did  then  deliver  three  opinions  in  these  words,  via.  that 
<<  St.  IPaul  and  Moses  did  faulty  and  err  in  their  desires^  it 
^^  coming  from  a  scourge  and  force  of  a  pa^ion  too  eaniest 
^'  and  hot,  and  not  sufficiently  bounded  with  the  true  limiti 
^'  of  pure  charity.  And  also  even  our  Saviour  Chris's 
<^  prayer  (Father  if  thou  wilt,  let  this  cup  pass  from  mcv  y^ 
^^  not  my  will,  but  thy  will  be  done,)  came  from  nature  QBiIy^ 

«  Crosby's  Baptists, vol.  i.  p.  99. 

RUSH.  aoi 

'^  Urithmit  reason  attending,  his  nnderstandin^  all  the  while 
^^  being  otherwise  busied,  and  his  reasonable  deliberation 

"^  not  ccmcurring  therewith ;  for  it  is  not  necessary  that  the 
^^  reascMiable  mind  should  always  concur  with  the  tongue^ 
^<  men  speaking  in  their  sleep,  and  parrots  also  learning  that 
<<  fecuhy.  And  that  his  mouth,  with  all  the  instruments  of 
^<  speech,  were  writhed  as  it  were,  and  wrested  to  utter  th^ 
^  same,  and  substance  of  his  natural  instinct  and  inclination. 
^  And  farther,  that  our  Saviour  Christ's  prayer,  though  it 
**  were  uttered  by  a  person  reasonable,  yet  it  was  nothing 
^  in  substance  but  a  nature  desired  prayer :  it  bein^ 
^<  directly  and  originally  the  proper  cause  of  it.    And 

'  *^  fiorther,  that  the  words  of  Christ  were  as  the  words  of  a 
^^  man  in  sleep.  Whereas  in  my  confutation  of  Mr.  Beza's 
^  judgment,  (being  that  the  prayer  of  Christ  came  from  a 
^^  leasooable  will^)  I  uttered  these  words  in  answer :  <  As  I 
*^  take  it,  it  cannot  stand ;  for  how  could  he,  without  tedious 
^^and  untimely  troubling^ and  obtruding  his  Father's  ears, 
^^  (as  I  may  so  speak,)  pray  that  the  cup  should  pass  from 
^  him.' 

'  **^I  now,  upon  better  deliberation,  do,  with  grief  and 
^Borrow  of  heart,  confess  before  Grod  and  his  angels,  and 
^  this  whole  assembly,  that  1  have  greatly  erred  in  my 
<<  said  opinions  publicly  delivered,  and  especially  touching 
^  the  points  about  the  most  holy,  earnest,  meritorious,  and 
**  heavienly  prayer  of  our  Saviour  in  that  bitter  agony  sufr 
*'  feied  for  our  sins ;  wherein  my  said  speeches  were  not  onljt 
<<  errcmeous,  rash,  and  presumptuous,  but  also  such  as  might 
<<  be  taken  to  be  dishonourable  to  our  Saviour,  impious  aind 
^  profane,  giving  just  scandal  both  to  such  as  then  heard 
^^  me,  and  those  to  whom  the  report  hath  come.  Where^ 
^  fore  I  humbly  beseech,  first.  Almighty  God,  and  next 
^  you  all  whom  I  have  offended,  to  forgive  me,  promising^ . 
<<  by  God's  grace,  to  be  more  vigilant  and  circumspect 
^^  hereafter  in  what  I  shall  publidy  utterj  either  in  this 
^<  or  any  other  place :  which,  that  I  may  the  better  perform, 
<<  I  humbly  desire  you  to  pray  for  me,  and  now  to  joui  with 
^  me  in  that  most  absolute  form  of  prayer  which  our 
^  Srtviomr  Christ  himself  hath  taught  us.  ' 

Bir.  Rush  absolutely  refused  to  maSe  this  degrading 
tecantation;  for  which,  February  8,  1610,  he  was  expelled 
ftom  the  university  ;•  and  this  is  all  that  we  know  of  nim. 

•  Baker*8  MS.  CoUec.  vol.  f  i.  p.  189, 190. 


Mr.  Lancaster  was  born  of  good  family,  and  for  some 
lime  was  fellow  of  Kins^s  college,  Cambridge,  where  lie 
mq^  probaUy  received  Sis  education.  He  was  a  mw  of 
great  hnmiUt^,  fidth,  and  self-denial,  and  an  ezodleat 
scholar,  especially  in  Latin.  .  The  famous  Qr.  Collins  used 
to  say,  <^  he  delivered  his  public  lectures  in  as  pure  Latin 
as  TuUv,  having  no  other  notes  than  what  he  wrote  on  the 
nails  of  his  fingers."  With  his  great  learning,  and  otiiei 
ornamental  accomplishments,  his  preaching  was  plain,  and 
easy  to  be  understood ;  and  he  was  ccmtent  to  live  among 
plain  people,  with  a  living  of  less  than  forty  pounds  a  year, 
lie  was  teneficed  at  some  place  near  Bonbuiy,  in  Oz£nd- 
^hire ;  but,  about  the  year  1610,  was  suspended  both  fiom 
his  oflice  and  benefice,  by  the  tyrannical  oppression  of 
Archbishop  Bancroft.  Mr.  Clark  gives  the  foUowii^ 
account  of  this  excellent  divine :  <<  When  I  was  young,^ 
aays  he,  ^  I  knew  Mr.  Lancaster.  He  was  a  little  man,  but 
eminent,  as  for  other  things,  so  especially  for  living  by 
fiiith.  -  His  charge  was  great,  and  his  means  smaH.  When 
his  wife  was  abou^t  to  send  her  servant-maid  to  buy  provi* 
aion  at  Banbury  market,  she  would  many  times  come  to 
him,  and  tell  him  she  had  no  money ;  his  usual  answer  wai^ 
Send  your  maidL,  and  God  vritt  provide.  And  though  she 
■ent  her  maid  without  numey,  sne  never  returned  empty; 
fox  one  or  other,  who  knew  her  to  be  Mr.  Lancaster's  nuud, 
would  give  her  money,  by  which  their  present  wants  mm 

Thomas  Peacock,  B.  D. — This  learned  and  pious  divine 
was  bom  in  Cheshire,  and  educated  most  probably  in 
Brazen-nose  college,  Oxford,  where  he  was  chdsen  fellow. 
He  was  the  leanied  tutor,  the  familiar  friend,  and  the 
roiritual  father  to  the  famous  Mr.  Robert  Bolton,  <^ 
oroughton  in  Northamptonshire,  who,  at  his  deaUi,  Im  an 
account  of  him  in  manuscript,  which  was  intended  for  the 
use  of  the  public,  and  afterwards  published  by  his  friend 
Mr.  fldward  Bagshawe.  Thence  tbe  following  singular 
narrative  of  Mr.  Peacock  is  collected ;  and  it  contains  « 
fNretty  copious  abstract  (^  the  whole.  As  the  piece  is 
^tten  throughout  nearly  in  the  form  of  a  dialogue,  the 
s^me;  method  is  observed  in  the  abstract,  with  nf  Uttk 
alteration  as  possible. 

*  Clark's  Livef  aaoezed  to  lHartjr.  p.  318>  S19» 


Mr.  Peacock  was  a  very  godly  minister  of  Cfaiiat,  and  a 
rare  example  of,  humility  and  holiness  in  the  religious 
edncation  of  his  scholars,  and  in  his  extraordinary  conc^n^ 
for  both  the  bodies  and  souls  of  poor  distressed  christians. 
Notwithstanding  his  eminent  grace  and  excellent  piety^ 
he  endured,  in  his  last  sickness,  the  most  remarkable  spir 
ritaal  conflict.  He  was  brought  even  to  the  suburbs  of 
hell,  and  thence  plucked  as  a  brand  from  the  fire.  The 
taemy  of  his  peace  was  permitted  to  come  upon  him  as  an 
iimed  man ;  but  God  restored  comfort  to  his  dejected  soul^ 
bound  up  his  broken  spirit,  and  poured  the  precious  balm 
of  Qilead  into  his  wounded  and  bleeding  conscience.  For 
nearly  three  weeks  after  the  commencement  of  his  affliction^ 
his  time  was  almost  wholly  employed  in  serious  deyotion 
and.  holy^  c<m verse  with  God,  and  he  was  full  of  most 
heavenly  consolations.  He  said  his  hope  was  firmlj 
fixed  on  the  rock  Christ  Jesus.  He  hoped  the  Lord 
would  give  him  a  place  among  his  saints,  though  it  were 
in  the  lowest  room.  He  thaiS^ed  God,  that  he  had  no 
trouble  of  conscience;  and  that  the  Lord  did  not  suffer 
Satan  to  vex  him.  But  afterwards  calling  to  some  of  his 
friends,  he  addressed  them  as  follows : 

Peacock.  I  thought  I  had  been  in  a  good  state,  but 
I  see  it  now  far  otherwise.  My  conscience  lays  these  things 
i^inst  me.  I  brought  up  my  scholars  in  gluttony,  letting 
them  eat  their  fill  of  meat  when  they  lived  with  me.  While 
I  was  talking,  they  did  undo  themselves.  I  did  unad- 
visedly expound  places  of  scripture  at  the  table ;  and  for 
these  things  I  now  feel  a  hell  in  my  conscience.  I  have 
procured  my  own  death,  by  often  eating  like  a  beast. 

Friend.  How  do  you  do  ? 

P.  Sin,  sin^  sin! 

F.  What  doth  any  lie  on  your  conscience  ? 
1*  P.  Yea,  my  inconsiderateness :  I  did  cut  too  much  meat 
to  breakfast.  But  Grod  be  thanked  there  is  no  greater.  Am 
we  must  not  extenuate,  so  neither  must  we  too  much  aggra- 
vate our  sin.  Let  drunkards  and  gluttons  have  those 
terrible  horrors.  I  thank  God,  I  never  continued  in  any 
known  sin  against  my  conscience. — (He  afterwards  with 
bitterness  exdaimed,)  A  damnable  wretch.  Oh,  how  woeful 
and  miserable  is  my  state,  that  I  must  converse  with  hell- 
hounds. The  Lord  hath  cursed  me:  the  event  sheweth  it 
I  have  no  grace.  I  was  a  foolish,  vain-glorious  hypocrite. 
It  is  a^nst  the  course  of  God's  proceeding  to  save  me* 
He  hath  otherwise  decreed :  he  cannot. 


F.  Pat  your  trust  in  God. 

P.  I  cannot ;  no  more  than  a  hone. 

F.  Do  you  desire  to  believe  ? 

P.  No  more  than  a  post,  or  an  horse-shoe.  I  hsfe  19 
more  sense  of  grace  than  these  curtains;  than  a  gooK; 
thah  a  block. 

F.  Let  the  testimony  of  your  life  past  comfoit  ymiy 
especially  in  the  calling  of  a  tutor. 

P.  I  did  the  business  there(^  negligently.  When  I 
handled  hard  authors,  I  came  often  unprepared,  and  read 

F.  Be  of  good  courage,  and  the  Lord  will  comfiMrt  yowr 

P.  It  is  ended :  there  is  no  such  matter. 

F.  Why  do  you  think  so?    You  shall  see  the  ercnt. 
God  will  yet  bring  it  to  pass. 

P.  Tush,  tush,  trifles. 

F.  What  do  you  think  of  your  former  doctrine? 

P.  Very  good. 

F.  Let  it  now  comfort  yon. 

P.  It  cannot 

F.  You  desire  it  could.  There  is  nothing  impoariUs 
with  God,  which  stands  with  his  decree. 

P.  Oh  i  Oh !  miserable  and  woeful.  The  burden  of 
my  sin  lieth  heavy  upon  me.  I  doubt  it  will  break  my 

F.  Behold  your  comforts. 

P.  That  is  nothing  to  me.  I  prav  you  hdd  your  peaces 
You  vex  me.    Your  words  are  as  daggers  in  my  heart 

F.  Remember,  sir,  the  good  counsek  you  have  given  us. 

P.  Those  were  ordinary. 

F.  You  may  see  many  others^  in  the  like  estate.  See 

P.  Not  such  as  mine.  Why  do  you  speak  to  me  of 

F.  Good  sir,- endeavour  to  settle  your  mind. 

P.   Yes,  to  play  with  hell-hounds. 

F.  Will  you  pray. 

P.  I  cannot. 

F.  You  were  wont  heretofore. 

P.  Yes,  by  a  custom  and  vain-glory. 

F.  Suffer  us  to  pray  for  you.  , 

P.  Take  not  the  name  of  Grod  in  vain,  by  praying  br 

F.  Suffer  us  to  pray  for  ourselves. 


P.  Look  to  it;  you  would  now  shew  vour  faculty  in 
pvaying.— ^Afier  prayer  was  ended^  he  said,  do  not  trouble 
yourselves  in  yain.) 

F.  Let  not  the  devil  delude  you,  abusing  your  mind  and 
toiij^e.    I  know  you  speak  not  these  wonk. 

P.  I  wonder  that  intelligent  scholars  should  speak  thus. 

F.  We  are  persuaded  you  are  in  as  good  a  state  as 

P.  Look  how  it  is  with  yourselves,  in  truth. 

F.  How  can  you  discern  this  change  by  the  absence  of 
God,  if  you  never  enjoyed  his  presence  ?  ^ 

Pk   I  thought  I  had  it  once;   but  now  I  see  it  is  far 
otherwise.    Oh,  me !  Wretch  that  I  am ! 
f    F.  Be  of  good  comfort 

P.  I  cannot.    I  hav#  no  more  grace  than  a  back-stock,  . 

F.  Do  you  desire  grace  ? 

P.  I  cannot.    I  can  as  well  leap  over  the  church* 

F.  Would  you  not  be  in  heaven  ? 

P.  I  would  not. 

F.  The  devil  himself  would  if  he  could.  You  have 
the  testimony  of  faith :  you  love  the  brethren. 

P.  I  do  not. 

F.  Do  you  not  love  us  ? 
.    P.  No. 

F.  What  is  it  that  most  troubles  you  ? 

P.  I  took  too  much  upon  me  foolishly.  I  had  got  a 
little  logic  and  Greek ;  and,  meanly  instructed  in  the  ruleSi 
l  set  myself  to  read  to  scholars ;  and  afterwards  undertook 
other  business  which  drew  my  attenUon  from  them.  I 
have  destroyed  a  thousand  souls. 

F.  You  inay  see  the  falsehood  of  him  that  suggesteth 
-this  unto  you.  You  never  had  a  thousand.  The  good 
efect  of  your  pains  appears  in  many 'of  your  scholars. 

P.  They  were  of  themselves  capable. 
*.  F.  Name  one  in  whom  they  do  not  appear. 
*    P.  There  is  one,  (pointing  at  a  master  of  arts.) 

F.  I  thank  God,  that  I  ever  came  to  you. 

P.  It  is  not  so.    I  did  foolbhly. 
.  F.  You  confess  yoii  did  foolishly;,  therefore^  not  of 
iioalice.    Consider  what  would  have  become  of  them^  if  ypu 
tind  not  taken  them. 
*  P-  Better,  far  better. 

F.  All  the  college  know  the  contrary.  .. 

f.  But  I  feel  it 

F.  it  is  iidse :  believe  not  the  devil. 


P.  It » too  true. 

F.  When  will  yon  make  amends?  God  will  giTC  yon 
yonr  desire. 

P.  Never. 

F.  Are  you  sorry  that  he  will  not  ? 

P.  No.    There  is  no  ^race  in  my  heart :  it  is  dead.  . 

F.  Whom  Grod  ioveth  once,  he  loveth  to  the  end. 

P.  But  he  never  did  love  me.  I  deceived  myself  by  t 
certain  vain-glory. 

F.  You  could  say  the  Lord's  prayer,  and,  tlieiefoie,'caH 
Um  Father. 

P.  That  I  did  hypocritically. 

F.  You  must  trust  in  the  Lord. 

P.  I  cannot:  I  cannot.  He  will  not  have  me.saved.  Hii 
sentence  is  passed. 

F.  Do  you  desire  to  be  saved  ? 

P.  No. 

F.  Do  you  desire  to  desire  ? 

P.  No. 

F.  Would  you  be  damned  ? 

P.  No. 

F.  Look  at  the  sins  of  other  men,  as  great  as  ycmis ;  ttid 
yet  they  are  saved. 

P.  They  are  good  and  godly.  They  have  found  grace: 
here  is  the  difference.     Bfy  sins  are  horrible. 

F.  I  see  now  how  it  is.  You  strictly  look  back  to  your 
ewn  actions  for  ydur  justification,  and  will  have  mme  of 
God's  mercy ;  and  now  he  hath  justly  met  with  you.  Your 
judgment  is  just.  Do  you  hope  to  be  justified  by  your  own 
merits  ? 

P,  I  fear  to  be  danmed  for  my  sins.^  Oh!  if  you  did 
but  feel  my  grief  only  erne  hour,  you  would  have  ooii»* 

F.  If  you  were  in  the  fire,  you  would  wish  to  get  ouL 

P.  I  had  rather  be  in  the  fire  than  here.  I  took  many 
things  upon  me  too  proudly,  and,  being  neglu^nt,  f&[* 
formed  nothing.  Cursed  be  the  day  when  I  took  schwis. 
If  I  had  not  taken  them,  I  had  been  happy.  I  was  aa 
hypocrite,  and  now  there  is  no  hope  of  comfort  for  me  in 
God's  presence. 

F.  W  hat  would  you  counsel  me  to  do  ? 

P.  Abide  within  the  bounds  of  your  caUing;  Take  ^not 
too  much  upon  you,  and  the  Lord  will  bless  yon. 

F.  Will  it  avail  me  to  hear  sermons  ? 

P.  Yes,  if  you  mean  to  be  saved. 

PEACOCK.  '  9Xn 

F.  What  good  shall  I  reap  thence  ? 
P.  Nothing  from  bailee  hearing.  . 

F.  You  know  the  poor  in  spirit  are  blessed. 

P.  I  am  not  such. 

F.  You  see  you  are  empty  of  aU  good :  yon  feel  your 

P.  I  may  you,  ^o  your  way.  (He  turned  his  head 
aside,  and  stopped  his  ears.) 

F.  What  though  you  have  done  but  little  good ;  yet,  if 
joa  have  onl^  given  a  cup  of  cold  water,  in  Sie  name  of  a 
disciple,  it  will  be  accepted. 

P.  Oh!  if  God— 

F.  He  will  give  you  grace. 

P.  I  doubt  it.  Oh  God,  give  me  a  spark  of  grace,  aaid 
enlarge  my  heart  to  apprehend  it. 

P.  Oh,  Mr.  Dod !  I  have  no  grace. 

Dod.  I  will  not  believe  every  one  who  saith  bc^  btth 
grace,  nor  every  one  who  saith  he  hath  none.  A  man  must 
not  always  be  led  by  sense.  You  forgive  yoUi?  enemies  and 
love  them,  aid  would  do  them  no  hurt,  if  you  coold. 

P.  Yes. 

D.  Then  your  sins  are  forgiven :  an  hypocrite  may  ^ve 
alms  and  fast,  but  this  he  cannot  do.  ^ 

P.  That  is  a  small  matter. 

D.  I  think  it  to  be  a  great  one ;  yea,  such  a  one  as  I  had 
need  to  pray  for.  That  is  put  for  a  reason  in  'the  Lord's 
player;  and  if  Christ  had  thought  of  any  more  forcible^ 
he  would  have  given  it. 

P.  Sir,  that  is  true,  in  those  who  are  elected. 

D.  Do  not  you  put  an  exception  where  Grod  hath  put 
none.    I  came  hither  ixi  cheiri^  you;  and  you  love  your 

•  P.  I  cannot 
D.  Would  yqu  rather  have  bad  or  good  men  to  be  with 


P.  Good. 

D.  Yet  you  say  you  do  not  love  them.  There  is  oo 
fellowship  between  light  and  darkness.  Doth  your  sick* 
uess  or  your  sin  most  trouble  you  ?  And  would  you  hav» 
grace,  rather  than  health  ? 

P.  Grace :  but  it  cannot  be. 

D.  Do  you  desire  to  be  saved  ? 

P.  Infinitely!  Oh!  if  God  would  give  me  a  drop.  But 
I  feel  horror. 

I).  Do  noib  you  search  into  the  secrets  of  Grod  ? 


P.  It  is  too  true  and  manifest. 

D.  Sir,  do  nqi  always  be  digging  at  your  sins.  A  wound 
continually  rubbed  cannot  be  cured.  Suffer  the  plaster  of 
the  word  of  God  to  rest  upon  it,  that  it  may  be  healed. 

P.  Oh,  if  I  had!  Oh,  if  it  would  pleaseGod!  I  had 
rather  than  any  thing  in  this  or  three  thousand  worlds. 

D.  Who  now  giveth  this  desire  unto  you  ?  Ofoursdns 
we  cannot  think  a  good  thought.  God  giveth  both  the  will 
and  the  deed.    A  desire  is  a  sure  token. 

P.  But  I  cannot  truly  desire.  Oh,  if  he  would  etdaige 
my  heart. 

D.  Cast  your  burden  upon  the  Lord. 

P.  He  hath  rejected  me. 

D.  Who  nmde  you  his  counsellor  ?  Secret  things  bekmg 
to  God,  but  things  revealed  to  us:  Will  you  make 
almanacs  ? 

P.  He  doth  manifest  it.  Oh,  mine  abominable  bringing 
op  of  youth ! — (He  groaned  most  bitterly.) 

D.  JBchold  we  make  your  state  our  own^— we  have  pait 
in  your  sorrow.    Who  hath  thus  disposed  our  heaits  ? 

P.  God. 

D.  And  do  you  think  that  he  who  causeth  us  to  love  yon 
doth  not  love  you  himself? 

P.  I  fear  I  did  too  much  glory  in  matters  of  ^vate 
service  of  God. 

D.  The  devil  hath  now  winnowed  you,  and  yon  think  all 
is  gone  out;  but  God  holdeth  what  is  his.  When  aft 
earthly  father  setteth  his  son  on  work,  he  must  do  it  in  hit 
own  strength :  but  the  Lord  setteth  on  work,  and  givdh 

P.  Oh^  my  heart  is  miserable. 

D.  What  then  ?  A  father  loveth  his  son  as  well  whea 
he  is  sleeping  as  when  he  is  waking.  Sir,  I  have  knows 
you  heretofore^  and  although,  if  I  were  in  your  caae^  I  nugU 
do  as  you  do;  yet  I  should  remain  the  servant  of  God,  ai. 
you  certainly  do.  If  Jacob  could  say  of  Esau,  I  have  seen 
thy  face  as  though  I  had  seen  the  face  of  God;  how  muck 
more  should  you  think  so  of  the  children  erf*  God  who  coot 
to  you. 

P.  I  think  God  hath  begun  to  give  me  ease. 

D.  He  will  in  his  good  time. 

P.  Grod  grant  it. 

D.  AKhou^  we  depart  from  our  friend  in  the  way,  wa 
shall  meet  at  the  end. 
.  After  Mr.  Dod  was  departed,  he  leoeived  a  ktterftoBUi 


■ffectionate  friend  Mr.  Bolton,  in  which  he  thus  addressed 
him : — ''  I  heard,  I  know  not  how,.  Uiat  my  dear  christian 
nriend  Mr.  Feacock  is  in  great  distress,  which  hath  much 
grieved  and  afflicted  my  heart,  and  wrung  from  me  many 
Qitter  tears.  If  his  extremities  be  such^  h^  temptations  are 
likely  to  be  very  sore.  Tell  him  from  me,  as  froni  one  who 
did. ever  with  dearest  intimacy  know  and  converse  with  him, 
t&at  I  can  assure  him  in  the  word  of  life  and  truth,  from  a 
most  holy  and  just  Grod,  whose  minister  I  am,  that  he  is 
undoubtedly  one  of  his  saints,  designed  for  inunortality, 
and  the  endless  joys  of  another  world." 

Upon  the  reading  of  Mr.  Bolton's  letter,  at  those  words, 
<<  I  can  assure  him,?  he  said,  ''  Oh,  take  heed,  take  heed.r 
I  did  deceive  myself:  now  God  hath  revealed  more.  My 
heiirt  is  broken.  "  Then,"  observed  one  of  his  friends, 
"  the  promise  is  yours."  "  Oh,"  said  he,  "  I  love  your 
company,  for  the  grace  that  is  in  you."  He  then  cried  to 
fhe  Lord,  saying,  ^^  Oh  God,  reconcile  me  unto  thee,  that 
I  may  taste  one  dbram  of  thy  grace,  by  which  my  miserable 
wml  may  receive  comfort.  Satan  hath  borne  nie  in  hand, 
and  hatn  deluded  me."  A  person  afterwards  coming  to 
him,  and  asking  him  how  he  did,  he  replied,  <^  My  mind 
was  grievously .  puzzled  with  sundry  distractions  in  the 
night;  but  now,  I  thank  God,  I  feel  my  burden  more  light; 
Lord,  grant  me  the  comfort  of  thy  deliverance,  and  for^ve 
me  my  foolishness,  that  I  may  praise  thy  name."  An  mti- 
miate  fricadd  taking  his  final  leave  of  him,  and  asking  his 
ooonsel,  he  said,  '^  Look  to  your  calling,  that  it  be  as  well 
inward  as  outward;"  and  he  urged  others  to  be  diligent  in 
prpinotin^  God's  glory.  Being  asked  how  he  did,  he  said, 
^  Oh  1  ifit  woulcf  please  God  mat  I  might  live  with  him :" 
.then^  added,  <<  I  have  been  thinking  of  arguments  by  which 
i. might  plead  my  cause  with  God,  and  I  have  found  them. 
But  what  if  dyifig  thus  I  should  be  found  an  apostate! 
Ttmljj'*^  said  he,  ^<  my  heart  and  soul  have  been  far  led, 
apd  deeply  troubled  with  temptations  and  strifes  of  con- 
fdence ;  but,  I  thank  God,  they  are  in  a  good  measure 
cased :  wherefore  I  desire  that  I  may  not  be  branded  as  a 

Afterwards,  when  he  was  asked  what  he  thought  of  l^is 
finrmer  doctrine,  he  said,  <^  It  is  most  true.  In  it  I  have 
Uyed,  and  in  it  I  will  die :  I  have  not  dealt  hypocritical^ 
in  if  Being  asked  whether  he  was  willing  to  die,  he  said, 
^1  truly  submit  to  the  will  of  God."  When  it  was 
jaqj^ipijyfhtOKi  he  forgave  all  offences,  he  replied,  ^<  Yes, 


^aad  desire  that  mine  may  be  foKjgyren.  I  heutiljr  \ 
bmnbly  ask  forgiTenesB."  When  it  was  intimated  tint  his 
convenation  had  been  unblameable,  he  said,  ^  No ;  I  dait 
not  affirm  it.  I  trust  in  nothing  but  in  the  name  of  Jesai 
Christ;  yet  I  would  not  be  pressed  io  a  paiticular  ■wnrancs 
in  this  grievous  agony.  Indeed/'  said  he,  ^*  I  htm  beea 
bold  to  argue  thus  with  God :  if  he  hath  shewed  raenyto 
such  and  such,  why  should  not  I  likewise  have  hope.  The 
Lord  is  merciful  tome,  and  I  have  cause  of  rejiHcing.** 

Dr.  Airay  coming  to  see  him,  he  ccmipbdned  or  Ids  sia 
and  misery ;  and  when  the  doctor  signified  that  lie  looked 
SMt  fof  any  thin^  in  himself  to  recommend  him  to  God)  he 
said,  <<  JNfo,  nothing.''  To  a  number  oi  joatig  geMaatai 
who  came  to  see  him,  he  said,  <<  Live  in  the  fear  of  God^ 
that  jcia  may  die  in  his  favour.  Otherwise  die  ox  and  ths 
ass  wiU  condemn  you.  I  spent  my  time  foolishly  and  pio^ 
dinlly."  When  it  was  observed  that  he  had  vemenbofli 
this  Sv^ientiy,  and  was  advised  to  remember  Christ  alM^ 
he  said,  *<  That  is  true.  Christ  is  to  be  lemembered,  ani 
our  sins  are  to  be  remembered  also." 

About  two  hours  brfore  his  death  he  expressed  himself  to 
those  about  him  as  follows : — '^  You  all  expect  that  I  dbooU 
declare  what  I  think  of  my  own  salvation.  Truly  God  ii 
for  ever  so  endearingly  tender,  and  so  inconoeivabty  merci- 
All  to  all  those  whom  he  hath  once  loved,  that  he  dcwi  nevcif 
finally  forsake  them.  Therefore  I  am  asMired  that  I  AmU  pi 
to  heaven.  Happy,  thrice  happy  are  those  fiettets  of  afflie^ 
Hon  in  which  my  gracious  God  hath  tied  and  bound  me.*** 
A  fnend  having  said  to  him,  '^  You  have  fought  a  good 
fight,'*  he  answered,  <<  It  is  requisite,  it  is  requisite  tSat  I 
should  contend  for  heaven.  Lift  me  up;  help  me  out; 
carry  me  hence  that  I  may  go  to  heaven.  God  doth  fiivou^ 
ably  accept  the  endeavours  of  his  saints."  Being  remindBd 
of  Grod^s  great  mercy  to  him,  he  said,  <<  Oh,  the  sea  is  not 
so  full  of  water,  nor  the  sun  of  light,  as  God  is  of  goodnes* 
His  mercy  is  ten  thousand  times  more.  I  do^  God  be 
praised,  feel  such  comfort  in  this,  that  if  I  had  five  thotMiri 
worlds,  I  could  not  make  recompense  for  such  tat  issue. 
How  shall  I  extol  the  munificence  of  Grod,  which  is  an^ 
ftpeakaUe,  and  more  than  any  heart  can  conceive  ?  Lei-vh 
with  humble  reverence,  acknowledge  Us  mat  iBertf||* 
What  great  cause  have  I  to  magnify  the  goocmess  of  CSi^ 
who  hath  humbled,  nay,  rather  hath  exalted  so  vnretchlQds 
miscreant,  and  of  so  base  a  condition,  to  ah  estate  so  gloffDis 
and  stately  I    T4ie  Lord,"  said  he^  <<  hath  bonooxed  JM 


with  his  goodness.  I  am  sure  he  hath  provided  a  gloriotn 
kuacdom  for  me.  The  joy  that  I  feel  in  my  soul  is  incre- 
dibk.  Blessed  be  God,  blessed  be  God !  I  am  a  thousand 
times  happy  to  have  such  felicity  thrown  upon  me,  a  poor 
wretcbea  miscreant.''  After  panting  a  little  for  breath,  he 
said,  <<  Lord  Jesus,  into  thy  hands  I  commit  my  spirit. 
LcHrd,  receive  my  soul.  Lord,  lift  thou  up  the  light  x>f  thy 
coimtehance  upon  me,  and  be  merciful  unto  me;"  and  then 
fisll  asleep  in  the  Lord,  December  4,  1611.  His  remains 
were  interred  in  St.  Mary's  churcli,  Oxford.* 
''  Mr.  Peacock  was  greatly  beloved  by  many  persons  of 
Ileal  worth,  on  account  of  his  great  learning,  piety,  and 
luefiilness.  Sir  Robert  Harley,+  his  constant  friend  and 
worthy  patron,  was  particularly  kind  to  him  during  his 
hetLYy  affliction,  and  promised,  if  the  Lord  should  restoi^ 
him,  to  do  great  things  for  him.  The  learned  divines  who 
attended  Mr.  Peacock  in  his  sickness,  as  Mr.  Dod,  Dr. 
Airay,  and  others,  were  all  decided  puritans.  The  author 
and  publisher  of  his  life  were  persons  of  the  same  stamp. 
The  latter  ^nployed  his  printer  to  procure  a  license  for  the 
work,  during  the  severe  persecution  of  the  puritans,  in 
-1635,  but  in  this  he  was  absolutely  refused ;  because  ''  it 
was  too  precise  (meaning  too  puritanical)  for  those  times.*' 
It  was  afterwards  licensed  by  Mr.  Edmund  Calamy,  the 
celebrated  nonconformist,  and  published  in  1646.  From  all 
these  circumstances,  we  conclude  that  Mr.  Peacock  was  a 
divine  of  puritanical  principles,  and  ought  in  justice  to  be 
glassed  among  the  puritan  worthies.^ 

Gabriel  Powel,  B.  D. — This  learned  person  was  the 
iOB  iji  Dr.  David  Powel,  the  famous  antiquary ;  born  at 
Roabon,  in  Denbighshire,  in  the  year  1575,  and  educated  in 
Jeras  college,  Oxford.  Having  finished  his  studies  at  the 
iuuveisity,  he  became  master  of  the  free-school  at  Ruthen, 
IBl  his  native  county.      During  his  abode  in  the  country,  he 

*  Wood's  Athenn  Oxon.  fol.  i.  p.  802. 

^  Mr  Robert  WM  knight  of  the  shire  for  the  county  of  Hereford,  and 

~     of  the  lllot,  to  which  ofice  was  annexed  a  salary  of  four  thousand 

\  ft  year.     In  1641  he  received  a  commission  from  the  lionse  of  com* 

to  d|M#llih  all  inag^  cnicifixes,  and  other  obnoxious  relics  of 

I  aad  Ml  commfaaloB  was  panctually  executed.    He  had  consider- 

'  nice  In  die  hoaie ;  and,  Uice  others  of  his  illustrious  fomily,  was 

IHead  aad  patroo  of  learning.    He  died  NoYcmber  0, 1656. — 

a.  4T.  Edit.  1788.— t7rMi^<r*«  Biog.  Hist,  f  ol.  ii.  p.  S69. 

HiriM!^  CoaOicii,  and  Daath  of  Mr.  Peacock. 


paid  h  close  application  to  the  writings  of  the  father^  and  to 
the  study  of  philosophy,  and  laid  a  foundation  for  seTer^ 
works  which  he  intended  to  publish.  But  this  not  being! 
suitable  situation  ibr  the  accomplishment  of  his  wishes,  be 
again  returned  to  Oxford,  entered  St.  MaryVhall,  and 
wrote  and  published  several  learned  books.  He  was  one  of 
those.  learned  divines  who  wrote  a^inst  Bishop  Bilson, 
concerning  Christ's  dcscenUiiito  hell.  On  account  of  the 
admirable  productions  of  pen,  he  obtained  ^eat  fapM^ 
especially  among  the  puritans.  His  high  reputation  having 
spread  through  the  country,  Dr.  Vauffhan,  the  pious  and 
learned  Bishop  of  London,  who  was  a  decided  friend  to  the 
puritans,  invited  him  to  London,  made  him  his  domestic 
chaplain,  and,  had  he  lived  much  longer,  would  have  done 
great  things  for  him.  A  minister  of  the  same  name, .and 
most  probably  the  same  person,  was  made  prebendary  of 
Portpool,  in  the  year  1609;  but  resigned  it  by  death  pre- 
vious to  December  SI,  1611.*  Wood  says  he  was  esteme^ 
a  prodigy  of  learning,  though  he  died  when  a  little  more 
than  thirty  years  old ;  and  had  he  lived  to  a  greater  maturity 
of  years,  it  is  thought  he  would  have  exceeded  the  famoos 
Dr.  John  Rainolds,  or  any  of  the  learned  heroes  of  the  age: 
but  he  adds,  ^'  that  he  was  a  zealot,  and  a  stiff  puritan.'^f 

His  WoRKS.^l.  The  Resolved  ChristiaD,  1602.— 2.  ProdromOs: 
or  a  Logical  Resolution  of  the  first  Chapter  or  the  Epistle  to  tbe 
Romans,  1602. — 3.  Theological  and  Scholastical  Positions  conoeniiig 
Usnry,  1002.— 4.  The  Catholicks'  Supplication  to  tbe  King  for  Toler- 
ation of  Catholic  Religion,  with  Notes  and  Ohserrations  in  thf 
Margin,  1603. — 5.  A  Supplication  parallel-wise,  or  Counterpdie  of 
the  Protestants  to  the  .said  Kiug,  1603.— 6.  A  Consideration  of  Paj^ 
Reasons  of  State  and  Religions,  for  a  Toleration  of  Popery  in  £iig- 
land,  intimated  in  their  Supplication  to  the  King*B  Majesty,  and  tht 
State  of  the  present  Parliament,  1604.— 7.  The  Unlawfbinwi  and 
Danger  of  Toleration  of  divers  Religions,  and  Connivance  to  ccniiatj 
Worship  in  one  Monarchy  or  Kingdom,  1605.-^  A  Refutation  ofai^ 
Epistle  Apologetical,  written  by  a  Puritan-papist  to  persuade  the 
Permission  of  the  promiscuous  use  and  profession  of  all  sorto  of 
Heresies,  1605. — 9.  A  Consideration  of  the  Deprived  and  Siientied 
Ministers*  Arguments  for  their  Restitution  to  the  use  and  liberty  of 
their  Ministry,  exhibited  in  their  late  Supplication  to  this  preMUt 
Parliaqient,   1606. — 10.  Disputationcs  Theologicse  de  Antichrifti^ 
1606.— 11.  De  Adiaphoris  theses  Theologicse  et  ScholasticaB,  iMIb-' 
12.  Rejoinder  unto  the  Mild  Defence,  Justifying  the  Coniideratka 
of  the  Silenced  Ministen'  Supplication  to  the  Parliament-«^i3i  'A 
Comment  on  the  Pecalogne. — Most  of  the  above  artieles  ps*^ 
through  several  editions. 

•  Newcoart*8  Repert.  Ecd.  vol.  i.  p.  201. 
f  ^ood*i  Athenis  Ozon.  vol.  i.  p.  894, 394.~ 


?  Thomas  Holland^  D.  D. — This  celebrated  scholar  and 
divine  was  bom  at  Ludlow  in  Shropshire,  in  the  year 
1539,  and  educated  in  Exeter  college,  Oxford ;  where 
lie  took  his  degrees  with  ^eat  applause.'  In  1589  he 
mcceeded  Dr.  Lawrence  Humphrey,  as  king's  pro- 
ftssHOr  of  divinity ;  and  in  1592,  was  elected  master  of 
fixeter  college,  being  accounted  a  prodigy  in  almost  al} 
kuids  of  literature.  His  distinguished  reputation  was  not 
confined  to  his  own  country.  He  was  higlily  admired  in 
tke  foreign  universities,  as  well  as  in  our  own  public  semi- 
naries. During  his  professorship,  many  persons  eminent 
fer  learning  and  piety  were  his  scholars,  who  afterwards 
,became  conspicuous  ornaments  in  the  church  and  the 

1  Dr.  Holland  was  a  thorough  Calvinist  in  his  vietv  s  of  the 
doctrines  of  the  gospel,  and  a  decided  nonconformist  in 
iritattexs  of  ceremony  and  discipline.  In  one  of  his  public 
^C^s  at  the  university,  he  boldly  maintained  that  bishops 
ifeie  no  4istinct  order  from  presbyters,  nor  at  all  superior 
^.them,  according  to  the  word  of  God.  He  was  a  most 
(jsalous  opposer  of  the  innovations  in  doctrine,  worship,  and 
ceremonies,  intended  to  be  introduced  into  the  university  of 
^xfonl,  by  Bancroft,  Neile,  and  Laud.*  In  the  year  1604 
iHr.,  .William  Laud,  afterwards  the  famous  archbishop,  per- 
fyxwing  his  exercise  for  bachelor  of  divinity,  maintained, 
^  That  there  could  be  no  true  churches  without  diocesan 
episcopacy ;"  for  which,  it  is  said.  Dr.  Holland  sharply 
lebuked,  and  publicly  disgraced  him,  as  one  who  endea- 
wared  to.  sow  discord  among  brethren,  and  between  the 
(^rch  of  EIngland  and  the  reformed  churches  abroad.f 
During  the  above  year.  Dr.  Holland  was  one  of  the  Oxford 
OiTines'appdinted  by  King  James  to  draw  up  a  new  trans- 
Ifition  of  the  Bible ;  and  he  had  a  considerable  hand  in  that 
J^aimed  and  laborious  work.     This  is  the  translation  now  in 

.  Towards  the  close  of  Ufe^  this  celebrated  divine  spent 
qpost  of  his  time  in  meditation  and  prayer.     Sickness,  old 

r,  and  its  infirmities,  served  only  to  increase  his  ardour 
heaven.  He  loved  God,  p^nd  longed  to  enjoy  him.  His 
iaml  was  fcmned  for  heaven.  He  could  find  no  rest  out  of 
p^ven ;  and  his  end  was  peace.  Finding  the  hour  of  his 
O^i^arture  near  at  hand,  he  exclaimed,  ^'  Come,  O  come 


.118.  ChroDology,  vol.  ii.  p.  635.  (2.) 
MB.  Renvkt,  p.  583. — Canterburies  Doome,  p.  389. 
"       1*1  mH4  of  Refor.  ? ol.  U.  Rcc.  p.  367. 



Lord  Jesus,  thou  bright  Morning  Star !  Gome,  Lord  Jesus: 
I  desire  to  be  dissolved,  and  be  with  thee."  Herein  Ui 
request  was  granted.  Jesus  crowned  him  with  glory, 
immortality,  and  eternal  life,  March  17, 161S,  a^ed  seraity- 
three  years.  His  remains  were  interred  in  the  chancel  of  SL 
Mary^s  church,  Oxford,  with  great  funeral  solemnity  and 
universal  lamentation.  He  was  succeeded  in  tlie  pro- 
fessor's chair  by  Dr.  Robert  Abbot,  afterwards  Bishop  of 

Dr.  Xilhy,  who  preaclicd   his   funeral   sermon,  mm 
the  followiii'i^  account  of   him :   ^^  He  had  a  wonderfhl 
kiiowleilgc  of  all  the  learned  languages,  and  of  all  arts  and 
sciences,  both  human  and  divine.    He  was  mighty  in  the 
scriptures;  and  so  familiarly  acquainted  with  we  faiheBB^- 
as  if  he  himself  had  been  one  of  them ;  and  so  versed  in 
the  schoolmen,  as  if  he  were  the  seraphic  doctor.     He  wa%> 
tlierefore,  most  worthy  of  the  divinity  chair,  whiqh  he  filled 
about  twentv  years,  with  distinguished  approbation  aal 
ap])lause.    He  was  so  celebrated  tor  his  preaching,  teading/ 
disputing,  moderating,  and  all  other  excellent  qualificatioiiii 
that  all  who  knew  him  conunended  him,  and  all  who  heafa' 
of  him  admired  him. 

^^  His  life  was  so  answerable  to  his  learning,  that  it  was 
difficult  to  say  which  was  most  to  be  admired.  He  was  sDot 
like  those,  who  when  they  become  learned  cease  to  do  weD; 
nor  like  those,  who  by  their  learning,  aspire  after  riches, 
honours,  or  preferments ;  but  his  learning  was  so  sanctifled' 
by  the  Holy  Ghost,  that  he  ever  aspired  towards  the  kingdiMfi 
of  heaven.  His  lite  and  conversation  w6re  so  holy,  upii||M 
and  sanctified,  that  in  him  the  fruits  of  the  Spirit  gMklljr 
abounded:  as,  love,  joy,  peace,  gentleness,  medknea^ 
temperance,  and  brotherly  kindness.  He  was  so  zealons  in 
advocate  for  the  purity  of  the  gospel,  both  in  faith  and 
worship,  and  had  so  great  an  -aversion  to  all  innovatko, 
superstition  and  idolaStry,  that  previous  to  his  going  a 
journey,  he  constanilv  called  together  the  fellows  of  ikt 
college,  and  delivered  to  them  this  charge :  <  I  commend' 

*  This  most  pious  and  learned  prelafe,  brother  to  Arehbiiluip  AUMi 
distlDipiished  himself  by  writing  in  defence  of  Mr.  WUlitti  FntiM^ 
«'  Reformed  Catholic,'*  against  Dr.  WiUiam  Bbhop,  tbeo  •  tecriM^ 
prieft,  but  afterwards,  in  the  pope's  style,  a  titalar  biihop  of  CbakcdM* 
when  Abbot  was  offered  the  bishopric  of  Salisbary,  it  wai  with 
icreat  dificnlty  he  conld  be  pressed  to  accept  it;  insomach,  that  wheite 
attended  at  conrt,  to  do  his  homage  afker  his  conaecratioa.  Kiss  ii 
Abbot,  I  have  had  very  mach  to  d«  ta 

pleasanUy  said  to  him,  ^ 

a  bishop  I  tnit  1  know  bo  reason  for  it,  onicn  it'  were  becaaw  tW«  kM 
writfoi  agaiiM  oae.*'^lli0^.  Britmm.  ? oL  i.  p. »» 8S.    Edit,  ma 


joii  Id  the  loye  of  God,  and  to  the  hatred  <^  all  pcq)ery  and 
suMi#itioo.'  "•  The  Oxford  historian  denominates  him  <*  a 
9QUd  preacher,  a  most  noted  disputant,  and  a  most  learned 
divine/'f  It  does  not  appear  whether  he  was  any  relatioii 
to  Mr*  John  Holland,  another  excellent  puritan  diyine. 

Dr*  Holland  published  several  learned  orations,  and  a 
9ennon  on  Mat.  xii.  48,  printed  IGOl ;  and  left  many 
■lanuscripts  ready  for  the  press,  which,  fiedling  into  the 
luuids  of  those  unfriendly  to  the  puritans,  were  nerer 
paUished.  , 

.  HuoH  Broughtok. — This  celebrated  penoa  was  bom 
lit  Oldbury  in  Shropshire,  bordering  on  Wal^,  in  1549,  and 
descended  from  an  ancient  and  a  wealthy  family.  Ho 
9DoeiYed  his  grammar  learning  under  tl^  famous  Mr* 
Bernard  iGilpin,  at  Houghton  in  the  Spring,  near  Darham; 
irho  sent  him  to  Christ^s  collie,  Cambridge,  where  lie 
ns  afterwards  chosen  fellow.t  He  was  also  elected  one  of 
W  taxers  of  the  university,  preferred  to  a  prebend  in 
4ie  church  of  Durham,  and  chosen  reader  of  divinity  at 
OorAam*  In  the  year  1579,  after  enjcqring  his  fellowship 
several  years,  he  was  deprived  of  it  by  the  vice-chanceDor 
Md  others.  Though  he  was  censured  in  this  manner,  it 
W9S  not  for  want  of  learning,  or  for  any  blemish  in  his  cha- 
lacter,  but  on  account  of  some  trivial  irregularity  in  his 
admission  to,  or  continuance  in,  that  pvrferment.  Bfr* 
Brao^ton  was  a  man  of  ^reat  celebrity ;  and  he  had  many* 
able  Sriends,  who,  at  this  juncture,  pleaded  his  cause,  and 

Sve  high  commendations  of  his  character.    The  Bishop  of 
orham  became  hk  zealous  advocate,  and  wrote  a  letter, 
dated  December  14, 1579,  to  Lord  Burleigh,  chancellor  of 

•  KHbjp'i  FoBcral  Sermon  for  Dr.  HoUand. 

f  Wood^s  Athene  Oxon.  vol.  i.  p.  380. 
'  J  TiMfoUowing  anecdote  is  related  of  Mr.  Brooghton :— At  the  celebrated^ 
Beniard  Gilpin  was  once  traveliinf  to  Oxford «  he  obserred  a  boy  befiM« 
Ifte,  MBMlimei  walking,  and  sometimes  running.  When  he  came  op  to  him» 
oMenring  him  to  be  a  youth  of  an  agreeable  and  promising  aspect,  Im 
•aked  him  whence  be  came,  and  whither  he  vv  as  going.  The  hoy  told  him» 
that  he  came  out  of  Wales,  and  was  going  to  Oxford,  in  order  to  be  « 
scholar.  Mr.  Gilpin  having  examined  him,  found  him  expert  in  the  Latin, 
■ad  possessed  of  a  smatteriag  of  Greeli;  and  was  so  pleased  with  his  ap* 
pcarance,  and  the  qoichness  of  his  replies,  that  he  inquired  if  he  would  go 
with  him,  and  he  woald  provide  for  his  education.  The  youth  agreed  to 
the  generous  proponl,  and  went  with  him  to  Houghton  i  where  he  mado 
woodcrfnl  proPclency  both  in  Greek  and  Hebrew  i  and  Mr.  Gilpia  after- 
wwds  lent  him  to  finish  his  education  at  Cambridge.-r^JPWIfr*«  Jih$i  JML 
Y*  S88.-^€hnrr«  JBccl.  BUL  p.  764. 


the  university,  earnestly  soliciti^  that  Mr.  Bronghtdi^ 
notwithstanding  his  preferment  at  Durham,  might  stiU  con- 
tinue to  hold  his  fellowship.  The  Ekurls  of  Hiintingdoii 
and  Essex,  at  the  same  time,  warmly  espoused  his  ctfnse^ 
and  jointly  addressed  a  letter,  dated  February  S4,  1580,  to 
the  worthy  chancellor,  in   his   favour.     The  two  ndUe 

e arsons  speak  in  this  letter  in  high  commendation  of  Bfr. 
roughton's  learning,  obedience  and  circumspection ;  and 
observe,  that  only  want  of  maintenance  in  the  univeiritf 
had  induced  him  to  accept  of  the  above  prebend,  which, 
however,  he  was  more  willing  to  resign  than  lose  his  place  in 
the  university.  "  This,"  it  is  added, "  shewed  the  good  mind 
that  was  in  him."*  JLiord  Burleigh  addressed  a '  letter, 
dated  October  20, 1580,  to  Dr.  Hatcher,  the  vice-chancdlor, 
and  Dr.  Hawford,  master  of  the  college,  in  which  he  expresKS 
with  great  warmth  bis  disapprobation  of  their  conduct,  and 
the  conduct  of  the  fellows,  in  their  unjust  treatment  of  Ur. 
Broughton.f  Therefore,  after  much  opposition,  he  was,  in 
1581,  by  an  order  from  this  generous  and  worthy  statewnan, 
again  admitted  to  his  fellowsiiip ;  though  it  does  not  aj^pear 
whether  he  returned  any  more  to  the  cou^e.^  In  the  mein 
time  he  very  generously  resigned  the  office  of  taxer  €i  the 

Mr.  Broughton  having  left  the  university,  removed  ta 
London,  where  he  had  many  worthy  friends,  amcmg  whom 
were  the  two  earls  already  mentioned;  also  Sir  WaBcr 
M ildmay,  and  others.  About  the  same  time,  he  entettd 
upon  the  ministerial  function ;  but  still  pursued  his  studies 
with  uncommon  assiduity,  usually  spending  fourteen  ix 
sixteen  hours  a  day  in  the  most  intense  applic^timi.  In  Us 
preaching,  he  commonly  took  a  text  out  of  the.  Old  Testa- 
ment, and  a  parallel  text  out  of  the  New  Testament,  aAd' 
discoursed  pretty  largely  upon  them  in  their  connexioo, 
then  concluded  with  a  shoil  and  close  application  of  the 
doctrine.  His  preaching  soon  rendered  nun  exceeding!/ 
popular,  and  he  was  very  much  followed,  particulady  bjT 

Eersons  celebrated  for  learning.  But  that  which  raidevri 
im  most  known  to  the  world  was  the  publication  of  his 
book,  entitled, "  A  Consent  of  Scriptures.  It  was  the  fruit 
of  immense  labour  and  study,  and  is  a  kind  of  system  of 
scripture  chronology  and  genealogy,  designed  to  shew 
from  the  scriptures,  the  chronologiod  order  of  events  from 

•  Baker*8  MS.  CoUec.  toI.  iv.  p.  91.  f  Ibid,  fol.z.  p.  300.  ■■ 

t  Strype'g  Aonajs,  yol.  ii.  p.  618—614. 
§  Baker's  MS  Cbllec.  vol.  iii.  p.  483. 


Adam  to  Christ.  The  work  was  published  in  the  year 
1588;  and,  while  it  was  printing,  the  famous  Mr.  John 
Speed  superintended  the  press.*  It  was  dedicated  to  Queen 
£Iizabetb,  to  whom  it  was  presented  by  himself  the  17th  of 
November,  1589.  In  this  dedication  he  says, "  The  whole 
Book  of  God,  most  gracious  sovereign,  hath  so  great  an 
lianncmy,  that  every  part  of  it  may  be  known  to  breathe 
from  one  Spirit.  All  soundeth  the  same  point,  that  by 
Christ  the  Son  eternal,  we  are  made  heirs  of  life :  wl^om 
they  that  know  not  abide  always  in  wrath.  Prophecies  in 
every  age,  (the  first  ages  larger,  the  later  narrower,)  all 
briefly  told,  all  events  fully  recorded :  these  shew  the  con- 
stancy of  this  truth.  The  like  revolutions  are  of  Abraham, 
Jacob,  and  his  children,  together  of  Shem's  house:  and 
again  to  Japheth's  sons,  and  all  families:  wherein  the 
fiirmer  be  stamps  of  the  latter :  so  that  in  one  speech  another 
thing  also  is  spoken.  These  shew  the  eye  of  Jehovah,  and 
his  Spirit.  The  kindreds,  places,  and  times  (the  lights  of 
narrations)  are  registered  so  profitably,  that  it  should  be  a 
blasphemy  to  affirm  any  one  to  be  idle.  Our  Lord^s 
fiithers  are  recorded  from  Adam,  by  David  and  Nathan,  to 
his  grandfather  Ely :  likewise  they,  after  whom  he  is  heir 
to  the  kingdom  of  David :  Solomon's  line  so  long  as  it  con- 
tinued, and  afterwards  they  who  from  Nathan  were  heirs  to 
Soloihon^s  house.  So  other  families,  who  came  all  of  one,  as 
from  them  all  come :  they  by  Moses  and  the  prophets  be 
plentifully  expressed.  In  like  sort  the  places  of  their 
dwellings  are  clearly  taught.  The  course  of  time  is  most 
certainly  to  be  observed;  even  to  the  fulness,  the  year  of 
salvation,  wherein  our  Lord  died.  Of  which  time  the  very 
.  hour  was  foretold  by  an  angel,  not  seven  YCSlxs  before,  but 
seventy  times  seven  years,  Dan.  ix.  24.  To  this  all  other 
Hebrews,  and  profane  Greeks,  bear  witness  strongly  a^inst 
themselves.    These  helps  be  stars  in  the  story.    The  frame 

*  Mr.  Speed,  who  was  brought  up  a  tailor,  was,  by  his  acquaintance 
with  Mr.  BroBghton,  become  particularly  studious,  and,  by  his  directions, 
wai  deeply  versed  in  a  knowledge  of  the  scriptures.  Also,  by  the 
generosity  of  Sir  Fulke  Gravile,  bis  patron,  he  was  set  free  from  a  manoal 
employment,  and  enabled  to  pursue  his  studies,  to  which  he  was  strongly 
iDcliiicd  by  the  bent  of  his  genius.  The  fruits  of  them  were  his  **  Theatre- 
of  Great  Britain ;  Genealogies  of  Scripture ;  and  History  of  Great  Britain," 
works  of  immense  labour ;  the  last  of  which,  in  its  kind,  was  incomparably 
iqpre  ^complete  than  all  the  histories  of  bis  predecessors  pot  together.  Mr. 
Broughton  -had  a  considerable  share  in  the  '*  Genealogies ;"  bat  wheo  fhe 
work  came  to  be  published,  '*  because  the  bishops  woald  not  endare  to  have 
Mr«  Bfongfatoo's  name  prefixed,  Mr.  Speed  went  away  with  all  the  credit 
mod  profit.'*^Gterifc*f  JLtvei,  last  toI.  part  i.  p.  2.— Ormf er't  ^Mif*  HM' 
vol.  ii.  p.  Sm-^Biog.  BrUnn.  yoI.  if.  p.  67.    Edit.  17T8.  -    '  •    ^  ^ 


of  all  this,  with  coupling  of  joints  and  proportien  of  bodj^ 
will  much  allure  to  study,  when  it  is  seen  how  about  out 
work,  (religion  and  Go^s  way  of  salvation,)  all  fiuniliesii 
countries,  and  ages,  build  or  pull  down :  and  find  th# 
kindness  or  sererity  of  God."* 

The  learned  author  took  great  pains  to  shew,  that  the 
heathen  chronology  containednumerous  inoMisiBteDGiea  and 
contradictions,  while  the  sacred  history  was  perfectly  deur 
from  these  imperfections.  However,  no  sooner  was  his  book 
published,  than  it  met  with  great  opposition.  ArchbisliO|l 
Whitgift,  at  first,  so  exceedingly  disUked  the  perfcmnaiioe^ 
that  he  would  have  called  the  author  to  an  account  for  soma 
things  contained  in  it ;  but,  to  avoid  the  hi^  oommisiioii^ 
Mr.  Broughton  fled  into  Germany.  This,  indeed^  greatly, 
excited  the  general  clamour  against  the  book,  ana  visry 
much  increased  the  number  of  its  adversaries ;  nevertlidiesii^ 
Bishop  Aylmer,  in  commendation  of  the  work,  said,  *^  That 
one  scholar  of  right  judgment,  would  prove  all  its  adnt* 
caries  foolish."+  Notwithstanding  this,  Dr.  Rainoldi  dt 
Oxford,  and  Mr.  Lively  of  Cambridge,  both  learned  pnw 
fessors  in  those  imiversities,  read  pubucly  against  the  book. 

Mr.  Broughton  used  to  call  this  work,  <<  ms  little  book  of 
great  pains:'.'  for  it  cost  him  many  years  study;  and 
when  it  was  published,  he  had  to  write  and  puUiah  ia 
defence  of  it,  against  the  exceptions  of  the  above  divintf* 
By  the  allowance  of  the  queen  and  council,  he  Altered  upoa 
its  defence,  in  public  lectures  in  St.  Paul's  church,  wiMS 
the  lord  mayor,  some  of  the  most  learned  of  the  bishopi,! 
and  other  persons  of  distinction,  were  at  his  audience;- 
Others  of  the  bishops,  however,  could  not  endure,  these. 
exercises,  calling  them  dangerous  conventides;  and  theiefoie 
brought  complamts  against  him,  and  put  down  his  lecture. 
He  and  his  friends  afterwards  assembled  privately,  at 
various  places  in  the  city,  as  they  found  opportumty4 
During  Mr.  Broughton's  continuance  in  London,  he  mostly 
resided  in  the  house  of  Mr.  William  Cotton  ;S  whose  soOy- 
afterwards  Sir  Rowland  Cotton,  he  instructed  in  the  Hebrew 
language.  His  young  pupil  obtained  so  exact  a  knowledge 
of  the  language,  that  at  the  age  of  seven  or  eight  years  he- 
could  translate  almost  any  chapter  of  the  Bible  into  £iiglish| 

•  Biog.  Britan.  toI.  ii.  p.  606.        f  Strype'i  Aylmer,  p,  949. 

:(  Clark*s  Uvet,  p«  3. 

^  Mr.  Roger  Coltoo,  brother  to  this  persoo,  was  one  of  Ifr.  ttnamlrttrt 
true  ichelan.  He  read  tlie  wbole Bible  throacb  tmekf  iimm  la  oM^flar^^ 


and  conyerse  -with  the  greatest  ease  in  Hebrew.*  Mr. 
William  Cowper,  afterwards  Bishop  of  Galloway,  was 
another  of  his  pupils.f 

■  Mr.^  Broughton  was  a  zealous  advocate  for  the  purity  of 
the  sacred  text  both  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament.  "  In ' 
the  prophet  Daniel's  time,  and  afterwards/'  says  he,  <^  the 
sacied  tongues  were  changed :  it  wUl  not  therefore  be  amiss ' 
to  speak  something  of  God's  counsel  in  this  matter.  Adam 
add  Eve's  tongue  continued,  commonly  spoken  bv  the  Jews, 
until  the  captivity  of  Babylon,  and  the  understanding' 
thereof,  when  Haggai  and  Zachary  prophesied,  in  the  nex£ 
age.  In  this  tongue  every  book  of  the  Old  Testament  is 
written  m  a  style  inimitable.  The  characters  and  points 
are  the  same  as  those  written  by  God  on  the  two  tables. 
The  Masorites,  of  whom  £zra  was  chief,  with  an  Argus- 
eyed  diligence  so  keep  the  letters  and  words,  that  none  of 
them  can  perish.  The  sense  of  the  tongue  is  preserved  for 
us  by  the  LXX,  the  N.  T.  And  the  Talmudic  phrase  by 
them,  who  in  their  schools  still  kept  their  tongue.  By  the 
hdp  of  the  LXX.  and  N.  T.  we  may  excel  all  the  rabbins. 
For  tbeur  study  is  more  easy  to  us  than  to  them,  in  regard- 
that  they  imitate  the  Greeks  in  their  fables  and  expressions, 
and  we  have  above  them  God,  an  heavenly  interpreter  for 
us  in  all  the  N.  T.  which,  both  for  the  infinite  elegance  and 
vaiiety  of  its  words,  is  most  divinely  eloquent.  In  it  ore 
the  choice  words  of  all  kind  of  all  Greek  writers,  nor  can  * 
they  all,  without  some  fragments  of  the  ancients,  and  the 
LXX.  shew  all  the  words  in  it.  It  hath  also  some  new-framed 
Words,  as  all  chief  authors  have,  and  all  brave  expressions  ; 
so  that  if  any  one  would  study  in  another  tongue  to  express 
the  like  elegancy,  he  may  as  well  fly  with  Daedalus^s  wax- 
wing,  and  miscarry  in  the  attempt.  In  the  N.  T.  is  a 
fourfdd  Greek,  1.  common;  2.  the  LXX.  Greek;  3.  the 
Apostolic;  4.  the  Talmudic.  The  uncorruptness  of  the* 
ff.  T.  text  is  undoubted  to  all  who  know  the  Hebrew 
tonsaej  history,  and  the  exact  Athenian  eloquence.  And 
such  as  pretend  "to  correct  it,  do  debase  the  majesty  of  both ' 

*  This  accovDt  may  appear  to  some  almost  incredible.  Mr.  Broughton*s 
method  of  iDatmction  was  singular.  He  bad  his  young  pupil  constantly 
with  him,  and  invariably  required  him  to  speak,  both  to  himself  and  others. 
In  Hebrew.  He  also  drew  up  a  vocabulary,  which  young  Cotton  con,- 
•tantly  used.  In  this  vocabulary  he  fixed  on  some  place,  or  thing,  then' 
named  all  the  particiilars  i)elonging  to  it :  as,  heaven,  angels,  sun,  moon, 
•tan,  clouds,  &c.;  or,  a  house,  door^  wIndoW)  parloar,  &g.  ;  a  field, 
rnuB,  flowers,  trees,  &c. — IMd. 

f  Ckirk*f  EccU  Hiit.  p.809. 


Testaments,  by  unskilful  altering  what  God  spake  most 
divinely.  The  r^uling,  therefore,  of  the  apostles  in  these 
matters  will  call  together  Homer,  Hesiod,  iEschylus,  Pni-' 
darus,  and  others  of  the  coasts  of  Illyricum:  as  atw 
Sophocles,  Euripides,  Aristophanes,  Aratus,  Menander, 
Callimachus,  Epimenides,  Plato,  Aristotle,  and  all  the 
orators  and  historians  of  Grecian  writing  in  the  time  ^dwii . 
this  tongue  flourished.'** 

He  maintained  that  the  gospel  of  St.  Matthew  was  origi* 
nally  written  in  Greek.  "  The  New  Testament,"  says  he^ 
<<  was  all  originally  in  Greek.  St.  MaUhew's  gospel  wis 
written  at  the  first  in  that  heavenly  oratorious  Greek  which 
we  now  have :  and  if  the  Holy  Ghost  had  written  it  in  the 
Jews'  Jerusalem  Hebrew,  the  holy  learned  of  old  time  would 
have  kept  it  with  more  care  than  jewellers  all  precious  stcmes. 
We  accuse  antiquity  of  great  ungodliness,  when  we  scr 
8t.  Matthew  wrote  in  Hebrew,  but  antiquity  lost  that  gospel* 
So  St.  Paul  wrote  in  Greek  to  the  Hebrews,  in  thoso^ 
syllables  which  we  have  to  this  day ;  and  the  style  hath: 
allusions,  which  the  Jews'  tongue  hath  not :  which  shcwetk 
the  original  to  be  in  Greek.  The  apostles  wrote  the  Neir 
Testament  in  Greek,  with  such  skill,  that  they  go  through 
all  kind  of  Greek  writers.  They  have  words  in  their  little 
book,  good  Greek,  which  Greeks  have  only  in  fragmeate^ 
reserved  by  God's  providence  to  honour  the  New  Teshi- 

This  is  the  high  character  which  our  divine  gives  of  the^ 
elegance  and  purity  of  the  apostolic  writings.  His  senti-- 
ments  were  equally  exalted  concerning  the  sacred  records  of 
the  Old  Testament.  He  made  the  following  observatioos- 
upon  the  Book  of  Job :  "  There  never  was  a  book  written,'* 
says  he,  <^  since  the  pen  became  the  tongue  of  a  writer,  of 
a  more  curious  style  than  Job;  in  verse  of  many  sorts,  and- 
use  of  words  more  nice  than  any  Greek  or  Latin  writeth; 
and  for  grammar,  hath  more  tricks  and  difficulty  than  all  the 
Bible  beside,  Arabizing  much ;  but  fuller  of  Hebrew  depth 
of  language.  God  saw  it  needful  to  honour  with  h  style  ot^ 
all  ornaments  the  particular  case  of  Job,  lest  it  should  be 
despised  or  thought  a  feigned  matter;  and,  therefore,  aave 
that  book  a  more  curious  style  than  any  other  part  of  the' 
Bible;  and  such  depth  of  skill  in  the  tongue,  as  no  rabbia 
could  be  thought  ever  to  have  in  the  holy  tongue."j 

Mr.  Broughton,  as  we  have  already  intimated,  fled  to^ 

•  Bioi:.  Britan.  toI.  ii.  p.  606.  f  Ibid.  p.  607. 

t  Ibid.  p.  609. 

BRpyqHTOxV.  £U 

Germany,  where  he  had  many  disputatbns  with  Jetrs  and 
Prists.  Previous,  however,  ii)  his  departure,  he  wrote 
a  letter,  dated  March  27,  1590,  to  his  vorthy  friend  Loi4 
Burleigh,  desiring  permission  to  go  abroad,  particularly 
with  a  view  toins^e  use  of  King  Casimr's  library;  and  he 
no  doubt  obtained  the  fevour.*  He  yos  always  firm'  and 
ooarageous  in  the  defence  of  truth;  di  which  account  he 
sometimes  brought  himself  into  dangear,  by  openly  exposing 
the  errors  and  superstitions  of  poperj.  He.had  a  public 
disputation  with  Rabbi  EUias,  a  learmd  Jew  in  the  syna- 
gogue at  Frankfort.  They  disputed  unier  an  oath,  that  Grod 
might  immediately  strike  him  dead  who  should,  on  that 
•ccasion,  speak  ccHitrary  to  the  dictaes  of  his  conscience. 
In  the  condusion,  the  Jew  departed  n^  without  some  proofs 
of  advantage,  desiring  to  be  taught  )y  his  writings.  An 
account  of  this  conference  was  carrtd  to  Constantinople, 
where  it  excited  very  considerable  attention  among  the 
Jews.f  Not  only  did  Mr.  Broughto/s  arguments  in  ravour 
af  Christianity  make  a  deep  impressyn  upon  Rabbi  Elias ; 
but  he  also  adds,  ^'  After  my  retim  from  Zurich,  two 
Italian  Jews  came  thither,  and  seeiig  what  I  had  printed, 
especially  upon  Daniel,  believed  aid  were  baptized,  and 
came  to  Basil  to  see  me."  "  Anotler,"  says  he,  "  is  now 
in  £ndand,  as  I  hear;  who,  by  myoccasion,  embraced  the 

In  the  year  1591,  Mr.  Broughtoivstumed  from  Germany^ 
particularly  with  a  view  to  settle  te  controversy  betwixt 
fflffl»df  and  Dr.  Rainolds.  He  hfi  an  earnest  but  absurd 
desire  to  have  the  dispute  settled  ]^'  public  authority.  In 
one  of  his  addresses  to  the  queen,  faisays, "  Your  majesty's 
signification  of  your  princely  detnnination  would  break 
young  braving  students,  whom  reaon  in  such  unexpected 
floik  cannot  bend . "  Speaking  of  hnself  and  his  opponent, 
be  'says,  ''  His  fame  of  learning,  .nd  my  more  confident 
resistance,  maketh  many  think  mt  the  scripture  is  hard, 
where  our  long  labours  differ,  ^he  fault  is  intolerable, 
either  in  him  or  in  me ;  and  the  fidty  should  be  forced  to 
yield,  that  none  may  think  amiss^f  God's  word.  Wbil« 
divines  jar  in  their  narrations,  fah  is  weakened,  and  all 
study  of  scripture ;  and  old  confined  errors  have  disgraced 
all  the  holy  story,  that  without  iheinforcement  of  authority j 
students  will  hardly  yield  to  therutb."  He  solicited  the 
queen  to  command  the  archbishos,  and  both  universities^ 

*  Baker's  MS.  CoUec.  yoI.  iv.  p.  OS.  ^  Clark's  Lives,  p.  «. 

X  Bi«g.  BritfUi.  vol.  ii.  p.  608. 



to  ddeimiiie  the  points  in  contest  betweai  him  and*  hh 
learned  opponent.*  Mott  persons  at  this  period,  and,  aiaoif 
others,  the  leamec  Hugh  Brooghton,  Imd  reij  errooeoak 
conceptions  of  thegrand  principles  of  protestantism;  and 
their  views  of  religons  freedom  were  erbemdy  inconsistent 
and  absurd. 

The  controversy,  lowever,  was  not  determined  faj  jniblic 
authority,  but  rdered  to  the  arbitration  of  Aichbidiaa 
Wbitgiil  and  Bishcp  Aylmer.  Though  an  entire  pacifr 
cation  could  not  be  iflfected,  the  result  appears  to  have  been 
greatly  in  favour  oi  Mr.  Brou^hton.  For,  although  the 
archbishop  exceedinrly  disliked  Broughton's  book,  whoa 
it  was  first  publishec^  vet,  upon  cool  uid  matnre  ddflben^ 
tion,  he  openly  declaed  on  this  occasion,  ^'  That  never  any 
human  pains  were  of  greater  travail  and  dexterity,  to  cleir 
up  the  holy  story,  aid  against  errors  of  fifteen  hundred 
years  standing,  than  a>peared  in  the  book  of  Consent."f 

The  fdlowing  year  Mr.  Broughton  again  retired  tft 
Grcrmanv.  He  had  i  powerful  adversary  at  conrC^  wh6 
hinderea  him  from  obaining  those  preferments  whicii,  it  ii 
said,  the  queen  desiged  to  confer  upon  him.  Notwifr 
standing  Whitgift's  hi;h  opinion  of  his  book,  this  ppM 
adversary  was  the  arcbishc^  himself;  who,  it  is  pontivdy 
affirmed,  laid  wait  for  hm,  and  even  ofiered  a  sum  of  money 
to  any.  who  would  apprhend  him4  Mr.  Broughton,  in  one 
cxf  bis  addresses  to  tnequeen,  complains  that  her  minaty 
was  prejudiced  against  him  by  means  of  the  ai€hbidi0[h 
whom  he  represents  asci  person  of  no  great  learning,  and 
speaks  of  his  bare  Latbstudies.S 

Mr.  Broughton,  dung  his  abode  on  the  continent 
formed  an  acquaintancewilh  the  learned  Scaliger,  Repbe- 
lengius,  Junius,  Beza,  nd  other  celebrated  scholars.  He 
received  great  fiivour  torn  the  Archbishop  of  Ments^  to 
whom  he  dedicated  hi  translation  of  the  prophets  into 
Greek.  He  was  highlyesteemed  by  many  of  the  leamed 
Jesuits;  and  though  hevas  a  bold  and  inflexible  enemy  to 
popery,  he  was  o^red  acardinal's  cap.|| 

The  article  of  our  Sav>ur*s  local  descent  into  hell  begaa 
about  this  time  to  be  qestioned.  It  had  hitherto  hetA 
the  received  doctrine  oithe  church  of  England,  that  the 
soul  of  Christ,  being  sej^ted  from  his  body,  descended 
locally  into  hell ;  that,  ai  he  had  already  conquered  detik 

•  Bios.  BritaD.  vol.  ii.  p.  60'  f .  Strype*8  Whitgifl,  p*  .»^ 

}  Clark's  Lives,  p.  &.  ^  Biog.  Britan.  toI.  It.  p.  91Q, 

I  Clark's  Lives,  p.  5.  ' 


wmA  im,  lie  might  tritiniph  crrar  Satan.  Bat  Mr.  BrougbtcMi^ 
lieooiuited  the  very  rabbi  of  the  age,  conyinced  the  world 
Hmt  Che  word  hacksy  as  used  by  the  Greek  fathers  for  the 
phce  into  which  Christ  went  after  his  crucifixion,  did  not 
mean  hell^  or  the  place  of  the  damned,  but  only  the  state  of 
the  dead,  or  the  invisible  world.*  He  was  the  first  of  our 
countrymen  who  gave  this  explanation ;  which  he  did  in  a 
jpiece  that  be  published,  entitled,  ^^  An  Explication  of  the 
•article  of  Christ's  Descent  to  Hell."  This  proved  the  occa- 
sion of  much  controversy,  and'  his  opinion,  now  generally 
nd  justly  received,  was  vehemently  opposed.  His  twd 
frincipal  opponents  in  this  controversy  were  Archbishop 
Whil^ift  and  Bishop  Bilson ;  the  latter  of  whom,  in  the 
IhurmSi  of  disputation,  he  treated  with  some  degree  of 
contempt,  and  said  of  him,  ^<  Verily  I  was  amazed,  when  I 
nad  his  words,  to  see  what  a  very  infant  in  his  mother's  lap 
lie  ifi  in  the  Greek  tongue."f 

'  Oki  this  subject  he  addressed  <^  An  Oration  to  the  Gene^ 
Mans,"'  which  was  printed  in  Greek.  In  this  piece  he  treats 
the  cdiebfated  Beza  with  much  severity;  but  he  supports 
Ub  opinion,  concerning  tiie  meaning  of  the  word  hadesj  in 
the  OMist  satiriistctory  ami  conclusive  manner,  by  many  quo- 
Mhmis  from  Homer,  Plato,  Pindar,  Diogenes,  Laertius,  and 
Mher  Greek  writers.  Bayle  says,  that  our  author  '^  was 
Modigtottsly  attm:hed  to  the  dusciidine  of  the  church  of 
^E^land,  and  he  censured,  in  very  bitter  language,  that  of 
tte  mesbyterians.  The  oration  which  he  addressed  to 
the  Geneveans,  is  a  very  strong  proof  of  this  assertion." 
It  is  observed,  however,  in  reply,  that  this  oration  does 
not,  by  any  means,  prove  all  that  Bayle  supposes.  Allow- 
Imce  being  made  for  Mr.  Broughton's  rough  method  of 
%xpressing  himself,  says  the  learned  bio^apher,  we  think  it 
does  not  appear  from  his  Oration  to  uie  Geneveans,  that 
4i0  had  any  great  aversion  to  them  or  their  discipline, 
fito^pting  a  few  sarcastic  sentences,  we  can  discern  little 
ttoittiosity  against  them  but  with  respect  to  the  particular 
fldMect  of  which  he  treated,  the  interpretation  of  the  word 
kmksj  in  which  the  church  at  Geneva  difiered  from  what 
te  justly  supposed  to  be  the  truth.  He  intimated  also  to  the 
Cmaeveans,  that  they  spoke  unguardedly  and  impropeily 
on  the  subject  of  predestination;  and  that  their  desire  to 
tli^^ithrow  Pelagius  made  them  deal  their  words  with  more 
teat  than  discretion.]:    Mr.  Broughton  was  so  celebrated 

"9. 8trype*s  Whitglft,  p.  482^  488.— Strype's  Aylmer^  p.  iMSy%^% 
f  Biog.  Britao.  yqK  ii.  p.  609.  .       ^    t  Wii. 


in  all  kinds  of  Hebrew  learning,  that  be  was  invitfid  tn^ 
Constantinople,  for  the  purpose  of  instructing  the  Jews  :ia 
the  christian  religion ;  and  King  James  of  Scotland  in- 
vited him  to  become  professor  of  Hebrew  in  one  of  Die 
Scotch  universities.* 

Mr.  Broughton,  after  his  second  return  to  his  natiTe 
country,  wrote  two  letters  to  Lord  EUsmer,  the  lord  chan- 
cellor of  England;  in  which  he  gives  a  circumstantial, 
account  of  his  various  literary  pursuits,  and  warmly  cea- 
Bures  the  ungenerous  and  cruel  treatment  he  received  frqa 
the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury.    ^^  I  have,"  says  he,  <<  ooni- 

Eiled  two  books,  a  beginning  for  many  in  the  kind.     One  il 
[cbrew,  exactly  in  the  prophets^  Hebrew,  with  a  labfaju 
epistle,  in  rabbin  style.     The  other  is  Elcclesiastes  appUod 
to  that  question.  Wherefore  was  the  book  made  ?     1  was 
greatly  injured.     For  the  rabbin.  Archbishop  WhitgifL 
sent  mc  word,  that  he  would  allow  for  answering,  if  I  woqid 
entreat  him.    I  returned,  entreated  I  will,  but  not  enticit 
to  have  a  burden,  which  I  wish  others  would  bear*    Sega 
after,  he  libelleth  that  I  forged  the  epi^e.    If  for  that  he 
had  been  rent  in  pieces  by  wild  horses,  his  .punishment  had 
been  too  little,  as  a  forgerer  deserved.     So  since  he  Inxp* 
rowed  the  oath  to  that  viilany,  God  never  ceased  to  pLpfo^ 
the  realm,  and  not  a  little  by  giving  bishops  over  to  t^^ 
that  our  Lord  went  down  hence  to  hell.    To  repent  of  tlu^ 
and  promise  j^400  per  annum  to  their  teacher  to  confinn   .; 
the  truth,  and  then  to  bark  like  a  Ccrljerus  against  the  tmtk    { 
and  themselves.     Then  to  feign  an  impossibility  in  Greek|    ] 
that  our  Lord  went  from  paradise  to  hades,  which  no    | 
Grecian  would  ever  say."f  I 

Mr.  Broughton  was  a  most  profound  scholar,  particulailj 
in  critical  and  exact  knowlec^e  of  Greek  and  Ilebrew.  at 
directed  his  elaborate  studies  chiefly  to  a  minute  examina* 
tion  of  the  scriptures  in  their  original  languages.  He 
found  the  authorized  English  translation  extremiely  de- 
fective, and  therefore  used  his  utmost  endeavours  to 
obtain  a  new  translation.  With  a  view  to  accompluk 
this  great  object,  he  addressed  the  following  letter  ^To 
the  right  honourable  Sir  William  Cecily  lord  h^ 
treasurer  :"t 
"  Kight  Honourable. 
<^  Sundry  lords,  and  amongst  them  some  bishops,  bended 
doctors  and  othejr  inferiors  of  all  sorts,  have  requested  —  ' 

•  Strypc'8  Whitglft,  p.  432, 626—530.  +  HarleiaD  M88.  No.-ieT. 

t  Baker*!  MS.  CoUec.  vol.  ^t.  p.  94.  .  .    r 

r  -  - 


to  bestow  my  long  studies  in  Hebrew  and  Greek  'Writen, 

Upon  some  clearing  of  the  Bible's  translation.   They  jadged 

lightly  that  it  must  be  amended ;  but  in  what  points,  I 

tfamk  it  not  good  largely  to  tell  in  words  till  it  be  per« 

fiyrmed  in  work ;  that  it  be  less  disgraced  which  we  now 

tiae.    All  of  knowledge  and  conscience  will  grant,  that 

much  better  it  may  be.    This  motion  hath  been  made  long 

ago ;  and  her  majesty  sent  word  and  message  to  Sir  Francis 

Walsingham,  that  it  must  be  considered.    His  highness 

Aieant  to  take  opportunity,  but  other  weighty  affairs  suffered 

kuDl  not    All  this  while  my  prayer  and  charge  have  been 

•pent  in  preparaticm  that  way.   And,  furthermore,  I  thought 

gtod  lAyseli  to  m^e  motion  to  such  as  I  held  woilJiiest 

ttid  fittest  to  be  contributors  to  the  charge,  findii^  by 

experience  lAiat-  pcrblic  motions  take  further  time  of  delay 

than  the  whole  work  requireth :  and  your  lordship  I  held 

one  of  the  worthiest  to  be  a  contributor,  for  the  main- 

taSante  of  some  six  of  us,  the  longest  students  in  the  tongues, 

fe  join  together;   as  well  not  to  alter  any  thing  which 

iBay  'Aland  still,  (as  in  Moses  and  all  the  stories  neraeth  not 

aiach- amendment,)  as  to  omit  nothing  which  carrieth  open 

ttiitriith  ag^dnst  the  story  and  religion,  or  darkness  dis- 

atanidlihff  the  writer.    In  which  kind.  Job  and  the  prophets 

aiay  be  brought- to  speak  far  better  unto  us;  and  all  may 

baye  sh(»rt  notes  of  large  use,  with  maps  of  geography 

USd  tables  of  chronology.    To  this,  if  it  please  your  lord- 

ihip  to  be  a  ready  helper,  your  example  will  stir  others 

to  a  more  needful  concern  than  was  the  amendment  of  the 

temple  in  King  Josiah's  time. 

'^  Your  lordship's  to  command, 

*<  Hugh  Broughtokt." 

In  thfe  above  generous  proposal,  Mr.  Broughton  had  to 
cnoouhter  insurmountable  difficulties ;  and  howeyer  desirous 
foe  treasurer  might  be  to  promote  so  excellent  and  laudable 
an  undertaking,  the  worthy  design  utterly  failed.  Not 
long  after  he  addressed  another  letter  to  this  celebrated 
Jl^tesman,.of  which  the  following  is  a  copy  :• 
*Ht  To  the  Right  Honourable  my  Lord  Treasurer. 

'  }^  My  duty  remembered  to  your  lordship.  I  have  two 
fctitiefts  at  once  to  your  honour ;  but  such  as  neither,  I 
Wiwj  need  greatly  trouUe  you.  I  have  been  requested  by 
Ajers^^  for  Myself,  to  make  motion  for  the  archbishopric 
tf^'Tfiam  (hot  worth  above  jf  SOO)  in  Ireland.    By  reasim 

•  Baker*!  MS.  CoUec;  yoI.  fr.  p.  94. 


tliat  tft  yean  a^,  I  took  a  littk  soil  tlmey  I  CMild  muxft 
of  it,  if  her  majeslj  will,  and  it  be  no  trouble  to  jam 
booour  to  speak  to  her  hie hness  for  it.  Bmi  I  kave  it  to 
your  saire  direction.  The  oQier  petition  is  of  somevbat  ks 
pains.  The  rcrerend  and  learned  man.  Dr.  Rainohk,  vho, 
at  I  fhink,  hath  ereatl^  hindered  all  his  own  and  our 
religion,  is  now,  1  think,  in  London :  with  whom,  if  I 
might  talk  but  two  words,  before  your  hxdship^  a  pncififit- 
tion,  as  I  judge,  might  be  made.  I  would  demand  what  one 
woid  of  my  book  he  dare  blame,  with  any  colour  of  icmqu; 
and  shew  that  if  iiLs  course  had  not  been  ^^^^  he  ofend 
adyantage  to  turn  all  the  sway  of  the  BiUe  aeaimt  him. 
By  open  speech  it  may  best  be  declared.  Your  hononr  belt 
knoweth  your  own  leibuie.  So  I  conunend  boCb  the 
causes  to  yourself,  and  your  health  to  God.  LnndflPj 
May  16,  1595. 

^^  Your  lordship^B  io  command, 

^  Hugh  Brouohtov." 

It  does  not  appear  what  answer  BIr.  Brongbton  leodfri 
to  this  letter;  but  he  certainly  failed  <x  gaining  tiha 
object  of  his  former  petiticm,  if  not  of  the  latter  abo.  Hii 
second  return  to  EWlaiid  was  at  the  time  when  the  plspin 
was  in  London.  His  old  friends  were  much  suipnsea  to 
see  him  in  a  season  of  so  much  affliction..  He  was  piiti- 
cularly  cheerful  and  happy,  and  not  the  least  afiraid  tfille 
distemper.  His  conversation  very  much  sayooied  of  the 
kingdom  of  God,  and  he  spoke  upon  divine  sulgects  ffu/ij 
io  their  edification.  In  the  year  160S,  he  preached  ufae 
Prince  Henry  at  Oatlands.  He  did  not,  however,  oontiBae 
long  in  his  native  country,  but  went  abroad  a  Uiird  tim^ 
and  was  chosen  preacher  to  the  English  congK« 
Middleburg.  During  his  abode  at  this  place^  be  sept  a 
curious  petition  to  King  James,  now  of  En^and^  leqnoU 
ing  the  favour  of  a  pension,  aa  the  rewara  of  bis  mmi- 
foul  labours  and  suuerings ;  of  which  the  foUowing  » 
a  copy:* 

<<  Most  gracious  Sovereign. . 
^^  Your  nmesty's  most  humble  subjecft,  Hugh  Brongb- 
ton,  having  suTOred  many  years  danger  iot  pnbluhing  yW 
right  and  God's  truth,  by  your  unlearned  bisbona,  wb 
spent  two  impressions  of  libels  to  disgrace  their  Sc 
mist;  which  libels  their  stationers  deny  that  ever 
sold.    He  requesteth  your  majesty's  favour  for  a  pcoM* 

•  Harkian  MSS.  No.  787. 

«J6 « 

•       6R0UGHT0N.  fm 

0t  for  bis  age,  study,*  and  past  travels,  bearing  always  a 
aoet  dytiyiUl  your  majesty.  From  Auddleburg^ 
Aug.  1604. 

"  Your  most  bumble  servant, 
'     -      ,  "  Hugh  Bboughton.'* 

*  Wbile  pur  divine  was  at  Middleburg,  besides  the  cai# 
fOi  his  congregation,  he  published  his  smart  discourse 
.against  Archbishop  Biancron,  and  sent  the  whole  impression 
to  Mr..  William  Cotton j  younger  brother  to  Sir  Rowland 
](^Q|tton,  livinff  in.  London;  v^^^h  a  request,  if  he  dare 
.tniture,  to  ddiver  a  cdpy  into  the  hands  of  the  archbishop. 
Mr.  Cotton  was  not  without  apprehension  of  danger;  yet 
lie  could  not  well  deny  Mr.  Broughtoa's  request.  Thereforej 
lie  waited  upon  the  archbishop,  and,  after  making  the 
DBquisite  apology,  delivered  a  copy  of  the  book  into  hi$ 
lands,  politely  asking  pardon  for  his  great  boldness. 
[rj[y>il#h  his  grace  treated  him  with  all  the  civility  that 
,pral4  jb^ve  been  desired,  he  was  no  sooner  dismissed  than 
ihe  arctibishop^s  officers  came  to  his  lodgings,  seized  all  the 
books  tbi^  could  find,  and  carried  them  away.  This  was 
Btacroft's  short  and  easy  method  of  refuting  the  arguments 
it  his  learnjsd  opponent  !''* 

'  Mr.  Broiighton  having  a  complaint  settled  on  his  lungs^ 
■nd  being  desirous  of  dying  in  his  own  country,  returned 
■t' length  the  third  and  last  time  to  England.  In  the 
iQCMith  of  November,  1611,  he  landed  at  Gravesend;  and 
vjpcm  his  arrival  in  London,  told  his  friends  that  he  was 
oome  to  die  in  his  native  country ;  and  if  it  was  the  will 
of.  God,  he  wished  to  die  in  Shropshire,  his  native  county. 
Therefore,  Sir  Rowland  Cotton,  formerly  his  pupil,  pro- 
fided  suitable  accommodations  for  him,  at  his  house  in 
Shropshire.  Herein,  however,  both  the  pupil  and  the 
^iknr  were  disappointed.'  He  continued  in  JLondon  during 
Ae  .winter,  and  in  the  following  spring  removed  to  a 
tfoiteble  situation  in  the  vicinity. 

During  his  confinement  imder  affliction,  Mr.  Broughton 

Stye  his  friends  many  pious  and  profitable  Exhortations. 
eoS/ea  urged  them  to  observe  practical  religion,  saying, 
"^Stildy  your  Bible.  Labour  for  the  salvation  of  one 
JH^  iinother.  Be  peaceable.  Meddle  with  your  oiifn  matters. 
wlSkfme  judgment  will  come  upon  this  kingdom.  Never 
i*fear  popery :  It  will  never  overflow  the  findw  But  the 
If  eooirse  which  the  bishops  take  will  fili  the  land  with 

*  Clark*!  LtTWy  p.  6. 


<<  atheism.  Meddle  not  in  the  quarrel."  As  he  drew  near  lui 
end,  he  said,  <*  Satan  hath  assatdted  me:  but  the^Sonitf 
<<  God  hath  rebuked  him,  and  spoken  comfortable  words  to 
<<  my  soul."  A  litde  before  nis  departure,  he  became 
speechless:   yet  his  friends  asking  whether  they  should 

gray  with  him,  he  signified  his  warmest  approbation  bj 
fling  up  both  his  hands.  Soon  aft^r  the  prayer  was  endco^ 
he  breathed  his  last,  August  4,  1612,  aged  iij(ty-ftiee 
years.  His  remains  were  mterred  in  St.  Autholin|8  churcL 
London,  with  great  funeral  solemnity;  and  his  fuMfU 
sermon  was  preached  by  Mr.  Speght,  from  John  zi.  8; 
but  the  bishops  would  not  allow  it  to  be  printed.*  . 

iif r.  Brougpton  was  an  indefati^ble  studefit,  and  a  moit 
celebrated  scholar,  which  rendered  his  temper  too  austere; 
yet,  to  his  friends,  his  spirit  was  sweet,  Bmd>l6,  and  dfo 
tionate.  He  was  bold  and  severe  in  opposing  all  error  an 
impiety,  and  would  sharply  reprove  them,  whatever  it  ooit 
him.  He  was  free  and  comoiunicative  to  all  who  wished^ 
learn ;  but  sometimes  offended  when  his  scholars  did  W 
imderstand  him,  accounting  it  a  shame  to  live  in  igaaanibtJ 
As  a  writer,  his  style  is  rather  harsh  and  obscnie.  at 
appears  too  vain  and  too  severe  agaiiist  his  opponents;  'Bbt 
when  it  is  recollected  what  kind  of  treatment  ne  met  with; 
how  lie  was  tossed  to  and  fro,  and  often  obliged  to  femore 
from  one  place  to  another,  it  will  not  appear  soniiiaii^ 
that  so  great  a  scholar  sometimes  forgot  himself.  IJpflb  hu 
death-b^d,  he  confessed  and  lamented  his  infirmity.  In  hii 
writings,  adds  our  author,  the  impartial  reader  will  fijod  as 
much  light  thrown  upon  the  scriptures,  especially  the  moit 
difficult  passages,  as  can  be  found  in  any  other  author  what- 
ever;  and  they  carry  in  them  so  happy  a  fascination,  that 
the  serious  reader  is  constrained,  by  a  sort  of  holy  violence, 
to  search  the  sacred  scriptures.} 

This  learned  divine  has  b^  reproached  with  great 

♦  aark*i  Livei,  p.  6,  7. 

•f  This  was  exemplified  in  the  foUowiDg  aoecdote.-^WhUe  Mr.  Broogbfta 
was  at  Meotz  In  Germany,  a  yovng  man  of  the  name  of  M^rtonf,  hm 
£nf(land,  came  to  him  continoaUy,  asking  him  qaettionty  and  fcaalfiiK 
lofttractions.  When  the  young  pupil  miderstood  not  his  anawen,  bat  daitni 
further  explanation,  Mr.  Brooghton  would  be  angry,  and  call  him  dMUui 
vnlearned.  Upon  this,  when  Morton  asked  bim  any  question,  be  Mfel 
pleasantly  to  say,  **  I  piay  you,' whatsoever  doUi  or  dnllmrdt  I  aste  be 
called,  call  me  so  before  we  begin,  that  your  discourse  and  mine 
attention  be  not  interrupted :"  which,  it  is  said,  Mr.  Broughton  took  as 

Sleasantly  from  him.    This  person,  it  is  added,  was  afterwards  tbe  ftaioBS 
)t.  Morion,  bishop  of  DufhaiD.— /M.  p.  6. 
t  Ibid,  p.  7, 8. 

BR0U6HT0N.  f8» 

severity  by  some  of  our  historians;  and  by  none  with 
greater  rancour  than  by  Mr.  William  Gilpin.*  This 
miter  says,  ^<  that  Mr.  Brou^hton  acted  the  basest,  and  most 
^  ungratefol  part  towards  Mr.  Bernard  Gilpin,  who  had 
^educated  and  maintained  him,  both  at  school  and  th^ 
•f  nniversity.  He  was  vile  enough  to  endeavour  to  ^p- 
^  plant  the  yei^  patron  who  had  raised  him  up."  If  iVur* 
Koughton  really  acted  in  the  manner  here  represented, 
9  would  be  difficult  to  censure  him  with  too  much  severity : 
mt,  we  think,  there  is  no  sufficient  evidence  for  the  charges 
dkged ;  at  least  Mr.  Gilpin  hath  not  produced  it ;  and  it 
■eepoB  hardly  just  to  bring  such  black  charges  against  a 
pian /without  some  substantial  proof.  Bishop  Carlton,  the 
mi  writer  by  whom  any  accusation  appears  to  be  brought 
i||8t  Mr.  Brou^ton,  speaks  of  his  exciting  the  Bishop  of 
rhain  against  Bemara  Gilpin  merely  as  a  repari;.  and, 
ihis  rejmt  were  true,  though  ihexe  is  no  proof  aUegod, 
seems  very  doubtful  whether  he  was  excitra  to  it  from  a 
of  obtaining  Gilpin^s  living. 
Pilpin  says  of  JBrou^hton,  ^  that  London  was  the 
■oene  whei^B  he  mnst  e!xposed  himsdf.  .  Here,  for  some  time^ 
IPS  piLi4  ^  servile  court  to  the  vulgar,  in  the  capacitifr  of.:a 
g^pIiM:  pieacber."  But  of  thb  we  can  meet  with  mo 
ffl^enc^  Indeed,  servility  to  persons  of  any  class,  does 
Mt.apjpe^r  to  have  been  any  part  of  Mr.  Broughton's  ohay» 
riipier ;  and  the  charge,  we  think,  is  sufficiently  refuted  ia 
liie  foregoing  narrative,  as  collected  from  the  most  authentic 

;  Mr.  GQpjui  isays,  that  Broughton  had  ^  lived  out  all 
|l|S.are^t,  mid  became  even  the  jest  cS  the  sta|;e."  It  is 
fivtain,  as  our  author  observes,  that  be  was  satirized  on  the 
S^lge. .  .3ul;  a  man's  being  ridiculed  in  a  dramatic  exhibi* 
tibpi  is  op  proof  of  his  &ving  out-lived  either  his  credit 
OK  hi^  friends ;  nor  does  this  aj^iear  to  have  been  the  case, 
1ml  thq  coi^trary,.  with  Mr.  Brwghton.f 

He  ^iaa(  sayo,  ^^  Broughton  was,  indeed,  famous  in  his 
lime,  an^  as  9  inan  of  fetters  esteemed  by  many^  but  in 
fveiy  other  ie$pect  despicable."  The  numerous  ;iuthentic 
feiti^nicjB  given  in  the  foi^going  narrative,  affiird  a  suffi* 
fimt  refutation  of  this  charg;?.  >  The  learned  Dr.  Lightfoot, 
who  wrote  Mr.  Broughton*s  life,  declares  himself  a  mere 
child  in  onnparison  of  this  great  master  of  Hdiirewand 

•  Gilplp't  Uf(t  of  BcfMfd  Gilpin,  p.  2S3,  834, 293, 300;     EdiL  ITIO. 
t  Blogmpkia  Briteiuiics,  Vol.  ii.  p.  606—610.  .    -      ^     > 


rabbinical  Icamin?.*  Mr.  Strjpe  declares  that  he  was  one 
of  the  greatest  scholars  in  Christendom,  in  Latin,  Grodk, 
Hebrew,  and  all  Talinudical  literature.f 

Most  of  his  works  were  collected  and  printed  in  London, 
in  166*2,  with  his  life  prefixed  by  Dr.  Li^htfoot,  entitbdn 
**  The  Works  of  the  great  Albioncan  Divine,  renowned  ib 
many  Nations  for  rare  Skill  in  Salems  and  Athens  Tongnei^ 
and  familiar  Acquaintance  with  all  Rabbinical  Learning, 
Mr.  Hugh  Broughton."  This  edition  of  his  works,  thou^ 
bound  in  one  large  yolunlc  folio,  is  divided  into  foiir  Unoa, 
Towards  the  last  tome  is  Mr.  Broughlon's  funeral  sennon 
by  Mr.  Speght,  in  which  the  preacher  says,  <^  Touching  tke 
fruit  of  his  sowing,  viz.  his  private  reading  in  the  time, and 
with  the  approbation  of  the  reverend  and  learned  Bishop 
Aylmer ;  and  of  his  public  preaching  in  Christ^s  ohurcOi 
in  St.  Peter's,  and  in  my  church ;  how  many  are  theie  (jet 
some  alive)  who  may  thank  God  daily,  that  ever  they  kmr 
and  heard  him  ?  For  myself,  1  confess,  and  profess  flQ 
much,  and  shall  ever  do  so  whilst  I  breathe/'t 

There  are  many  of  Mr.  Brous^htonVi  manuscripta|  ih  his 
own  hand,  still  preserved  in  the  Uritish  Museum.  Soniie  of 
them  are  the  literary  productions  of  his  pen ;  otheii  idi^ 
to  the  controversies  in  which  he  engaged ;  and  the  lest  are 
miscellaneous.  These,  in  all  thirty-five,  are  bound  in  one 
volume  quarto.^  There  is  also  his  manuscript  ^<  Hannonj 
of  the  Bible.'^l 

William  Btrton,  A.  B. — This  pious  ministor WIM  hon^ 
in  the  city  of  Winchester,  and  educated  first  at  WicUiam 
school,  then  in  New  College,  Oxford,  where  be  was  chosen 
fellow.  He  was  afterwards  beneficed  in  the  city  of  Nor- 
wich, where  Sir  William  Ferryman,  afterwards  lord  chief 
baron,  a  worthy  religious  person,  and  a  gteiAt  prmnoter  of 
christian  piety,  was  his  ^at  friend  and  patron.  In  ISSSi 
his  name  is  among  the  Norfolk  divines,  above  sixty  in  all, . 
who  scrupled  subscription  to  Whitgift's  three  aitides.! 
Whether,  on  account  of  his  nonconformity,  he  felt  &e  iron 
hand  of  the  archbishop,  by  suspension,  deprivation,  ov 
imprisonment,  as  was  the  case  with  many  of  his  bretben^ 

•  British  Biography,  vol.  iii.  p.  ISO,  .      .. 

f  Strype*8  Annals,  vol.  ii.  p.  612,  t  Biog.  Britan.  vol.  ii.  p.  612. 

S  Sloaae's  MSS.  No.  S088.  ||  Harleian  MS8.  KoJ  W5. 
9  MS.  Register^  p.  436.  -   >     . 

W.  BURTON-  R.  ROGERS.    \  «S1 

We  have  not  been  able  to  learn.  His  being  under  the  wing 
pt  jBO  honourable  and  worthy  a  patron,  might  prove  a  suffi- 
cient protection.  One  of  the  same  name,  and  probably  the 
Ifune  person,  was  afterwards  a  minister  in  Bristol,  then  at 
Reading  in  Berkshire,  and  lastly  at  St.  Sepulchre's,  London, 
where  he  died  about  November,  16 12.»  There  were  two 
other  Mr.  William  Burtons,  both  persons  of  distinguished 
tfoinencc,  who  lived  about  the  same  time.f 

J  ■  His  Works. — 1.  A  Sermon  preached  at  Norwich,  on  Jer.  iii.  14., 
1689* — ^2.  A  Catechism  containing  certain  Questions  and  Answers 
cbnceming  the  Knowledge  of  God,  and  the  right  use  of  the  Law, 
1691.-^.  Dwnd's  Evidence;  or,  the  Assurance  of  God's  Love, 
14)62.— ^4.  A  Caveat  for  Sureties,  1593.-^6.  Exposition  of  the  Lord's 
Iteyer,  drawn  into  Questions  and  Answers,  1594.-^-^.  The  Rousing 
•C  the  3iuggard,  1596. — 7.  Conclusions  of  Peace  between  God  and 
|l{jan,  containing  comfQrta)[))e  Meditations  for  the  Children  of  God, 
.|595^->-8.  Sermons  on  the  Church's  Love  tp  Clirist  her  Hi)sban4, 169fiu 
^-^.  DavicTs  llianksgivjng  for  the  Arraignment  of  the  Man  of 
£«tb,  1598.-^10.  Ten  Sermons  on  Matt.  y.  3,  4.,  1602.-^11.  The 
Anatomy  of  Belial,  1603. — 12.  Certain  Questions  and  Answers  con- 
cerning th^  Attributes  of  God,  1602. — 13.  Questions  and  Answers 
conceriiiiig  the  right  use  of  the  Law  of  God,  1602. — 14.  An  Abstract 
Hi  the  Doctrine  of  the  Sabbath,  briefly,  yet  fully  and  plainly  set 
ftrth,  1606, 

Richard  Rogers. — This  excellent  divine  was  educated 
at  Cambridge,  and  was  afterwards  for  many  years  (he  labori- 
oos  and  useful  minister  of  AVethersfield  in  Essex.  He  was 
a  zealous,  faithful,  and  profitable  labourer  in  the  vineyard 
<if  the  Lord,  for  the  space  of  forty-six  years.  He  was  a 
man  of  considerable  learning,  and  of  a  most  humble,  peace- 
ible,  and  exemplary  life;  but  a  great  sufferer  for  noncQn- 
fiHrftiity.     In  the  year  1583,  upon  the  publication  of  Whit- 

gft's  three  articles,  and  the  severites  which  accompanied 
em,  Mr,  Rogers,  with  twenty-six  of  his  brethren,  all 
ministers  of  Essex,  presented  their  petition  to  the  lords  of 
,l|ie  council  for  relief^  an  abstract  of  which  is  given  in 
ajlother  placet 

*^;  This  petition  does  not  seem  to  have  produced  the  desired 
'efFect :  for  WhitgUl  suspended  and  silenced  than  all,  and 
iHotested  tl^it  not  one  of  them  should  preach  without  Sub- 
(scription  and  an  exact  conformity.    What  kind  of  treat- 

•  Wood's  Athene  Oxod.  Vol.  i.  p.  286,  287. 
f  Biog.  Britan.  vol.  iii.  p.  42.    Edit.  1778. 
t  See  Art.  George  Gifford. 



ment  they  afterwards  met  with,  appears  from  ao  aco0ail 
new  before  me,  wherein  it  is  said,  ^'that  thirty-eight 
ministers,  denominated  the  learned  and  painful  ministen  of 
Essex,  were  oftentimes  troubled  and  molested,  for  rdteing 
to  subscribe,  to  wear  the  surplice,  or  use  the  cross  in  bnp- 
tism."*  Though  our  divine  had  his  share  in  these  tynuu 
nical  proceedings,  he  was  afterwards  sheltered  under  the 
wing  of  a  most  worthy  patron. .  Sir  Robert  Wroth  wanply 
espoused  his  cause ;  who,  notwithstanding  the  protestatioa 
and  censure  of  the  archbishop,  ordered  nim  to  renew  hii 
preaching,  and  he  would  stand  forwards  in  bis  ddSaace. 
After  enduring  suspension  about  eight  months,  he  was  re- 
stored to  his  ministry.  lie  continual  for  many  yean(*3Uidtr 
the  protection  of  Sir  Robert,  enjoying  the  peaceabkexor* 
cise  of  his  ministry.  He  was  particularly  anxious  to  obtain 
a  more  pure  reformation  of  the  church ;  he  therefore  united 
with  many  of  his  brethren  in  subscribing  the  '<  Book-  of 
Discipline/V  In  the  year  1598,  one  Mr.  Rogers,  most  po- 
bably  this  pious  divine,  was  cited  to  appear  before  thi 
hi^h  commission;  but  whether  he  received  any  .eccle8iaiG5 
cal  censure,  we  are  unable  to  ascertain.} 

In  the  year  1603,  Mr.  Rogers  and  six  other  mipisters£# 
the  weight  of  the  archbishop's  outstretched  arm;  and  fis 
refusing  to  take  the  oath  ex  officio^  he  suspended  than  alL 
Upon  their  suspension  they  were  further  'iwnmoned'  to 
appear  before  his  lordship ;  but  it  is  said  the  archlnsbop 
died  on  the  very  day  of  their  appearance ;  when  they  :^^^ 
discharged  by  the  rest  of  the  commissioners.    But  in  the 
foUowiuj^  year  they  were  exceedingly  molested  byBancnifi^ 
Whitgift's  successor.    During  the  whole  suminer  they  were 
continually  cited  before  him,  which,  in  addition  to  many 
other  hardships,  caused  them  to  take  numerous,  long,  aw 
expensive  journies.^    In  these  tribulations  Mr.  Rogers  bore 
an  equal  share  with  his  brethren. 

Dr.  Ravio  succeeded  Bancroft  in  the  diocese  of  .London^ 
and  appears  to  have  been  of  the  same  cruel,  peiBftputki^ 
spirit  as  his  predecessor.  He  was  no  sooner  seated  in  htf 
episcopal  chair,  than  he  began  to  prosecute  the  noncon- 
formists. Among  otliers,  he  cited  Mr.  Rogers  to  app^u 
before  him,  and  protested  in  his  presence^  sayingy  ^  Bj 

♦  MS.  Cbrooolojry,  vol.  ii.  p.  689.  (10.) 

-t-  Neal's  Puritans,  vol.  i.  p.  423. 

t  Baker's  MS.  Collec.  vol.  zi.  p.  S44. 

S  MS.  Cbrooology,  toI.  ii.  p.  503.  (7.)  589.  (100 

I(.  ROGEK&  8SS 

the  hdp  <^je8us,  I  will  not  leave  one  preacher  in  mj  diocese 
who  doth  not  subscribe  and  conform."  But^  poor  man  *  he 
^ed  soon  after,  and  so  was  disappointed.  • 

Mr.  Rogers,  in  his  own  private  diary,  April  25, 1605, 
noAkes  the , following  reflections^  <<  I  was  much  in  prayer 
lJ>out  my  troubles,  and  my  God  granted,  me  the  desire 
o(  my  heart.  For,  by  the  favour  and  influence  of 
.WiUiam  Lord  KnoUys,  God  hath,  to  my  own  comfort,  and 
ithe  comfort  of  my  people,  delivered  me  once  more  out  of 
all  my  troubles.  Oh  that  I  may  make  a  holy  use  of  m j 
liberty  I  JPut  it  greatly  troubles  me,'"  adds  the  good  man, 
^«  that  after  labouring  betwixt  thirty  and  forty  years  in  the 
ministry,  I  ;un  now  accounted  imworthy  to  preach ;  while 
60  many  idle  and  scandalous  persons  enjoy  their  ease  and 

'  Uppn  Dr.  Yaughan's  translation  to  the  see  of  London^ 
and  njB  restoration  of  many  of  the  suspended  ministers,  Mr. 
Rogers  makes  these  reflections.  May  30,  1606:  <<If  I 
pfeaph  DO  more,  I  heartily  thank  God  for  my  liberty,  both 
lit  licgme  .and  abroad,  for  this  year  and  a  half,  and  I  hope 
with  ^ome  fruit.  The  bishop  has  been  my  friend.  April 
S,  1607,  this  week  came  the  painful  news  of  our  Bishop 
Yauffhan^s  death ;  who,  for  twenty -weight  months,  being  all 
thetune  he  continued,. he  permitted  all  the  godly  ministers 
to  live  p^u^eafily,  and  to  enjoy  liberty  in  their  ministry .'';( 
On  .another  occasion,  Mr.  Rogers  having  been  in  great 
idangfr  of  suspension,  and  many  of  his .  brethren  being 
silenced,  makes  this  reflection :  '^  By  God^s  great  mercy, 
i  have  gained  twelve  weeks  more  liberty  than  I  looked  for. 
Therefor^  I  have  the  greater  cause  to  be  content  when 
pileacin^  pometh,  especially  as  many  are  silenced  before 
iiie.'H  Mx.  Rogers  was  living  in  the  yeiar  1612;  but  we 
are  unable  to  ascertain  the  exact  period  of  his  deaths 

*  Wood  says,  that  this  prelate  was  preferred  first  to  the  see  of  Gloucester, 
ooaetoontof  his  great  learDing, gravity,  and  prudence;  and  that,  though  his 
'4kicc»e  *^  ^ras  pretty  weU  stoclied  with  those  who  could  not  bear  the  name 
ofj»  bishop,  yet,  by  his  episcopal  living  aniQng  them,  he  obtained  their  love 
mud  a  good  report  from  them.*'  He  seems,  however,  to  have  changed  bit 
coorse  upon  his  translation  to  the  see  of  London ;  where  he  presently  died, 
^*  havlilg,^*  it  is  said,  **  for  many  years,  with  much  vigilance,  served  his 
charch,  his  king,  and  his  country.'* — Wood's  Atheiue  Oxon,  vol.  i.  p.  61T. 
[ ,  f  MS.  Chronology,  vol.  ii.  p.  589.  (10.) 

X  Br.  Richard  Vaughan,  successively  Bishop  of  Bangor,  Chester,  and 
Xondon,  was  a  person  of  great  learning,  piety,  and  moderation,  and  an 
jidmired  preacher.  As  Fuller  says,,  '*  be  was  a  very  corpulent  man,  but 
tpiritually  minded,"  and  a  person  of  an  excellent  character.-— S<r3l!fe*ff 
Jlifhner^  p.  S95. — Gratiger'M  Biog.  Hist,  vol,  i.  p.  34Sy  S44. 

§  MS.  X^bronology,  vol.  if.  pi  689.  (12.) 


Mn  Kne\vstabs  preached  bis  funeral  sermon.  Messrs.  Danid 
and  Ezekiel  Rogers,  both  eminent  puritan  divines,  were  hk 
sons.  Mr.  Stephen  Marshall  was  his  immediate  sacccBior 
nt  Wethersfield. 

He  was  eminently  faithful  and  laborious  in  the  minisftrf ; 
and  it  is  said,  ^'  the  Lord  honoured  none  more  in  the  con* 
version  of  souls."     He  was  styled  the  Enoch  of  his  day, 
a  man  walking  with  God;  and  he  used  to  say,  /  should  be 
sorri/  if  ercery  day  were  not  employed  as  if  it  z&erc  my  latL 
He  was  an  admired  preacher  ;*  and  Bishop  Kennet  says^ 
<^  that  England  hardly  ever  brought  forth  a  nian  who  walked 
more  closely  with  God."+     Mr.  Rogers  was  always  re- 
markable for  seriousness  and  gravity,  in  all  kinds  of  com- 
pany.     Being    once  in  company   with    a  gentleman  of 
respectability,  whp  said  to  him,  ^^  Mr.  Rogers,  I  like  yoB 
and  your  company  very  well,  only  you  are  too  precise:^ 
"  Ohy  sir^'^^  replied  Mr.  Rogers,  "  /  serve  a  precise  Cfod/^t 

Mr.  Rogers  was  author  o?  *'  The  Seven  Treatises,'*  1688; 
which  was  highly  esteemed.  ^^  A  Commentry  upon  the 
whole  Book  of  Jud^,"  1615.  In  his  dedication  c{  this 
>7ork,  he  says  he  had  beep  in  the  ministry  forty  yean* 

Randall  Bates  was  a  most  holy  man,  an  ezoeUenl 
preacher,  and  a  zealous  nonconformist,  for  which  he  was 
prosecuted  in  the  ecclrsiastical  courts,  and  ^comnutM  to 
the  Gatehouse;  where,  after  a  confinement  of  twiMy 
months,  he  died  through  the  hardships  of  the  prison.  *  Mr.  ' 
John  Cotton,  who  was  his  contemporary,  den(H]&inat^'4iai 
"  an  heavenly  saint ;"  and  says,  "  he  suffered  in  the  eanse ' 
of  nonconformity,  being  choked  in  prison.^'  Nor  cotald  his 
release  be  obtained,  though  Dr.  Hering,  a  learned  and  ex- 
cellent physician,  earnestly  solicited  Sishop  Neile  for  his 
enlargement,  declaring  that  his  life  was  in  danger.^  But  tbe 
suit  of  the  physician  was  repulsed  with  reproaches,  and  the 
blood  of  bis  patient  was  spilt  through  the  ex:treme  rigour  of 
his  confinement.    He  died  in  the  year  1613.||    Datifig^Mr.    * 

*  Graqgefs  Biog.  Hist.  vql.  i.  p.  219.        4  Keonet's  Cbrontcle,  p.  60$i 

t  Firmio*8  Real  Christian,  p.  67.     Ldit.  1670. 

§  Bishop  Neile,  it  is  said,  ^*  was  always  reputed  a  popish  and  Annloln 
prelate,  a  persecutor  of  all  ortliodoz  apd  godly  tninisters,  and  Ode  who  pre- 
ferred popish  aod-Armipian  clergy,  making  choice  of  them  for  bit  chap- 
lains." He  was  accused  of  these  things  to  his  nuyesty  by  the  hooie  of 
commons,  in  1628,  and  complained  of  in  several  parliaiDeDt8.«^Pr^iM*« 
Cant.  Doome,  p.  531  • 

0  Cotioo's  Answer  to  Williams,  p.  117.— Princess  Chiroo.  Hbt  TOl.!. 
p.  28. 



Bfrfes^s  imprisonment  he  wrote  a  book,  entitled,  <<  Medita- 
tions whilst  he  was  prisoner  in  the  Gratehouse,  Westminster,** 
irhich  shews  him  to  have  been  a  person  of  great  humility 
and  piety.  It  discovers  a  mind  strongly  attached  to  the 
author^s  views  of  christian  doctrine  and  church  discipline. 
His  views  of  the  latter  appear  to  have  been  a  compound  of 
presbyterianism  and  independency,  as  some  of  his  expres- 
sions  favour  the  one,  and  some  the  other  form  of  church 

Daniel  Dyke,  B.  D. — This  excellent  divine  was  bom 
at  Hempstead  in  Hertfordshire,  where  his  father  was  a 
worthy  minister,  and.  silenced  for  nonconformity.*  He 
ireceived  his  ieducatioh  at  Cambridge,  and  became  a  most 
fitithfiil  and  useful  preacher ;  but,  like  his  honoured  father, 
l¥as  exceedingly  persecuted  by  the  intolerant  prdates.  He 
T^as  for  some  time  minister  of  Coggeshall  in  Essex;  but, 
upon  the  publication  of  Whitgift's  three  articles,  in  1583,  he 
was  suspended  by  Bishop  Aylmer,  and  driven  out  of  the 
county .f  Afterwards  he  settled  at  St.  Albans,  in  his  native 
cpunty,  where  his  ministry  was  particularly  acceptable  and 
profitable  to  the  people.  He  united  with  his  brethren  in 
attemcKting  to  promote  a  more  pure  reformation  of  the 
chutcn,  and,  with  this  object  in  view,  assembled  with  them 
in  their  private  associations. :(  But  in  this,  as  in  his  former 
situation,  the  watchful  eye  of  Aylmer  was  upon  him,  and  he 
was  involved  in  fresh  troubles.  Because  he  continued  a 
deacon^  and  did  not  enter  iato  priests^  orders,  which  the  bishop 
supposed  he  accounted  popish ;  and  because  he  refused  to 
wear  the  surplice,  and  troubled  his  auditory,  as  his  grace  sig- 
iufiied,with  notions  which  thwarted  the  established  religion, 
lie  was  again  suspended,  and  at  last  deprived.  This  was  in 
Hie  year  1589.§  ,  The  distressed  parishioners  being  con- 
cerned for  the  loss  of  their  minister,  petitioned  the  Lord 
Treasurer  Burleigh,  who  had  been  Mr.  Dyke's^reat  friend, 
to  interdsde  with  the^bishop  in  their  behalf.  This  petition 
sets  forth,  "  That  they  had  been  without  any  ordinary 
preaching  till  within  this  four  or  five  years ;  by  the  want 
of  which  they  were  unacquainted  with  their  duty  to  God, 
tiieir  sovereign,  and  their  neighbours ;  and  so  ignorance  and 
disorder  had  greatly  prevailed  among  them,  for  want  of 

'  ♦  Foller*8  Worthies,  part  ii.  p.  28.  +  MS.  Register,  p.  741. 

fBaker*8  MS.  Collec.  yoh  zv.  p.  79. 
MS.  JMfiAt^i  p.  586.— Strype*s  Aylmer^  p.  1^. 


beiiiff  taught  their  duty :  but  that  of  late  it  had  pleaaed  the 
Lord  (o  visit  them  with  the  means  of  salvation,  b;^  Um  oidi* 
nary  ministry  of  Mr.  Dyke,  an  authorized  minislery  wb^ 
according  to  his  function,  had  been  painftil  and  profitafaihy 
and  had  carrfa^  himself  so  peaceably  and  dutifiuly  among 
them,  both  in  his  life  and  doctrine,  that  no  man  could  justly 
find  fault  i?ith  him,  except  of  malice.  There  were  ^omei 
indeed,  who  could  not  b^  to  hear  their  fiiults  reproved ; 
but  through  his  preaching  many  bad  been  brought  fiom 
their  ignorance  and  evil  ways,  to  a  better  life ;  to  be  frequent 
bearers  of  God's  word ;  and  their  servants  were  in  better 
order  than  heretofore." 

They  then,  inform  his  lordship,  ^'  that  their  minister  was 
suspended  by  the  Bishop  of  London  ;  and  that  they  were  as 
sheep  without  a  shepherd,  exposed  to  manifold  'dan^en^ 
even  to  return  to  their  former  ignorance  and  cursed  vanities. 
That  the  Lord  had  spoken  it,  tlierefore  it  must  be  tme^ 
Where  no  vision  is^  the  people  perish.  And  having  expend 
enced  his  honourable  care  for  them  in  the  like  case  hereto- 
fore, which  they  thankfully  acknowledged,  they  earnestly 
pray  his  lordship,  in  the  bowels  of  his  compassion,-  to  pity 
them  in  their  present  misery,  and  become  a  means  that  they 
may  again  enjoy  their  preacher.^'* 

The  treasurer,  upon  the  reception  of  this  petition,  wrote 
to  the  bishop,  and  requested  Mr.  Dyke's  restoration  to  his 
ministry,  promising  that  if  be  troubled  his  congr^ration  with 
innovations  in  future,  he  would  join  his  lordship  agaiiM 
him;  but  the  bishop  excused  himself,  insinuating  that  Mn 
Dyke  was  guUty  of  incontinency.  This  occasioned  a 
further  inve^igation  of  his  character.  He  was  tried  at  the 
sessions  at  St.  Albans,  when  the  woman  herself  who  ac- 
cused him,  confessed  her  wicked  contrivance,  and  asked 
him  forgiveness  in  open  court.  Mr.  Dyke  bring  thus  pub< 
licly  cleared  and  honourably  acquitted,  the  treasurer  wiii 
the  more  urg(?nt  with  the  bishop  to  restore  him ;  '^  because,'^ 
said  he,  ''  tlie  Ix^t  minister  in  the  nation  may  be  thus 
slandered ;  and  the  people  of  St.  Albans  have  no  tendiiwi 
only  they  have  for  their  curate  an  insufficient  ddtioj|^  oU 
man.  For  this  favour/'  said  the  worthy  treasurer,  **  lidiali 
thank  your  lordship,  and  will  not  solicit  you  any  more^  if  he 
shall  hereafter  give  just  cause  of  public  ofience  against  the) 
ordurs  of  the  church  established.''^  But  all  that  the  treasun^ 
could  do  proved  iueflectual.     The  good  man  was  ther^pre 

*  MS.  Register,  p.  303— SOS.  4  Ibid.  p.  aOft— aOlL 

tL  I^ARKBR.  '  18* 

ilsft  luideir  the  unknerciful  censure  of  this  prelate,  fiut  bow 
lon^^e  lemamed  so,  or-whedier  the  bisnop  eyer  restored 
hi%  yte  are  not  able  to  learn.  He  died  about  the  year  1614  > 
fiisVi^ine,  or  the  name  .of  his  brother,  Mr.  Jeremiah  D;fke, 
abdlher  e2l:cellef^  puritan  divine,  is  among  those  who  sub- 
iPcriBed  ihe  ^^  Book  of  Discipline.^>  Mr.  Dyke  was  a  man 
lAf  ah  unblemished  character,  a  divine  of  great  learning  and 
piefy^  and  a  preacher  of  sound,  heart-searching  doctrine.; 
'  Wpod'denominates  him  an  eminent  preacher.^  His  writing 
ure  e)tcellcnt  for  the  time,  and  are  still  much  admirra. 
-Bfslk>p  Wilkins  classes  his  sermons  among  the  most  excel- 
lent in  .g  His  works,  containing  various  pieces,  were 
fcoU^clefl  and  published  in  16S5,  in  tw6  volumes  quarto. 
His  "Mystery  of  Self-deceiving,"  was  often  published,  and 
"was  translated  into  High  Dutch.  ^'  It  is  a  book,^'  says 
Fuller,  "  that  will  be  owned  for  a  trtUhy  while  men  have 
any  badness  in  them ;  and  will  be  owned  as  a  treasure^  while 
theV  have  wiy' goodness  in  them."i  This  work,  and  his 
^  Treatises  on  Ifepentance," .  are  very  searching.  His  doc- 
^tmt  fklls  as  the  small  rain  upon  the  tender  herb,  and  as 
the  showers  upon  the  grass.«* 

•  Robert  Parker. — ^This  learned  and  celebrated  puritan 
%i$caitaie  rector  of  North-Benflete  in  Es^ex,  in  the  year 
•1571; 'but,  resigning  the  benefice  the  year  following,  he 
tiecianie  rector  of  West-Henningfield,  in  the  same  county, 
Vhich  he  held  several  years.++  Afterwards  he  became 
p«\stor  of  the  church  at  Dedham,  in  the  same  county, 
yHh^t^  he  was  predecessor  to  the  famous  Mr.  John  Rogers. 
fie  wais  suspended  by  Bishop  Aylraer,  for  refusing  subscrip- 
ikin  to  Whitgift's  three  articles.  Being  afterwards,  by  some 
"feiie&ns,  restored  to  his  ministry,  a  day  was  appointed  when 
ii^- Should  be  deprived,  if  he  still  persisted  in  refusing  to 
^ear  the  surplice ;  when  he  most  probably  received  the 
^Cfesiastical  censure.Jt  Having  encfured  these  troubles,  he 
llftft  the  county,  and  was  afterwards  beneficed  at  Wilton  in 
•^iltshire,  where  he  continued  many  years. 
'  In  the  year  1598,  Bishop  Bilson  having  published  to  the 

r     •  Fidler'i  Worthies,  part  ii.  p.  39.        f  Neal*s  Puritans  vol.  i.  p.  43S. 
.     1  Mr.  Dyke's  «'  DeceitfulDess  of  the  Heart/'  Dedica.    Edit.  ieS3. 
'   \  AthenflB  Ozoik  vol.  i.  p.  788.        U  Discourse  oa  Preachiog,  p.  62, 83. 
''  "i  Worthies^  part  if.  p.  29. 

••  WiHiams's  Christian  Preacher,  p.  454. 

f  f  N«vcpart*8.Repert.  Bed.  vol.  ii.  p.  46|  310. 

tt MS.  Sejcbier,  p.  664, 74]. 


world  that  Jesus  Christ,  after  his  death  upon  the  cross,  actu^ 
ally  descended  into  the  regions  of  the  damned ;  many  learned 
divines  undertook  a  refutation  of  his  opinion,  and  to  estab- 
lish the  contrary  sentiment.  Among  these  was  Mr.  Ptoker, 
who  published  a  learned  piece,  entitled,  ^<  De  descensu 
Christi  ad  Infernos."  In  the  year  1607  he  published  a 
Treatise  on  the  Cross  in  Baptism,  entitled,  <<  A  l^o-> 
lasticall  Discourse  against  Symbolizing  with  Antichnk  in 
Ceremonies,  especially  the  Signe  of  the  Crosse."  Dr.  Grey 
is  pleased  to  treat  Mr.  Peircc  and  Mr.  Neal  with  consider- 
able ridicule  for  callinn:  it  a  xitry  learned  work,  and  the 
author  himself  with  mucli  contempt,  because  he  was  ol^^[ed 
to  leave  the  comitry  for  publishing  that  which  in  Ids  cgglidioo 
contains  things  very  scandalous  and  offensive.*  That  .the 
work  contains  things  very  scandalous,  except  to  those  who 
tyrannize  over  the  consciences  of  their  brethren,  was  never 
yet  proved ;  but  that  it  contains  things  very  qffensm  to  all 
who  persecute  their  brethren  for  refusing  to  observe  their 
anticnristian  impositions,  was  never  doubted.  The  ode- 
brated  Dr.  Ames  says,  ^^  It  is  a  work^  in  truth,  of  sach- 
strength  and  beauty,  that  it  dazzles  the  eyes  even  ,of  envy 
itself."f  The  learned  prelates  would,  indeed,  have  done 
their  cause  no  harm,  if,  when  it  was  published,  or  at  any 
future  period,  they  had  shewn  themselves  abletp  AttWcr  it. 
But  they  went  a  shorter  way  to  work ;  and,  instead  of  at^ 
tempting  any  answer,  they  persuaded  the  kii^  to  issue  hit 
royal  proclamation,  with  the  ofier  of  a  reward,  for  WUPer 
bending  the  author,  which  obliged  him  to  hide  himfidtm  a 
season,  and  then  retire  into  a  foreign  land. 

These  troubles  came  upon  him  chiefly  by  the  instigation 
of  Archbishop  Bancroft ;  who  receiving  information  thai  he 
was  concealol  in  a  certain  citizen^s  house  in  London,  ,iia- 
mediately  sent  a  person  to  watch  the  house,  while  otii^ 
were  prepared  with  a  warrant  to  search  for  him.  The  per- 
son having  fixed  himself  at  the  door,  boasted  that  he  liad 
him  now  secure.  Mr.  Parker,  at  this  juncture,  resolved'to 
dress  himself  in  the  habit  of  a  citizen,  and  venture  00^ 
whereby  he  might  possibly  escape ;  but  if  he  remained  in 
the  house  he  would  be  sure  to  be  taken.  Accordiii|;ly.  hi 
his  strange  garb  he  went  forth ;  and  God  so  otdaed  it,  wL 
just  at  the  moment  of  his  going  out,  the  watchman  at  the 
door  spied  his  intended  bride  passbg  on  the  other  side 
the  street ;  and  while  he  just  stepped  over  to  speak  to  he^ 

»  GK7*t  EamiaatioD, Tot.  i.  p.  59.  f  Amal%  ftafc  M^FML 


the  good  man  escaped.  When  the  officers  came  with  the 
"warrant  to  search  the  house^  to  their  great  mortification  he 
could  not  be  found.*  . 

After  this  signal  providential  deliverance,  be  retired  to 
the  house  of  a  frigid  in  the  neighbourhood  of  l^ondon, 
where  a  treach^ous  servant  in  the  family  gave  information 
to  the  bishop's  officers,  who  came  and  actually  searched  the 
house  where  he  was ;  but,  by  the  special  providence  of  Giod, 
he  was  drain  most  remarkably  preserved.  For  the  only 
room  in  the  house  which  they  neglected  to  search,  was  that 
in  which  be  was  concealed,  from  whence  he  heard  them 
swearing  and  quarrelling  one  with  another ;  one  protesting 
that  they  had  not  searched  that  room,  and  another  as  con-, 
fidently  asserting  the  contrary,  and  refusing  to  suffer  it  to 
be  searched  again.  Had  he  been  taken,  he  must  have  been 
cast  into  prison ;  where,  without  doubt,  says  our  author,  he 
must  have  <}ied.+ 

Mr.  Panker  having  been  favoured  with  these  remarkable 
inteippsUions  of  providence,  fled  from  the  storm  and  went 
to  Holland,  and  would  have  been  chosen  pastor  to  the 
Englikh  church  at  Amsterdam,  had  not  the  magistrates  been 
afhud  of  disobliging  King  James,  ^or  the  burgomasters 
>of  the  city  informed  them,  ^'  that,  as  they  desired  to  keep 
Criendship  with  his  majesty  of  Great  Britain,  they  should 
pot  a  stop  to  that  business.''^  His  settlement  at  Amsterdam 
being  thus  prevented,  he  went  to  Doesburg,  and  became 
imeacher  to  the  garrison ;  where,  about  ei^t  months  after 
Lis  lemoval,  he  died^  in  the  year  1614.§  During  his  short 
abode  at  Doesburg,  he  wrote  several  very  affectionate  letters 
Id  Air.  John  Paget,  minister  at  Amsterdam;  in  which  he 
discovers  a  becoming  resignation  to  the  will  of  God,  saying, 
'^  I  thank  you  for  the  pains  you  have  taken  for  me,  though 
without  success ;  at  which  I  am  not  dismayed,  nor  at  aU 
moved.  I  am  assured  it  is  come  to  pass  by  the  will  of  the 
Lord;  who,  I  know,  wiU  be  my  Grod,  as  well  out  of  Am- 
sterdam as  in  it."!  Mr.  Parker  was  an  able  writer,  a  man 
irf  great  learning  and  pi^y,  a  judicious,  &ithful,  and 
laborious  preacher.! 

• '  Inaddition  to  the  work  already  noticed,  Mr«  Parker  was 
author  of  ^<  De  Politia  Ecclesiastica ;"  in  which  he  main- 

•  Claffk*8  Lives,  littt  t«1«  part  i.  p.  S8, 2S. 
t  Peiice*!  Viodication,  part  i.  ^  170, 171. 

{Pa^t'y  Aos.  to  Best  and  Davenport,  p.  87. 
Fta^*s  Defeoce  of  Chnrcb  Gov.  Pref.  I  Ibid, 

f  avk*a  Llvc^  put  i.  p.  89.— Ames's  Fretii  Salt,  Pref.    * 


fains,  that  what^er  relates  to  the  church  of  Chrifit,  must  be 
deduced  from  scripture.  <^  We  deny  no  authority  to  the 
king  in  matters  ecclesiastical,"  says  he,  <<but  only  that 
which  Jesus  Christ,  the  only  head  of  the  church,  hath 
directly  and  precisely  appropriated  unto  himself,  and  hath 
denied  to  communicate  to  any  creature  or  creature  in  the 
world.  We  hold  that  Christ  alone  is  the  doctor  or  teacher 
of  the  church  in  matters  of  religion ;  and  that  the  word  of 
Christ,  which  he  hath  given  to  his  church,  is  of  absolute 
perfection,  containing  all  parts  of  true  religioti,  both  for 
substance  and  ceremony,  and  a  perfect  direction  in  all  ecde* 
siastical  matters  whatsoever,  unto  which  it  is  not  lawfiil  fiir 
any  man  or  angel  to  add,  or  from  which  to  detract:"* 

Mr.  John  PSget  of  Amsterdam,  who  was  well  acquaitited 
with  him,  gives  the  following  account  of  his  views  of  chtttth 
government :  ^'  When  he  came  from  Leyden,  where  he  and 
Mr,  Jacob  had  sojourned  together  for  some  time,  he  pro- 
fessed at  his  first  coming  to  Amsterdam,  that  the  use  of 
synods  was  for  counsel  and  advice  only,  but  had  no  autho- 
rity to  give  a  definitive  sentence.  After  much  conferoice 
with  him,  when  he  had  more  seriously  and  maturely  cgn- 
sidered  this  question,  he  plainly  changed  his  opinion,  as  be 

Srofessed,  not  only  to  me,  but  to  others :  so  tnat  eohle'  of 
Ir.  Jacobus  opinion  were  offended  at  him,  and  expostulded 
not  only  with  him,  but  also  with  me,  for  having  occasibned 
the  alteration  of  his  judgment.  I  had  the  means  of  uaditti^ 
standing  his  mind  aright,  and  better  than  those  who  "petted 
his  meaning,  since  he  was  not  only  a  member  of  the  same 
church,  but  a  member  of  the  same  family,  and  livcfd  with 
me  under  the  same  roof;  where  we  had  daily  conversatton 
of  these  things,  even  at  the  time  when  Mr.  Jacob  published 
his  unsound  writing  upon  this  question.  He  was  merwards 
a  member  of  the  same  elde(rship,  and,  by  (fffice,  sat  with  us 
daily  to  hear  and  judge  the  causes  of  our  church,  end  so 
became  a  member  of  our  classical  combination;  yet  did  he 
never  testify  against  the  undue  power  of  the  classui,  tut  c6m* 
plain  that  we  were  not  a  free  people^  though  the  chssii 
exercised  the  same  authority  then  as  it  doth  now.  He  was 
also  for  a  time  the  scribe  of  our  consistory,  and  the  acts  of  pur 
eldership  and  church  were  recorded  by  his  own  hand/V 

Mr.  Thomas  Parker,  another  excellent  puritan,  of  whom 
a  memoir  will  be  given,  was  his  ton. 

«  Trdngbtoo's  Apology,  p.  80,  90.    Edit.  16ei. 
+  P«get*t  Defence,  p.  10&. 

GAWTON.  «41 

'  AiCHARD  Gawton. — This  zealous  puritan  was  minister 
of  SnoriM  in  Norfolk,  and  afterwards  in  the  city  of  Nor- 
wich. Mr.  Strype  stigmatizes  him  with  having  formerly 
been  a  man  of  trade,  and  then  becoming  a  curate  in  the 
church.  _,  This  may  be  true,  and  yet  he  might  be  a 
letoied,  faithful,  and  pious  minister  of  Christ,  and  not 
tbter  the  church  merely  for  a  piece  of  bread,  as  was  too 
much  the  custom  of  those  times.  Upon  his  entrance 
into  the  sacred  office,  he  met  with  barbarous  usage  from  the 
hands  of  Archbishop  Parker.  Having  obtained  a  pre- 
sentation to  the  benefice  of  Snoring,  the  archbishop  peremp- 
torily required  him  to  sign  a  bond  of  a  hundred  marks,  to 
pay  Dr.  Willoughby,  the  former  incumbent,  fourteen  pounds 
a  year ;  though  Willoughby,  through  mere  carelessness,  had 
lost  the  living.     If  he  had  refused  to  pay  it,  he  must  have 

S''  ne  to  prison.^    Afterwards,  the  poor  man  finding  so  much 
ficulty  in  paying  this  annuity,  was  glad  to  quit  the  place^ 
and  resign  the  living  into  the  hands  of  his  patron.* 

Upon  the  resignation  of  his  benefice,  he  became  a  preacher 
in  the  city  of  Norwich,  but,  in  the  year  1376,  was  cited 
before  Dr.  Freke,  his  diocesan,  for  nonconformity. +  Ap- 
pearing before  the  bishop,  he  was  charged  with  refusing  to 
webr  the  surplice,  and  with  declining  from  the  exact  order 
of  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer.  He  confessed  the  former^ 
fuid  acknowledged  that  he  did  not  keep  exactly  to  the 
rubric,  but  saicl,  that,  in  other  things,  he  was  conformable. 
Several  other  charges  were  alleged  against  him,  as  will 
appear  from  the  following  examination  before  the  bishop 
and  others,  dated  August  lo,  1576 : 
;  Bishop.  You  have  taken  upon  you  in  your  pulpit  to 
denote  my  chaplain's  sermon,  and  have  admonished  your 
parishioners  to  beware  of  false  doctrine. 

Gawton.  Was  it  not  meet  for  me  so  to  do,  seeing  he 
preached  that  man  has  power  sufficient  to  draw  himself 
unto  God  ? 

"B.   You  did  this  the  Sunday  after  he  had  preached, 
ttjough  be  gave  you  all  reasonable  satisfaction. 

XtTIu  attempting  to  do  this,  he  made  his  case  worse  .than 
it  was  at  first. 

B.  Wherein  hath  he  made  it  worse  ? 

•  Parle  of  a  Register,  p.  394.— Strype's  Parker,  p.  8TS. 

f  Bishop  Freke  was  so  outrageously  violent  io  the  persecution  of  the 
paritaas,  that,  in  the  year  1584,  the  ministers  of '  Suffolk  and  Norfolk 
vaitedly  presented  their  complaints  against  him  to  the  privy  council.— 
M8.  CkTMohgy^  ToK  ii.  p.  489.  (10.) 

VOL.  II.  n 


G«  In  his  last  sennon,  he  said,  that  hearing  was  calliiif ; 
and  Paul  saitb,  faith  cometh  hy  hearing ;  out  hearing  is 
a  natural  ffift ;  therefore  ve  have  faith,  uid,  consequently! 
are  saved  oy  the  exercise  of  our  natural  powers. 

B.  I  will  call  him  to  dispute  with  you. 

G.  I  am  ready  at  any  time  to  confute  his  fiJse  doctrine. 

B.  That  is  not  the  cause  why  I  sent  for  you.  I  have 
other  matters  against  you.  How  many  benefices  have 

G.  I  have  too  many  by  one ;  holding  one  merely  by 
name,  and  against  my  will. 

B.  Vou  have  two  benefices  more. 

G.  I  am  sure  I  have  not. 

B.  Have  you  not  one  benefice  in  Wales  ? 

G.  I  have  not. 

B.  We  shall  sequester  the  first-fruits  c£  Snoring  benefice^ 
because  you  have  not  compounded  for  the  fruits  of  a 
benefice  in  Wales. 

G.  Sequester,  and  spare  not;  for  I  have  no  beneficain 

B.  That  is  not  the  thing  for  which  I  sent  for  yoQ.  But 
because  you  do  not  wear  the  surplice,  nor  observe  the  order 
of  the  queen's  book,  either  in  public  prayers  or  lbs 
administration  of  the  sacraments;  but  are  altogether  oat 
of  order. 

G.  I  confess  that  I  wear  not  the  surplice;  but  I  am 
iiqjustly  charged  with  not  observing  the  order  of  the  book* 
I  was  lately  told  at  court,  that  you  did  not  much  like  tbe 
surplice ;  and,  therefore,  I  fear  that  worldly  dignity  hatb 
led  you  to  act  against  your  own  conscience. 

B,  There  is  no  reason  why  any  persons  should  tliink 
thus  of  me,  seeing  I  wear  the  surplice,  or  that  a^^pard 
which  is  the  same;  and  if  I  were  to  say  the  service  or 
administer  the  sacraments,  I  would  wear  the  surplice. 

G.  I  am  the  more  sorry  for  it. 

B.  Have  you  served  in  any  cure  in  Norwich,  or  in 
the  diocese  of  Norwich  ? 

G.  I  have  served  a  cure  at  Beast-street  Grate,  in  the  dty. 

B.  Have  you  then  acknowledged  yourself  subject  to  thi 
jurisdiction  of  the  bishop  ? 

G.  I  do  not  acknowledge  myself  subject  to  that  jurisdlo 
tion  which  is  claimed  and  exercised  by  the  bishop. 

B.  Beware  how  you  deny  authority. 

G.  I  am  not  afraid  to  deny  the  unlawful  authority  (f 
bishops,  archdeacons,  chancellors,  commissaries^  and  iQCb 

GA^)^rTON.  243 

Uke;  thoqgii  to  dmy  their  authority^  it  is  said,  approacheB 
near  to  treason.  / 

Deatfl  They  ate  your  fellows  who  have  so  reported  it. 

G.  Nay ;  they  are  your  fellows,  who  would  fein  have  it  so. 

D.  Their  saying  was,  that  whosoever  denies  that  the 
queen  hiis  ecclesiastical  jurisdiction,  is  in  danger  of  treason. 

G.  Whosoever  hath  said  so,  is  worthy  to  be  so  accountedi 

B.  Do  you  allow  that  the  queen  hath  ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction  ? 

G.  I  do. 

B.  The  queen  hath  ecclesiastical  jurisdiction^  which 
Jurisdiction  ime  hath  committed  to  me;  thereifore  I  have 
ecclesiastical  jurisdiction. 

G.  Though  the  queen  have  ecclesiastical  jurisdiction,  it 
is  not  absolute,  or.  to  do  what  she  pleases.  But  with  all 
humble  suhinission,  I  acknowledge  all  the  jurisdiction  she 
claimeth.  For  her  own  words  declare,  that  she  claimeth  no 
farther  jurisdiction  than  the  word  of  God  doth  allow. 
"  B.   I  perceive  what  you  mean,  and  know  where  that 

:^anation  is  given. 

G.  Did  the  queen  then  give  that  explanation  merely  as 
Wi  Uknnany or  as  queen?  If  she  gave  it  as  queen,  it  must 
neieds  be  a.  declaration  of  the  authority  which  she  claimeth. 

B.  What  do  you  dislike  in  the  jurisdiction  which  I 
diaim?  . 

G.  What  authority  haye  you  from  the  word  of  God  to  | 
claim  the  title  of  lord-Mshopj  and  to  exercise  government  r 
over  your  feUow-mmisters  ?  *^ 

B.  What  part  of  the  word  of  God  is  against  it  ? 

G.  Matthew  xx. ;  where  Christ  forbids  his  disciples 
claiming  superior  titles,  and  exercising  superior  authority 
cnrer  one  another. 

B;  You  have  read  no  good  expositor  who  so  interprets  itA 

G.  Yes,  Calvin,  Beza,  and  Musculus.  And  Beza  upon/ 
Acts  xiii.  declares,  that  in  all  the  New  Testament  there  are  \ 
no  dignified  titles  ffiven  to  the  apostles.  ^ 

B.  Doth  not  Christ  say,  "  i  e  call  me  Master,  and 
Lord ;  and  ye  say  well ;  for  so  I  am  ?"  Why  then  should 
you  so  much  dislike  the  name  ?  'X 

G.  Though  the  name  be  due  to  Christ,  it  is  not  due  to  v 
toy  mere  man. 

B.  What  not  domine  ?  Is  that  so  much  ? 

G.  The  word  domine  signifies  sir,  as  well  as  lord. 

B.  The  queen  in  her  letters  patent,  directed  tp  the  varioos 


states^  willed  them  to  receive  me  de  'domim  xistroj  which,  if 
you  render  sir,  will  be  absurd. 

G.  The  queen  accounteth  none  of  j^m  as  lords';  gbIj  bj 
custom  from  your  predecessors,  the  popbh  biahopB,  you  an 
called  hrds* 

B.  In  the  acts  of  parliament  we  are  called  lords  apiiitiialy 
as  the  others  are  called  lords  temporal. 

G.  That  is  merely  through  custom,  as  before. 

D.  Bullinger,  Gaulter,  and  other  learned  men  abroad,  ia 
their  late  letter  to  the  Bishop  of  Norwich,  called  him.&nf'' 

G.  The  bishop  shewed  me  their  letters^-and  ibey  calbd 
him  not  by  the  name  of  lord. 

B.  But  you  observe  not  the  order  prescribed  in  the 
queen's  book. 

G.  i  do  not  think  myself  bound  by  law,  to  observe  pie^ 
cisely  eyery  part  of  the  queen's  book< 

B.  You  do  not  read  the  service  as  appointed  by  the  hooki 

G.  I  say  the  service  a6  appointed,  except,  for  the  sake  of 
preaching,  I  omit  some  parts ;  as  I  may  by  law.  I  observe 
the  rest,  except  the  cross  and  vows  in  baptism,  which  I  did 
not  consider  myself  as  bound  precisely  to  observe. 

B.  But  you  wear  not  the  surplice. 

G.  I  wear  it  not;  and  seeing  it  was  established  in  tbe 
church  not  according  to  the  word  of  Gfod,  I  daie  not 
wear  it. 

B.  There  are  many  godly,  zealous,  and  learned  men  wbo 
wear  it.   Do  you  then  condemn  them  all  ? 

G.  I  utterly  dislike  their  wearing  it.  And  you,  Mr.  Dean^ 
did  publicly  preach  against  it,  and  condemned  those  who 
wore  it,  calling  it  a  superstitious  and  popish  gannioit. 

B.  You  have  preached  without  renewing  your  license, 
since  the  day  appointed  in  the  canons. 

G.  I  was  minister  of  the  word  of  God,  and,  theiefine, 
bad  sufficient  authority  to  preach  the  word  in  my  palish 
without  any  further  license.  Yet  I  despised  not  your 
licenses,  so  far  as  they  tend  to  shut  out  those  who  wotaiA 
teach  popery  and  false  doctrine. 

B.  You  deny  our  authority,  and  wear  not  flie  surplice.. 
You  shall,  therefore,  be  put  from  the  ministry^  and  retom' 
to  your  occupation. 

G.  I  thank  God  that  I  have  an  occupation  io  go  tajmd  , 
am  not  ashamed  of  it.    Jesus  Christ  and  the  apostle  nnil 
had  an  occuoatien. 

GAWTON.  845 

D.  That  Jesus  Christ  had  aa  occupation  cannot  be 
{fathered  out  of  the  text.  It  was  only  tht  opinion  of  the 
people  of  Nazareth,  who  said  he  was  a  carpenter. 

G.  And  who  could  tell  better  than  the  people  of  Naza-) 
reth,  among  whom  he  lived  ?    I  think  they  c6uld  best  tell  r 
irhat  was  his  occupation.  ^ 

Here  the  bishop  pronounced  the  sentence  of  suspension 
upon  Mr.  Gawton,  and  the  register  entered  it  upon  record. 

G.  I  now  perceive,  that  if  one  had  tbe  eloquence  of 
ChiysQstom,  the  learning  of  Austin,  and  the  divinity  of  St. 
Paul,  if  he  did  not  wear  the  surplice,  you  would  put  him 
^<mt  o(  the  ministry. 

B.  So  we  would.  And  if  St.  Paul  were  here,  he  would 
wear  a  fool  ^^s  coaty  rather  than  be  put  to  silence. 

G.  He  would  then  act  contrary  to  his  own  doctrine.  For 
he  saith,  he  w(»ild  eat  no  flesh  while  the  world  standetlu^ 
rather  than  offend  a  weak  brother;  and,  surely,  he  would 
be  equally  scrupulous  in  offending  hijs  brethren  by  -wearing' 
superstitiQus  and  popish  garments.  Your  dealing  thus 
with  us  in  comers,  will  not  further  your  cause,  but  hinder 
it,  and  further  ours;  for  all  men  will  see  you  fear  the  light.  ^ 
You  have  now  authority  on  your  side;  but  we  are  not 
above  half  a  dozen  unconformable  ministers  in  this  city; 
and  if  yoa  will  confer  with  us  by  learning,  we  will  yield 
up  our  lives,  if  we  are  tiot  able  to  prove  the  doctrines  we' 
hold  to  be  consonant  to  the  word  of  Grod. 

B*  That  is  uncharitably  spoken;  for  no  man  sought 
your  lives. 

G.  The  dean  here  says,  that  he  who  seeks  our  livings, 
seeks  our  lives. 

D.  You  are  like  the  apothecaries,  seating  papers  on 
empty  boxes. 

Cf.  You,  indeed,  may  very  properly  be  so  denominated. 
For  if  you  were  otherwise  than  as  empty  boxes,  you  would 
not  be  afraid  to  have  the  cause  tried.* 

The  examination  thus  closed,  and  the  good  man,  being 
suspended,  was  dismissed  from  hi$  lordship*s  presence. 
Upon  his  suspension,  Mr.  Neal,  by  mistake,  says,  that  be 
8cnt  a  bold  letter  to  the  bishop.  This  letter  was  eviden^y 
written  by  another  person.  +  We  find,  however,  fhat  after 
receiving  the  episcopal  censure,  Mr.  Gawton  and  several 
of  his  brethren,  wrote  an  excellent  letter  to  Mr.  Thomas 
Gartwright,  wherein  they  express,  with  considerable  freedom, 

•  Parie  of  a  Register,  p.  393—400. 

t  8^  Art.  R.  Harycy.— Ncai'i  Puritans,  vol.  i.  p.  306. 


their  firmness  in  the  cause  of  nonconformity.    This  letter, 
dated  from  London,  May  S3,  1577,  was  as  follows: 

<^  We  stand  resolved  that  what  we  have  done  ooiit 
<<  ceming  the  ceremonies,  the  cross  in  baptism,  &c.  is  mogt 
<^  agreeable  to  the  word  of  God  and  the  tcstimcmy  of  a 
<^  ^od  conscience.  By  the  help  of  God,  we  will  laboof 
<^  even  in  all  things,  to  tlie  utmost  of  our  power,  to  be 
^'  found  faithful  and  approved  before  God  and  men;  and| 
^^  therefore,  we  will  not  betray  that  truth  which  it  .hath 
<<  pleased  God,  in  his  great  goodness,  to  make  known  unlo 
<^  us.  You  will  know  we  do  nothing  contentious/^ :  thereia 
'^  we  are  clear  before  God  and  men.  But  we  wiA  you  to 
<<  understand,  that  the  iniquitous  times  in  which  we  live, 
^^  and  the  great  trials  which  we,  as  well  as  you,  hacre  to 
<^  endure  in  the  cause  of  Grod,  and  a  thousand  such  aflio 
<<  tions,  shall  not,  the  Lord  helping  us,  make  us  shrink  £raBi 
^<  the  maintenance  of  his  truth.  The  same  good  opinioa  wf 
<^  have  conceived  of  you,  not  doubting  that  he  who  hulk 
<^  hitherto  made  you  a  glorious  witness  of  truth,  will  still 
<<  enable  you  to  go  forwards  in  the  same  comse.  ■  And  yet 
<^.  we  Uiink  it  meet,  both  on  account  of  our  own  dubiaii^ 
^'  and  the  evil  days  come  upon  us,  that  we  should  qaicken 
<<  one  another  in  so  good  a  cause.  We  deal  thus  with  you, 
^'  whom,  both  for  learning  and  godliness,  we  yery  mudh 
<^  love  and  reverence  in  the  Lord ;  and  we  commit  you  to 
<^  Grod,  and  the  word  of  his  grace,  which  is  able,  and  m 
<^  doubt  will,  in  due  time,  fur&er  buUd  up  both  you  and  u% 
^^  to  the  glory  of  his  name,  and  our  endless  comfoit'  ii| 

"  Richard  Gawton,  Gyles  Sethtclbb, 

"  Thoma9  Penny,  Nicholas  Standox^ 

*^  Nathaniel  Baxter,  John  Field, 

"  George  Gyldrep,  Thomas  Wilcocm,*V 
"  Nicholas  Crane, 

It  does  not  appear  how  long  Mr.  Gawtoii  continned  ia 
a  state  of  suspension;  only  in  the  yes^  1581,  he  wai^ 
preacher  at  Bury  St.  Edmunds ;  but  I  am  apt  to  thiidL|  saya 
pur  learned  historian,  seeing  his  opinions  and  practice  were 
still  the  same,  this  was  owing  to  the  want  of  prppqr  disci-: 
pline,  and  to  tbe  countenance  he  there  mc^  with)  iiotwith? 
standing  his  suspension.f  Admitting  this  l^xc^t  to  be 
correct,  his  suspension  must  have  continued  at  l^ast  five 

•  MS.  Registery  p.  S96.  f  Strype*9  Annals,  yol.  m.  p,  9P* 

AIRAT.  847 

yean.  In  the  year  I60S,  a  miDister  of  the  same  name,  and 
most  probably  the  same  person,  became  vicar  of  Kedbum 
in  Hertfordshire,  where  he  continued  till  June,  1616,  when 

Heitrt  Airat,  D.  D. — This  learned  person  was  bom  in 
Westmoreland,  in  the  year  1560,  and  received  his  grammar 
learning  under  the  famous  Mr.  Bernard  Gilpin,  who,  at 
ihe  age  of  nineteen,  sent  him  to  £dmund's*hall,  Oxford ; 
but  aiterwards  he  removed  to  Queen's  college.  Having 
taken  his  degrees,  he  became  a  frequent  and  zealous  preacher^ 
was  chosen  provost  of  the  college,  and  afterwards  vice* 
chancellor  of  the  university.  In  each  -of  these  departments, 
says  Wood,  he  shewed  bimsdf  a  zealous  Calvinist,  and  a 
^  ^reat  promoter  of  those  of  his  Own  opinion,  but  went 
beyond  the  number  of  true.£nglish  churchmen.  And  he 
adds,  that  though  he  condemned  himself  to  obscurity,  and 
infected  a  retired  life,  being  generally  adnrired  and  esteemed 
fN  his  holiness,  integrity,  learning,  gravity,  and  inde* 
fttigable  pains  in  the  ministerial  function,  he  could  not  keep 
kfanself  nrom  public  notice.f  By  his  singular  wisdom, 
lenming,  and  prudence,  in  the  government  of  his  collie, 
many  scholars  went  forth,  who  became  bright  ornaments 
both  in  church  and  state.  Another  writer  oteerves,  that  he 
was  so  upright  and  unrebukable  through  the  whole  of  his 
conversation,  that  he  was  reproached  by  some  as  a  precisian. 
But  how  much  he  condemned  the  injurious  zeal  of  the 
separatists ;  how  far  he  disliked  a)l  the  busy  disturbers  of 
tbe  church's  peace ;  how  partially  he  reverenced  his  holy 
mother,  the. church  of  England;  and  how  willingl;^  h6 
conformed  himself  to  her  seemly  ceremonies  and  injunctions, 
his  practice  and  his  friends  are  witness.  He  was,  it  is  added, 
an  humble  and  obedient  son  of  the  church,  and  no  less  an 
enemy  to  faction  than  to  separaticm.f 

However  much  Dr*  Alray  tni^ht  oppose  the  separatists, 
or  jMtrtialhp'  reverence  the  church  of  England,  or  willingly 
conform  himsdf  to  her  seemfy  iceremonies  and  injunctions, 
It  IB  an  indubitable  fact,  tha^  he  was  a  true  lionconfomiisti 
When  he  wias  provost  of  Queen'^  college,  he  was  called  hi 
question  by  the  vice*chancellor,  for  his  nonconformity 
to  the  ceremonies  and  discipline  of  the  church.    And  on 

•  Newcoart'i  Repert.  Eccl.  toI.  i.  p.  859. 
f  Wood's  Atbenae  Oxon.  toI.  i.  p.  348. 
t  Ainty  on  PbU.  Prcf.   Edit.  ICIS. 


account  of  his  zeal  in  the  same  cause,  he  very  narrowly 
escaped  being  constrained  to  make  a  public  recantation.* 
He  wrote  and  published  a  ^'  Treatise  against  Bowing  at  the 
name  of  Jesus,"  shewing  the  superstition  and  absurdity  af 
that  popish  relict. 

In  the  year  1606,  Mr.  William  Laud,  afterwards  the 
famous  archbishop,  having  preached  at  Oxford,  his  9ennQD 
contained  many  scandalous  and  popish  sentiments;  for 
which  he  was  called  before  Dr.  Airay  the  vice-chancellor, 
to  give  an  account  of  what  he  had  delivered.  It  was  the 
opinion  of  many  that  he  was  a  papist,  or  very  much 
inclined  to  popery ;  and  he  narrowly  escaped  making  a 
public  recantation.f  Dr.  Airay  having  accomplished  his 
days  upon  earth,  meekly  and  patiently  surrendered  himsdf 
to  God^  earnesUy  desiring  to  depart  and  to  be  with  Christ 
And  having  devoutly  committed  his  soul  to  the  caire  of  his 
dear  Red<^mer,  he  closed  his  eyes  in  peace,  and  was  carried 
to  his  grave  with  honour.  He  died  October  6, .  1616,  aged 
fifty-six  years ;  and  his  remains  were  interred  in  die  inna 
chapel  of  Queen'3  college. 

His  Works. — I.  Lectares  upon  the  whole  Epistle  to  the  Phili- 
pians,  1618. — 2,  The  just  and  necessary  Apology  toucniDg^  bis  Soli  in 
Law,  for  the  Rectory  of  Charlton  on  Otmore,  in  Oxfbrdsmre,  1031.— 
3.  A  Treatise  against  Bowing  at  the  Name  of  Jesus, 

George  Withers,  D.  D. — This  person  was  a'divine  of 
good  learning,  incorporated  in  both  universities,  and  after- 
wards preacher  at  Bury  St.  Edmunds ;  but  in  the  year 
1565,  refusing  to  enter  into  bonds  to  wear  the  square  cap, 
he  was  silenced  by  Archbishop  Parker.  Afterwardet;  how- 
ever, by  the  urgent  entreaties  of  his  people,  he  wrote  a  sub- 
missive letter  to  his  lordship,  signifying  his  willingness  to 
wear  the  cap,  rather  than  the  godly  people  should  be  dis- 
couraged, or  the  wicked  led  to  triumph4 

Dr.  Withers  being  a  learned  and  popular  preacher^ 
was  chosen  one  of  the  preachers  to  the  university  of  Cam- 
bridge ;  ^nd  being  an  avowed  enemy  to  popery,  he  lecom- 
meniled  to  th^  university  to  pull  down  the  superstitioiis  and 
ridiculous  paintings  in  the  glass  windows.  This  oc 
9  CQn^ider^.ble  noise  in  the  university,  and  created 


•  Wood's  Athenae,  toI.  I.  p.  481.— Hist,  and  Antiq.  of  Oxod.  tqI.  ti. 
p.  288.     Edit.  1796. 

+  Ibid.— Heylin'sLifcofLandjp.  54. 
t  Strype's  Fftrker,  p.  18T,  188. 


^reat  trouble.  Arckbisliop  Parker  cited  him  before  the 
Eigll  coiumissioners,  to  answer  fgr  what  he  had  done ;  and 
upon  his  appearance,  his  lordship  demanded  his  license  to 
preach  in  that  seat  of  learning.  He  therefore  produced  the 
letters  of  the  university,  by  which,  m  the  year  1363,  he  was 
nominated  and  appointed  one  of  the  twelve  university 
preachers.  The  archbishop  pronounced  this  license  defec- 
tive, being  in  the  name  of  the  vice-chancellor,  masters,  and 
scholars  alone,  without  the  name  of  the  chancellor.  He 
"wrote,  at  the  same  time,  to  Sir  William  Cecil,  the  chancel- 
lor, urginff  him  to  exercise  his  authority.*  By  these  pro- 
ceedings, Dr.  Withers  was  most  probably  forbidden  preach- 
ing any  more  at  Cambridge ;  but  it  does  not  appear  whether 
he  sufiered  any  other  punishment. 

Upon  the  above  commotions,  he  travelled  to  Geneva, 
Zunch,  and  other  places,  where  he  became  intimately  acr 
qaainted  with^uUinger,  Gaulter,and  other  learned  divides. 
Having  remained  among  his  new  friends  a  few  years,  he 
returned  to  England ;  and,  in  October,  1570,  was  made 
archdeacon  of  Colchester;  and,  in  November,  1572,  was 
admitted  rector  of  Danbury  in  Essex.  He  submitted  to  the 
ceremonies  for  the  sake  of  peace,  though  he  never  approved 
of  them.f  In  the  year  1583,  upon  the  publication  of  Whit- 
gifl^«  three  articles,  and  the  oppressive  measures  which  im- 
mediately followed,  he  wrote  to  his  worthy  friend  the  Lord 
Treasurer  Burleigh,  expressing  his  strong  objections  against 
such  rigorous  proceedings.  In  this  letter,  dated  from  Dan- 
bury,  February  19,  1583^  he  addressed  the  treasurer  ail 
follows  :t 

^^  My  duty  to  your  honour  in  most  humble  manner  pre- 
mised, with,  my  most  earnest  prayer  to  God  for  you.  \  our 
ponjtinual  care  of  the  church,  and  the  importunity  of  my 
friends,  have  enforced  me  to  write  to  your  lordship  con. 
cerning  the  present  controversies  in  the  church.  I  have 
long  wished  the  church  were  rid  of  some  things,  in  the  re- 
taining of  which  I  can  see  no  advantage.  The  silencing  of 
ministers  is  like  a  man  who,  being  angry  with  his  shepherd', 
forbids  him  tq  feed  his  sheep,  yet  appoints  none  other  in  his 

Slace,  and  so  the  sheep  starve  in  the  fold.     Your  care  to 
ave  insufficie^t  ijounisters  rempved,  is  commendable  and 

*i  With  regard  to  the  subscription  to  the  Book  of  Common 

Prayer,  how  .urged,  though  I  think  reverently  of  the  book; 

•-  •♦     ' 

•  Strype's  Parker,  p.  192—194.  t  Ibid.  p.  198, 199. 

i  Strype*!  Anoalsy  toI.  iii.  Appco.  ^.  62^-^» 


yet  to  think  that  its  authors  emd  in  nothing,  is  a  lemeuoe 
due  to  the  canonical  books  of  scriptuie  alone,  and  not  to  anr 
human  author  whatever.  The  things  in  the  book  whidi  I 
wish  reformed  are,  first,  such  as  cannot  be  defended :  as 
private  baptism.  How  to  reconcile  it  to  the  docCiine  of 
the  church  as  by  law  established,  to  me  appears  imponiUe. 
Also  the  minister  receiving  the  other  sacrament  with  the  sick 
man  alone,  is  cootraiy  to  the  nature  of  the  communion; 
contrary  to  the  doctrine  established ;  and  is  cousiii-gcrmBn 
to  the  private  mass.    The  other  things  are  taken  cynt  of  Ae 

Popish  portuis,  and  translated  into  the  Book  of  Gommon 
rayer,  which  serves  to  confirm  our  adversaries  in  popery, 
I  wish  the  weapon  were  taken  out  of  their  hands* 

^^  It  is  also  an  inconvenience,  that  the  translation  of  the 
scripture,  as  corrupted  by  the  bishops,  still  remaineth  in  the 
Bookof  Commcmrrayer  uncorrected:  that  the  inierrogap 
tories  in  baptism  are  directed  to  infants ;  and  that  the  prep 
sent  uiging  of  subscription,  instead  of  prodndnr  giealef 
um/y,  i  fear  it  will  make  greater  dUvision^  For  I  uinkflukt 
many  who  now  use  the  book,  and  are  in  other  things  con* 
formable^  will  hardly  yield  to  subscribe  according  to  the 
form  now  required.  Beseeching  your  lordship  to  pardon 
my  boldness,  I  commit  you  to  the  protection  of  Alniq|;hty 

♦^  Your  lordship's  in  Christy 

"  George  Withers.'* 

Dr.  Withers  quitted  the  rectory  of  Danbury  iii-  1€05, 
most  probably  on  account  of  his  nonconformity ;  bvt  re- 
mains archdeacon  to  his  death.  He  died  previous  to 
April  10,  1617.*  The  Oxford  historian  denominates  him, 
«  Th6  Puritanical  Satirist"+  He  published  *«  The  Lay- 
man's  Letters,"  1585. — "  A  View  of  the  Marginal  Notes  ia 
the  Popish  Testament,"  1588. 

Francis  Bunney,  A.  B, — Tliis  person  was  bom  at 
Vach,  near  Chalfont  St.  Giles,  in  Buckinghamshire,  May  8, 
154S,  and  educated  in  the  university  of  Oxford,  where  he 
became  fellow  of  Magdalen  college.  He  entetea  upon  the 
ministerial  work  in  1567,  and  soon  became  nn  adinued  md 
a  popular  preacher.  He  was  for  some  time  chaplaiii  to  tiie 
Earl  of  Bedford ;  but,  upon  tlie  resignation  of  his  fi^Iow* 
ship,  he  retired  into  the  north  of  England,  where  he  '"*' 

♦  NewGpart*s  Repert.  Ecd.  vol.  i.  p.  92, 
f  Wood*i  Atbenae  Ozoa.  vol.  i.  p.  484. 

F.  BUNNEY.  251 

^^Tered  uncommon  zeal,  constancy,  and  popularity  in  his 
ministerial  labours.  In  the  year  1573,  he  became  preben* 
dary  of  Durham ;  the  year  following,  upon  the  resignation 
of  Mr.  Ralph  Lever,  he  was  made  archdeacon  of  Nor^- 
thumberland;  and  in  1578,  he  became  rector  of  Ryton,  in 
the  bishopric  of  Durham.  Though  he  obtained  these  pre« 
ferments,  he  did  not  hold  them  all  at  the  same  time^  but  in 
succession.*  Upon  his  going  into  the  north,  the  Bishops 
^ilkin^n  and  Bams,  successively  of  Durham,  shewed  him 
great  Isivour,  and  his  labours  were  rendered  particularly 
usefuLf  The  former  of  these  prelates  was  a  great  friend  to 
the  puritans  and  silenced  nonccmformists.  He  often  took 
them  under  his  patronage  and  protection.  He  connived  at 
their  nonconformity ;  and,  to  the  utmost  of  his  power,  pro^ 
moted,  encouraged,  and  sheltered  them  from  the  storm. 
Such  appears  to  have  been  the  conduct  of  this  generous 
prelate  towards  Mr.  Bunney*  Wood  says  ^^  he  was  very 
zeakNis  in  his  way,  (meaning  the  way  of  puritanism ;)  a 
great  admirer  of  John  Calvin,  a  constant  preacher,  and 
much  given  to  charity;  but  a  stiflF  enemy  to  popery. "j: 
He  dira  at  Ryton,  April  16,  1617,  in  the  seventy-fourth 
year  of  his  age.  His  remains  were  interred  in  the  chancel 
of  the  church  at  that  place;  and  upon  the  wall  over  his 
grave  is  a  monumental  inscription  on  a  brass  plate^  the  first 
stanza  of  which  is  the  following : 

My  bark  now  liavin^  won  the  haven, 

I  fear  no  stormy  seas ; 
God  is  my  hope,  my  home  is  heaven. 

My  life  is  happy  ease^ 

Mr.  Bunney,  by  his  last  will  and  testament,  bequeathed 
thirty-three  pounds  to  Magdalen  college,  Oxford,  and  one 
btmdred  pounds  towards  the  erection  of  new  colleges  in  that 
university.  He  was  brother  to  Mr.  Edmund  Bunney, 
another  puritan  divine,  whose  memorial  is  given  in  the 
following  article^ 

His  Works.— 1.  A  Survey  and  Trial  of  the  Pope's  Supremacy,  1690. 
— ^  A  Comparison  between  the  ancient  Faith  of  the  Romans  and 
the  new  Romish  Religion,  1695. — 3.  Answer  to  a  Popish  Libel>  caUed 
A  PeHtian  to  the  BUIu^ps,  Preachers^  and  Owpellen,  1607. — i.  Expo- 
sition on  Romans  iii.  28,  wherein  is  manifestly  proved  the  Doctnnp 
of  Justification  by  Faith,  1616.-^.  A  plain  and  familiar  Exposition 
of  theTenComm^ndmoots,  1617.— 6.  In  Joelis  Prophetiam  enarratio. 
The  last  was  left  in  manwifcripty  and  probably  never  published. 

•  Wood*s  AtheosB  Oxon.  vol.  i.  p.  355, 740. 

f  9trype*8  Aimali,  yol.  iii.  p.  355.  .     i  Atbea»  Oxon.  fol.  i.  p.  855. 


Edmund  Bonnet,  B.  D. — This  zealous  minister 
bom  at  Vach,  near  Chalfont  St.  Giles,  in  Backinghamshii^ 
in  the  year  1540,  and  educated  in  the  university  of  Oxfoid; 
where,  on  account  of  his  great  knowledge  of  logic  and 
philosophy^  he  was  elected  probationer  fellow  of  Biagdalcn 
college.  He  wa9  the  son  of  Mr.  Richard  Bunney  of  Newtoo, 
usually  called  Bunneyrhall,  near  Wakefield  in  Yorkshire. 
His  father,  designing  him  for  the  law,  removed  him  from 
the  university,  and  sent  him  to  the  inns  of  court,  where  he 
continued*  about  four  years.  Mr.  Bunney,  not 'liking  the 
law,  resolved  to  study  divinity,  for  which  his  father  cast 
him  off,  and  disinherited  him.*  Upon  this  he  returned  to 
Oxfgrd,  and  in  1565,  was  elected  fellow  of  Mertcm  coU^e, ' 
and  admitted  to  the  reading  of  the  sentences.  There  was  not 
at  this  time  a  single  preacher  in  his  college,  and  the 

greatest  scarcity  through  the  whole  university ;  but  Mr. 
unney  was  chosen  preacher  to  the  society.  In  this  situa- 
tion, he  soon  became  a  very  eminent,  constant,  and  popular 
pre^her.f  He  used  frequently  to  visit  the  university,  fbr^ 
many  years  after  he  left  it ;  when  he  was  constantly  engaged 
in  preaibl^ing;  and,  by  his  sound  doctrine  and  holy  life, 
was  the  means  of  doing  unspeakable  good,  especially 
among  the  scholars.  He  also  travelled  like  an  apostle, 
oyer  most  parts  of  England,  every  where  preaching  the  word, 
Hereby  he  incurred  the  displeasure  ana  censure  of  many* 
But,  to  acquit  himself  of  all  blame,  he  wrote  '^  4-  Defence  dT 
his  Labour  in  the  Work  of  the  Ministry."  This  he 
dispersed  among  hi3  friends,  though  it  does  not  appear  that 
it  was  ever  published.  But  because  he  was  a  uoron^ 
Calvinist,  and  a  zealous  puritan.  Wood  denominates  hun 
'^  a  busy,  forward,  and  conceited  man,  and  a  moi^  fliii4 
preacher."  According  to  this  writer,  he. seldom  or  never 
studied  his  sermons,  but  prayed  and  preached  extempore; 
and,  in  the  opinion  of  many^  was  troubled  with  the  dmnUjf 
squirt:  and,  he  adds,  that,  by  the  liberties  vrhich  he  fook  in 
his  preaching,  he  did  a  great  deal  of  harm.t  The  same 
aiithor,  indeed,  styles  him  '^  an  excellent  writer,  an  emmnt 
preachei^,  and  a  learnecl  theologi^t.''§  Mr.  Strype  calls  htm 
^f  an  eminent  vnriter  and  divine.") 

About  the  year  1570,  Mr.  Bunney  became  chapbon  to 
Grindal,  Archbishop  of  York,  who  fi;aye  lum  i^  piebend  m 

*  Wood's  Athense  Oxod.  toI.  i.  p.  S64. 

+  Wood's  Hist,  and  Antiq.  of  Oxod.  vol.  ii.  p.  162. 

i  Athenae  Oxon.  vol.  i.  p.  364,  365. 

Ilbid.  p.  396,717.— Hist,  and  Antiq.  toI.  ii.  p.  158. 
Strjpe'i  Apnali,  ¥o1.  ill.  p.  609.   ' 


that  church,  and  thfe  rectory  of  Bolton-Percy,  near  the  city 
of  York.  After  holding  the  rectory  twenty-five  years,  he 
resigned  the  liring,  when  he  was  made  sub-dean  of  York. 
He  died  at  Cawood  in  that  county,  February  26, 1617,  aged 
fifty-seven  years^  His  remains  were  interred  in  the  south 
aisle  joining  to  the  choir  of  the  cathedral  of  York;  and 
pvf^r  his  grave  is  his  e&gy  carved  in  stone  and  fixed  in 
the  wall,  with  a  monumental  inscription  to  his  memory,  of 
which  the  following  is  a  translation : 

Edmund  Bunney, 

born  of  thd  ancient  and  noble  family  of  the  Bunneys, 

was  Bachelor  of  Divinity, 

and  once  Fellow  of  Mei^on  College,  Oxford, 

Pastor  of  the  parish  of  Bolton-Percy, 

a  very  worthy  Prebendary  of  St  Paul's,  London ; 

of  St.  Peter's,  York  ; 

and  St.  Mary's,  Carlisle. 

He  spent  a  great  part  of  his  time  in  going  about 

from  place  to  place  in  preaching, 

leaving,  for  the  love  he  had  to  Christ, 

the  patrimony  bequeathed  him  by  his  father, 

to  his  brother  Richard. 

He  died  February  26, 

in  the  year  1617. 

His  Works. — 1.  The  Summ  of  the  Christian  Religion,  1576.—: 
2.  An  Abridgment  of  Johtl  Calvin's  Institutions,  1580.— 3.  A  Treatise  of 
Purification,  1584.->-4.  The  Coronation  of  King  David,  1588. — 5.  A 
necessary  Admonition  out  of  the  Prophet  Joel«  concerning  the  hand 
t>f  God-that  late  was  upon  us,  and  is  not  clean  taken  off  as  yet,  1588* 
— 6.  A  brief  Answer  to  those  idle  and  frivolous  Quarrels  of  R.  P. 
(Robert  Parsons)  against  the  late  edition  of  the  Resolution,  1589. — 
7.  Divorce  for  Adtiltery,  and  Marrying  again,  that  there  is  no  sufficient 
Warrant  so  to  do,  1610.-'^.  The  Comer  Stone ;  or,  a  form  of  Teaching 
Jesus  Christ  out  of  tibe  Scriptures,  1611. 

'  EasfiBius  Paget.— >This  excellent  divine  was  bom  at 
Crauford  in  Northamptonshire,  about  the  year  1542,  and 
educated  in  Christ's  Church,  Oxford.  He  went  to  the 
university  at  twelve  years  of  age,  and  became  an  excellent 
k^cian  and  philosopher*  During  his  abode  at  Oxford^ 
be  broke  his  right  arm,  and  was  lame  of  it  ever  after. 
Removing  from  the  university,  he  became  vicar  of  Oundle, 
and  rector  of  Langton,*  in  his  native  county,  but  was 
exceedingly  harassed  on  account  of  his  nonconformity. 

*  firidgct*s  Hilt,  of  NortiuuDptoiiihirey  toI.  I.  p«  306. 


January  99, 1373,  he  ivas  cited  before  ScamUeTy  Udiop  d 
Peterborough,  who  first  suspended  him  for  the  space  of  tnrae 
weeks,  then  deprived  him  of  his  living,  worth  a  Imidnd 
pounds  a  year.  Several  others  were  suspended  and  dranvri 
at  the  same  time,  because  they  could  not,  with  a  good  oon- 
science,  subscribe  to  certain  promises  and  cnga^remeall 
proposed  to  them  by  the  bishop.*  Upon  their  defvivatiaa, 
they  presented  a  supplication  to  the  queen  and  parliament, 
for  their  restoration  to  their  beloved  ministry ;  but  ta  no 
purpose :  They  must  subscribe,  or  be  buried  m  silence.  A 
circumstantial  account  of  these  intolerant  proceedings  will 
be  found  in  another  place.f 

In  the  year  1576,  Mr.  Paget  was  exercised  with  new 
oppressions.  His  unfeeling  persecutors,  not  content  with 
depriving  him  of  his  ministry  and  his  living,  ordered  him 
to  \ye  taken  into  custody,  and  sent  up  to  JLondon.  He 
was,  therefore,  apprehended,  with  Mr.  John  Ozenbridge, 
another  leading  person  in  the  associations  in  Northamp- 
tonshire and  Warwickshire,  and  they  were  both  carried 
urisoners  to  the  metropolis,  by  a  special  order  from  Arch- 
Dishop  Grindal.^  It  docs  not,  however,  appear  how  long 
they  were  kept  in  custody,  nor  what  further  persecutiflns 
they  suffered. 

Mr.  Paget  was  afterwards  preferred  to  the  rectory  of 
Kilkhampton  in  Cornwall.  Upon  his  presentation  to  the 
benefice,  he  acquainted  both  his  patron  and  crJimirVf 
that  he  could  not,  with  a  good  conscience,  observe  all  me 
rites,  ceremonies,  and  orders  appointed  in  the  Book  oF 
Common  Prayer ;  when  they  generously  promised,  that,  if 
he  would  accept  the  cure,  he  should  not  be  urged  to  the 
precise  observation  of  them.  On  these  concutioos,  he 
accepted  the  charge,  and  was  r^ularly  admitted  and 
inducted.^  He  was  a  lame  man;  but,  in  the  opinion  of 
Mr.  Strype,  <^  a  learned,  peaceable,  and  good  divine,  who 
had  formerly  complied  with  the  customs  and  devoticms  of 
the  church,  and  had  been  inde&tigable  in  the  ministry.'*! 
But  Mr.  Farmer,  curate  of  Barnstaple,  envying  his  p(^« 

*  Dr.  Ednrand  Scambler,  lacceuiTely  bitbop  of  PeterbonMfb 
Norwich,  was  the  first  pastor  of  tbe  protestaot  coogregatioD  In  Loodottyla 
the  reigo  of  Queen  Mary ;  but  was  compelled,  on  accoant  of  tbe  Mfferity 
of  persecotioD,  to  relinqoish  tbe  sitoation.  He  was  a  learned  nuw,  voy 
tealons  asaiosttbe  papists,  and  probably  driven  into  a  state  of  iexO«i  bai^ 
surely,  he  forgot  his  former  circomstances  wlicn  he  became  a 
persecutor  of  his  brethren  in  the  days  of  Queen  Elizabeth. 

f  See  Art.  Arthur  WalLe.  %  Strype's  Grindal,  p.  S15.  218. 

S  MS.  Rtfister,  p.  57)^.  |  Strype's  Wldlgift,  p.  STT. 

E.  PAGET.  i&b 

laritv.  eomplaiiied  of  him  to  the  high  oommissiaii ;  trheii 
the  mloyring  charges  were  exhibited  against  him : — <^  Tfa^ 
in  liis  inrayers  he  never  mentioned  the  queen's  supremacy 
over  both  estates. — That  he  had  said  the  sacraments  were 
only  dumb  elements^  and  would  not  avail  without  the  word 
preached. — That  he  had  preached  that  Christ  did  not 
descend,  both  body  and  soul,  into  hell. — That  the  pope 
might  set  ub  the  feast  o{  jubilee,  as  well  as  the  feasts  of 
Easier  and  l^eM^ost, — That  holy  days  and  fast  days  were 
only  the  inventions  of  men,  which  we  are  not  obliged  to 
follow.— That  he  disallowed  of  the  use  of  organs  in  divine 
worship. — That  he  called  ministers  who  did  not  preach, 
dumb  dogs;  and  those  who  have  two  benefices,  knaves,-^ 
And  that  he  preached  that  tlie  late  Queen  Mary  was  a 
detestable  woman,  and  a  wicked  Jezebel."*  These  were  the 
crimes  exhibited  against  our  divine;  though  upon  hid 
appearance  before  Archbishop  Whitgifl  and  other  com- 
missioners, January  11,  1584,  he  was  charged  only  in  tho 
coami(»i  form^  with  refusing  to  observe  the  Book  of  Common 
Krayer,  and  the  ecclesias(tical  rites  and  ceremonies;  to 
which  he  made  the  following  reply  :f 

'<  I  do  acknowledge,  that  by  the  statute  of  the  1  Eliz.  I  am 
bound  to  use  the  said  Book  of  Common  Prayer,  in  such 
manner  and  form  as  is  prescribed,  or  else  abide  by  such  pain^ 
as  by  the  law  are  imposed  upon  me.  I  have  not  refused  to 
'  use  the  Common  Prayer,  or  to  minister  the  sacraments,  in 
such  Order  as  the  book  appoints,  though  I  have  not  used  all 
the  rites,  ceremonies,  and  orders  set  forth  in  the  said  book.* 
1.  Because^  ix>  my  knowledge,  there  is  no  Common  Prayer 
Book  in  the  church.  2.  Because  I  am  informed,  that  you, 
before  whom  I  stand,  and  mine  ordinary,  and  greatest  part 
of  the  other  bishops  and  ministers,  do  use  greater  liberty  in 
omitting  and  altering  the  said  rites,  ceremonies,  and  orders. 
S.  Because  I  am  not  resolved  in  my  conscience,  that  I  may 
use  divers  of  them.  4.  Because,  when  I  took  the  charge  of 
that  church,  I  was  promised  by  mine  ordinary,  that  I  should 
not  be  urged  to  such  ceremonies ;  which,  I  am  informed, 
he  might  do  by  law. 

^^  In  those  things  which  I  have  omitted,  I  have  done 
nothing  obstinatdy;  neither  have  I  used  any  other  rite, 
ceremony,  order,  iform,  or  manner  of  administration  of  the 
sacramaits  or  open  prayers,  than  is  mentioned  in  the  said 
book;   although  there  are  some  things  which  I  doubt 

•  MS.  Retistert  p.  574,  575.  f  Ibid.  p.  670. 


"whether  I  may  use  or  practise.  Wherefore,  I  humblj 
pray,  that  J  may  have  the  liberty  allowed  by  the  said  book| 
of  having  in  some  convenient  time,  a  favourable  confereno^ 
either  with  mine  ordinary,  or  with  some  other  by  yoa 
appointed.  This  I  seek  not  for  any  desire  I  have  to  Imp 
.  the  said  living,  but  only  for  the  better  resolution  and  satis- 
faction of  my  own  conscience,  as  God  knoweth.  Subscribed 
by  me, 

"  Lame,  Euserius  Paget.**  " 

This  answer  proving  unsatisfactory  to  Whitgiflt  and  hii 
bretliren,  Mr.  Pa^t  was  immediately  suspended ; '  and 
venturing  to  preacTi  after  his  suspension,  he  was  deprived  of 
his  benefice.  The  principle  reasons  of  his  dcprivatioii| 
were,  ^'  The  omission  of  part  of  the  public  prayers,  the  craa 
in  baptism,  and  the  surplice ;  and  the  irregularity  of  deal- 
ing in  the  fnihistry  after  his  susi)ension." 

In  the  opinion  of  the  learned  civilians,  however,  these 
things  were  not  sufficient  cause  of  deprivation,  and,  conse- 

auently,  the  proceedings  of  the  high  comnsission  weie 
eemed  unwarrantable.  The  Case  was  argued  at  some 
length;  and  being  now  before  me,  the  reader  is  here 
favoured  with  the  reasons  on  which  the  opinion  is  founded. 
His  deprivation  was  accounted  unwarrantable,  because  he 
had  not  time,  nor  conference,  as  he  desired,  and  as  the  statute 
in  doubtful  cases  warranted.  He  had  not  three  aevc^d 
admonitions,  nor  so  much  as  o;ie,  to  observe  those  things  in 
due  time,  as  the  law  required.  If  this  had  been  done,  and^ 
after  such  respite  and  admonition,  he  had  not  confonned, 
then  the  law  would  have  deemed  him  a  recusant,  but  not 
otherwise.  And  if  the  whole  of  this  process  had  been 
regularly  observed,  Mr.  Paget's  omissions  had  so  many 
favourable  circumstances,  as,  that  the  parish  had  not  pro- 
vided a  Prayer  Book,  and  his  ordinary  had  promised  that 
he  should  not  t)e  urged  to  observe  all  the  ceremonies,,  that 
it  was  hardly  consistent  with  prudence  and  charity  to 
deprive  him  so  suddenly. 

As  to  his  irregularity  in  preaching  after  his  sugpensioo, 
the  civilians  were  of  opinion,  that  the  suspension  was  void, 
because  founded  upon  a  process  not  within  the  cogmxanoe 
of  those  who  pronounced  the  sentence.  For  the  ground  of 
the  sentence  was  his  refusing  to  subscribe  to  aiticM 
devised  and  tendered  by  the  ecclesiastical  c(NnmissioiienL]irh6 
had  no  warrant  whatever  to  offer  any  such  articles.  Thai 
authority,  as  expressed  in  their  commission,  extended  no 
farther  than  to  reform  and  correct  those  things  which  weie 

E.  PAGET.  ^7 

contrary  to,  certain  statutes,  and  other  ecclesiastical  laws; 
ttfeie  being  no  clause  in  the  commission  allowing  them  to 
ire  subscription  to  articles  of  their  own  invention;' 
ley  further  argued,  that,  on  supposition  the  suspension 
*  been  warrantable,  all  irregularity  was  done  away  by. 
Hie  queen's  pardon,  long  before  his  deprivation.  Besides, 
|Ir.  Facet  cud  not  exercise  himself  in  the  ministry  after  his 
jpispension,  nor  even,  attempt  to  do  it,  till  after  he  had 
gdbtained  from  the  archbishop  himself  a  release  from  that 
ifospension;  which  he  apprehended,  in  such  a  case,  to  be 
fufficient,  seeing  his  grace  was  chief  in  the  commission.  And 
in  addition  to  this,  all  the  canonists  allowed,  that  mistake 
f£  ignorance,  being  void  of  wilful  contempt,  as  in  the 
present  case,  were  a  lawful  excuse  from  irregularity.*  Notf 
withstanding  these  arguments  in  favour  of  the  poor,  lame 
minister  of  Christ,  the  learned  prelates  remained  inflexible  | 
and,  right  or  wrong,  were  determined  to  abide  by  what 
tfae^  had  decreed ;  therefore,  the  patron  disposed  of  the 
liying  to  another. 

\  Mf.  Paget's  enemies  were  resolved  to  ruin  him.  From 
the  above  statement,  his  case  was,  indeed,  very  pitiablcf. 
This,  however,  was  not  the  conclusion  of  his  troubles  :  his 
iiitare  hardships  were  still  more  lamentable.  After  being 
deprived  both  of  his  ministry  and  benefice,  and  having  t6 
pyovide  for  a  numerous  family,  the  poor  man  set  up  a 
small  school :  but  there  the  extended  arms  of  the  higU 
commissioners  reached  him.  For,  as  he  was  required  to 
bke  out  a  license,  and  to  subscribe  to  the  articles  of  reli- 

£*3n,  which  he  could  not  do  with  a  good  conscience,  they 
at  up  his  school,  as  they  had  before  shut  him  out  of  the 
church,  and  left  him  to  sufier  in  extreme  poverty  and  want. 
In  tiMs  painful  condition,  he  sent  an  account  of  his  case  in 
'%  Idter  to  the  lord  admiral,  to  whom  he  was  well  known. 
and  by  whom  he  was  much  beloved.  In  this  letter,  dated 
June  3,  1591,  he  expressed  himself  as  follows  :f 

^^  I  never  gathered  any  separate  assembly  from  the  church, 
nor  was  I  ever  present  in  them ;  but  always  abhorred  them. 
I  always  resorted  to  my  parish  church,  and  was  present  at 
Msrvice '  and  preaching,  and  received  the  sacrament  ac- 
OUfding  to  the  book.  I  thought  it  my  duty  not  to  forsake 
(be  church  because  it  had  some  blemishes ;  but  while  I 
have  endeavoured  to  live  in  peace,  others  have  prepared 
tlianselves  for  war.    I  was  turned  out  of  my  living  by 

«  ]|8.  Reguter/p.  572,  573.     -f  Strype*8  Wbit^^ft,  Appta.  p.  106^  167. 
▼OL.  II.  .  8 


eommandraait.  Afterwards,  I  preached  wifhoot  Ihrin^' 
and  without  stipend ;  and  when  I  was  fiMrbiddeny  I  oe8ie£' 
I  then  tanffht  a  few  children,  to  obtain  a  little  bread  fm 
myself  and  my  family;  and  when  some  disliked  this,  mbA 
commanded  me  to  give  it  up,  I  obeyed  and  gave  it  B|iw 

<^  I  beseech  your  lordship  to  continue  yonr  great  laioar 
towards  me,  that  I  may  not  be  turned  out  of  bowe  aad 
calling,  and  be  obliged,  as  an  idle  rogue  and  yagabondj  lo 
go  frond  door  to  door,  begging  my  bread,  while  I  am  me 
to  obtain  it  in  a  lawful  calling.  And  I  beseech  3^00  to  be  a 
means  of  obtaining  her  majesty's  favour,  thart  I  may  bs 
allowed  to  live  in  some  place  and  calling,  as  beooraeth  a 
f)eaceable  subject.  And  i  beseech  the  Ixffd  God  tohkai 
and  prosper  your  honour  for  ever.  Your  loidship^B  most 
obedient  servant, 

**  liame,  Eusebivs  Pagbt.** 

How  long  the  good  man  continued  under  the  eoeksiaf- 
tical  censure,  we  are  not  able  to  learn.  It  i%  howeim 
probable  he  continued  some  years.  Mr.  Paget  wJucribm 
the  ^^  Book  of  Discipline.^'*  But  we  find  no  fiiitbs 
account  of  him  till  September  21, 1604,  when  he  became 
rector  of  St.  Ann  and  Agnes,  in  Aldersgate-stieety  tdmdob^ 
There  he  laboured  in  the  Lord's  vineyard,  till  lie  finished 
his  work,  dying  in  May,  1617,  aged  seventy-five .  yeaiii 
His  remains  were  interred  in  his  own  church.  Wood  sayk 
^  he  was  many  years  a  ccHistant  and  fiulhful  preacher  of 
God^s  word."f  And  Fuller  styles  him  <<  the  golden  80>- 
phister,  a  painful  preacher,"  and  author  c^  an  eBcdfcnl 
"History  of  the  Bible."t 

His  Works.— 1.  Sermon  on  Tithes,  1583.— 2.  A  Cateehi■■^  IBOl 
The  History  of  the  Bihle,  hriefly  collected  by  way  of  QoaliMi 
and  Answer,  1097.-4.  Sermon  on  Election. — 6.  A  TraaslatiM  d 
Calvin's  Harmony  of  Matthew,  Maik,  and  links.  He  was  aatkr 
also  of  some  other  pieces. 

Thomas  Stone. — This  pious  divine  was  educated  b 
Christ's  Church,  Oxford,  chosen  one  of  the  proctors  (^  dii^ 
university,  and  became  rector  of  Warkton  in  Norduunpr 
tonshire.  He  was  a  person  of  good  leamin|^  and  giw 
worthy  a  zealous  puritan,  and  a  member  of  the  datfii^ 

•  Neal»«  Puritans,  ▼ol.  i.  p.  493. 

+  Wood's  AtbeosB  Oxon.  ▼ol.  i.  p.  367.^Newcoarf  s  Repeit  BcA 
?ol.  i.  p.  «7a  '  . 

t  Filler**  Worthies,  part  ii.  p.  890. 


bi^^  sometimes  chosen  moderator.  He  united  with  his 
biethren  in  subscribing  the  ^^  Book  of  Discipline  ;"•  but  was 
■Jferwanl^  brought  into  trouble  for  nonconformity,  and  his 
Esncem  to  reform  church  discipline.  July  27, 1590,  he 
f^as  app:ehended  and  brought  before  Attomey-Gieneral 
Bepliam,  and  required  to  take  the  oath  ex  officio.  The  day 
BlUowing  he  was  examined  in  the  star-chamber,  from  AjL 
D^dock  in  the  morning  till  seven  at  night;  and  required 
Jjtai  his  oath,  to  give  his  answer  to  thirty-three  articles.f 
mne  oi  the  puritans  thought,  that  when  they  were  ex* 
Mtained  before  their  spiritual  judges,  it  was  their  duty  to 
•onfesB  all  they  knew.  This  was  Mr.  Stone's  opinion  in  the 
brfore  us.  His  examination  chiefly  related  to  the  classical 
nblies;  and  though  he  could  not  give  a  direct  answer 
to  all  the  interrogatories,  he  gave  an  account  of  the  greater 
and  lesser  assemblies;  where  they  met;  how  often;  and 
Hrhat  persons  officiated.  He  answered  several  questions 
j^QDCefniiiff  the  authority  by  which  they  met  together ;  who 
^pete  mo&rators;  upon  what  points  they  debated;  and 
|Alrt  censures  were  exercised.  But,  in  order  that  this  may 
^ffffcxf  to  greater  advantage,  it  will  be  proper  to  give  those 
itHDcles  upon  which  he  spoke  explicitly,  with  the  substance 
gf  his  answers ;  which  were  the  following : 
^  1.  Who  and  how  many  assembled  at  their  classis  ?  where^ 
and  when,  and  how  often  were  they  held  ? 
V  In  answer  to  this  article,  he -specified  the  names  of  about 
fiuly  ministers  X  ^ho  attended  these  assemblies,  though  not 
dl  lit  one  .time ;  and  that  they  had  held  them  in  London, 
Cambridge,  Northampton,  and  Kettering. 

8.  Who  called  these  assemblies,  by  what  authority,  and 
ib  what  manner  ? 

^  I  know  not,  says  Mr.  Stone,  by  whom  they  were  called ; 
mm  do  I  know  any  other  authority  therein,  only  that  which 
tjffts  voluntary,  by  giving  one  another  intelligence  sometimes 
hf  letter,  and  sometimes  by  word  of  mouth,  as  occasion 
*  S.  Who  were  moderators  in  them,  and  what  was  their 

I  I  remember  not  who  were  moiderators  in  any  assembly 
l^irticidarly,  excepting  .once  at  Northampton,  when  Mr. 

«  Real's  Puritans,  vol.  i.  p.  483. 
'  i-  FaUer't  Church  Hist.  b.  ix.  p.  206. 

X  From  a  list  of  the  ministers,  now  before  me,  who  attended  these  assem- 
bf tei,  tbere  were,  in  all,  upwards  of  ei|;hty.— JfS.  Chronology^  yol.  ii. 
p.  4d5.  (6.) 


Johnson  ¥ras  admonished,  and  that  was  Mr.  Snape  te. 
myself,  I  am  not  certain  which.  • 

4.  Wliat  things  were  debated  in  those  meetings  ar  as- 
semblies? . 

The  principal  things  considered  in  tliose  assembUei^  "W^SBtf 
how  far  ministers  might  yield  to  subscribe  unto  the  Book 
of  Common  Prayer,  rather  than  forego  their  miniatrj.  The 
<^  Book  of  Discipline"  was  oflen  perused  and  ^sciMBed. 
Three  petitions  were  agreed  upon  to  be  drawn  up  aod- 
presented,  one  to  her  majesty,  another  to  the  Icwds  of  tk 
council,  and  another  to  the  bishops.  As  to  the  particolat 
things  debated,  I  remember  only,  the  perfecting  of  the 
<<  Book  of  Discipline,'^  and  the  subscription  to  it  at  Cam- 
bridge. Also,  whether  it  was  convenient  for  Mr.  Cartwririit 
to  reveal  the  circumstances  of  the  assemblies,  a  little  beroce 
he  was  committed.  Likewise  the  admonition  of  Mr.  Johnsoni. 
at  Northampton.  And  whether  the  books  of  Apocrypha 
might  be  warrantably  read  in  public  worship,  as  the 
canonical  scriptures.  . .  ^ 

.  5.  Were  any  censures  exercised ;  what  kinds,  when,  wheie, 
upon  whom,  by  whom,  and  for  what  cause  ? 

I  never  saw  any  censure  exercised,  excepting  admonitkiD 
once  given  to  Mr.  Johnson  of  Northampton,  for  impipper 
conversation,  to  the  scandal  of  his  calling :  nor  waa  uut 
used  with  any  kind  of  authority,  but  by  voluntary  and 
mutual  agreement,  as  well  by  him  who  was  admonished,  as 
him  who  gave  the  admonition. 

6.  Have  any  of  the  said  defendants  moved  or  persuaded 
any  to  refuse  an  oath,  and  in  what  case  ? 

I  never  knew  any  of  the  defendants  to  use  words  of 
persuasion  to  refuse  any  oath;  only  Mr.  Snape  .sent. me 
certain  reasons  gathered  out  of  scripture,  which  led 
him  to  refuse  the  oath  ex  officio;  which,  I  am  persuaded, 
he  sent  for  no  other  purpose,  than  to  declare,  that  ]|B 
refused  to  swear,  not  of  contempt,  but  for  consdcnoe 

This  is  the  substance  of  what  is  preserved  by  our  h^jrio* 
rians.  Mr.  Stone,  however,  by  his  long  examination,  brou^ 
many  things  to  light,  extremely  offensive  to  the  mlu^ 

Prelates ;  but  which,  till  that  time,  were  perfectly  unknowiu 
'hough  he  did  not,  it  seems,  give  this  information  out  of 
any  ill  design,  but  because  he  was  required  upon  his  o$0i 
so  to  do ;    yet  many  of  the  puritans  were  inclined  to 

•  Funer's  Church  Hist.  b.  ix.  p.  307— 209.^Strjpe'i  Whilsift,  Appcf. 
p.  159-^166. 

BAYNES.  261 

complain  of  his  adding  affliction  to  their  bonds,  seeing  it 
"twop^ht  them  into  many  troubles.  Mr.  Stone,  therefore,  to 
acqmt  himself  of  the  blame  attached  to  him  by  his  brethren, 
drew  up  and  published  a  vindication  of  what  he  had  done. 
^Ilie  reasons  alleged  in  his  own  defence^  were  in  ^U  sixteen ; 
bat  the  principal  were, ''  That  he  thought  it  was  unlawful  to 
refuse  an  oath,  when  offered  by  a  lawful  magistrate.-^That, 
baying  taken  the  oath,  he  was  not  at  liberty  to  say  nothing, 
much  less  to  deliver  an  untruth^ — ^And  he  saw  no  pro- 
bability, nor  fsven  possibility,  of  things  being  any  longer 

Mr.  Stpne,  with  several  others,  having  fully  discovered 
^be  classipal  associations^  many  of  hi;s  brethren  were  ca^ 
into  prison,  where  they  remained  a  long  time  under  extreme 
bardabips ;  but  he  was  himself  released.  Having  obtained 
bis  liberty,  he  returned  to  his  ministerial  charge  at  Warkton ; 
Inhere  he  continued  without  further  molestation  the  r^ 
mainder  ci  his  life.  He  di^  an  old  man  and  full  of  days« 
.in  the  year  1617.  Bridges  observes,  that  he  was  inducted 
into  tlije  living  of  Warkton  in  the  year  1553.f  If  this 
fltntemei^t  be  correct,  he  must  have  been  rector  of  that  place 
jnxty-four  years.  He  was  a  learned  man,  of  great  upright* 
negB,  and  uncommon  plainness  of  spirit,  minding  not  the 
filings  of  this  world ;  yet,  according  to  Wood,  «  a  stiff 
nonconformist,  and  a  jealous  presb^terian."{: 

Paul  Batnes,  A.  M. — This  excellent  divine  was  born 
in  London,  and  educated  in  Christ's  college,  Cambridge, 
whare  he  was  chosen  fellow*  His  qonduct  at  the  university 
was,  at  first,  so  exceedingly  irregular,  that  his  father  was 
much  displeased  with  him;  and,  at  his  death,  left  forty 

fi[>llnds  a  year,  to  the  disposal  of  his  friend  Mr.  Wilson  of 
irchin*>lane,  desiring,  that  if  his  son  should  forsake  his 
ievil  'V^ys,  and  become  steady,  he  would  give  it  him;  but 
if  he  did  not,  that  he  should  withhold  it  from  him.  Not 
lon^  after  his  fiither^s  death,  it  pleased  God  to  Convince  him 
oi  bis  sins,  and  bring  him  to  repentance.  He  forsook  the 
paths  of  vice,  and  jsoon  became  eminent  for  piety  and  holiness. 
Much  being  forgiven  him,  he  Ipved  much^  Mr.  Wilson, 
being  taken  dangerously  ill,  and  having  heard  what  the 

•  .  •  Fuller's  Cborch  Hist.  b.  ix.  p.  800,  810. 

:■    -¥  Bridges*i  Hist,  of  NorthamptoosbiiY,  vol.  i.  p.  274. 

.  .4  IWcf's  Cliwrcb   Hist.   b.  Ix.  p.  810.  —Wood's    Athenas   Ozoa, 

vol.  i.  p.  749. 


Lord  had  done  for  Mr.  Bnynes,  sent  for  him,  when  lie 
was  much  delighted  and  profited  by  his  fervent  prayers  and 
holy  conversation.  Therefore,  according  to  the  tnul 
reposed  in  him,  be  made  known  to  Mr.  Baynes  the  agree* 
ment  into  which  he  had  entered  with  his  father,  and  de- 
livered to  him  the  securities  of  the  above  annuity. 

Mr.  Baynes,  it  is  said,  was  inferior  to  non&  m  sharpnctt 
of  wit,  in  depth  of  judmnent,  in  variety  of  reading,  ii 
aptness  to  teach,  and  in  holy,  pleasant,  and  heavenly  co^ 
yersatioii.  Indeed,  his  fame  was  so  great  at  Cambridge^ 
that,  upon  the  death  of  the  celebrated  Mr.  Perkins,  no  onf 
was  deemed  so  suitable  to  succeed  him  in  the  lecture  at  8t 
Andrew's.  In  this  public  situation,  he  was  much  admired 
and  followed;  multitudes  rejoiced  under  his  ministry;  and 
he  so  conducted  himself,  that  impiety  alone  had  cause  to 
complain.*  Here  he  was  instrumental,  under  Grod,  in  the 
conversion  of  many  souls.  Among  these  was  the  holy  and 
celebrated  Dr.  Sibbs. 

His  excellent  endowments,  together  with  his  extensiTe 
usefulness,  could  not  screen  him  from  the  oppressions  of 
the  times.  Dr.  Harsnet,  chancellor  to  Archbishop  Bancnf^ 
visiting  the  university,  silenced  him,  and  put  down  hi 
lecture,  for  refusing  sul^ription.  Mr.  Baynes  vras  reqniied 
to  preach  at  this  visitation,  when  his  sermon  was  sound  and 
unexceptionable.  But  being  of  a  weak  constitution,  he 
retired  at  the  close  of  the  service,  for  some  refreshm^; 
and  being  called  during  his  absence,  and  not  answering,  he 
was  immediately  silenced.  Nor  were  his  enemies  satufied 
with  this,  but,  to  make  sure  work  of  it,  the  reverend  dtsn- 
cellor  silenced  him  over  again ;  all  of  which  Mr.  Baynes 
received  with  a  pleasant  smile  on  his  countenam:e.f 
Having  received  the  ecclesiastical  censure,  he  appealed  to  the 
archbishop ;  but  his  grace  stood  inflexible  to  the  deteimi* 
nation  of  his  chancellor,  and  threatened  to  lay  the  ffood  M 
man  by  the  heels,  for  appearing  before  him  with  ar.ffi^ 
black  edging  on  his  cuffs.X 

After  receiving  the  above  coisure,  Mr.  Baynes  preached 
only  occasionally,  as   he   found    opportunity,  and  war 

•  Clark *8  Lives  aoiiexed  to  his  Martyrologie,  p.  SSy  88. 

■f*  Baynes^s  Diocesaas  Tryall,  Pref.    Edit.  108K 

X  Ibid.—How  a  little  blaclL  edging  could  offend  his  lordsUp,  If  certalsiy 
not  easy  to  discover.  It  was  not  prohibited  by  any  of  the  canon,  nor  WKf 
violatioo  of  the  ecclesiastical  constitotioDs.  Therefore,  onleMi  ^  nich- 
bisbop  had  some  enmity  against  the  good  man  pre^omly  in  kli  Ivnrt,  it 
foems  dificuU  to  say  how  he  could  have  been  offmdod  wifck  to  Sriviil 
a  matter. 



tedttccd  to  ereat  poyerty  and  -want  Notwitbatanding  this, 
lie  never  faTamea  himself  for  his  nonconformity.  But  of 
Hie  persecuting  prelates  he  used  pleasantly  to  say,  '^  Thej 
aue  a  generation  of  the  earth,  earthly,  and  savour  not  the- 
ways  of  God."  He  was  an  excellent  casuist,  acnd  great 
Bumbers  under  distress  of  conscience  resorted  to  him  for 
instruction  and  comfort.  This  the  bishops  denominated 
keeping  conventicles;  and  for  this  marvellous  crime,  Bishop 
fiiirsaet.  Iris  most  furious  persecutor,  intended  to  have 
•mocuied  his  banishment.  He  was,  therefore,  called  before 
i^  council ;  and,  being  allowed  to  speak  in  his  own  defence, 
jhe  made  so  admirable  a  speech,  that  before  he  had  done, 
^«ie  of  the.  lords  stood  up,  and  said,  ^^  He  speaks  more 
like  an  angel  than  a  many  and  I  dare  not  stay  here  to  have 
#  hand  in  any  sentence  against  him."  Upon  this  he  was 
dismissed,  and  heard  no  more  of  it.* 

Though  Mr.  Baynes's  natural  temper  was  warm  and 
iititaUe,  no  one  was  more  ready  to  receive  reproof,  when 
ipipperly  administered.  Indeea,  by  the  power  of  divine 
grace,  the  lion  was  turned  into  a  lamb ;  and  he  was  become 
of  so  holy  and  humble  a  spirit,  that  he  was  exceedingly 
Moved  and  revered  by  all  who  knew  him.  During  the 
sommer  season,  after  he  was  silenced,  he  usually  visited 
jRnflemen  in  the  country;  and  they  accounted  it  a  peculiar 
lelicity  to  be  &voured  with  his  company  and  coiiversation* 
In  his  last  sickness,  the  adversary  of  souls  was  permitted 
to  disturb  his  peace.  He  laboured  to  the  last  under  many 
doubts  and  fears,  and  left  the  world  less  comfortable  than 
many  others,  greatly  inferior  to  him  in  christian  faith  and 
lioliness.    He  died  at  Cambridge,  in  the  year  1617. 

The  celebrated  Dr.  Sibbs  gives  the  following  account  of 
Om  acoompiished  servant  of  Christ :  "  Mr.  Baynes,"  says  he, 
^  was  a  man  of  much  communion  with  Grod,  and  acquaint* 
^  ance  with  his  own  heart,  observing  the  daily  footsteps  of 
M  his  life.  He  was  much  exercised  with  spiritual  conflids« 
^<  by  which  he  became  more  able  to  comfort  others.  He  had 
^  a  deep  insight  into  the  mystery  of  Grod's  grace,  and  manlB 
.^  corrviption.  He  sought  not  great  things  in  the  world. 
^  He  possessed  great  learning,  a  clear  judgment,  and  a  ready 
<<  wiw*f  Fuller  has  classed  him  among  the  learned  writers 
who  were  fellows  of  Christ's  coUegt-,  Cambridge.t  What  a 
Rproach  was  it  to  the  ruling  prelates,  and  what  a  blow 
nipinst  the  diurch  of  God,  wbm  wo  excdleat  it  divipe  was 
aside  and  almost  starved  I 

•  Cburk*B  Live^  p.  S3,  S4.  f  Ibid.  p.  94. 

t  FUl€r'iHiat^Ckabp.9f. 


The  following  anecdote  is  related  of  Mr.  Baynes,  shewing; 
the  warmth  of  his  natural  temper,  with  his  leiUliness  to 
receive  reproof  and  to  make  a  proper  use  of  it .  A  religioiB 
jpfentleman  placed  his  son  under  his  care  and  tuition ;  aaid 
Mr.  Baynes,  entertaining  some  friends  at  supper,  sent  the  boy 
into  the  town  for  sometliing  which  they  wanted.  The  boy 
staying  longer  than  was  proper,  Mr.  Bayncs  reproved  him 
with  some  sharpness,  severely  censuring  his  conduct.  Tlie 
boy  remained  silent;  but  the  next  day,  when  his  tutor  was 
calm,  he  thus  addressed  him :  ^'  My  father  placed  me  under 
your  care  not  only  for  the  benefit  of  human  learning,  bot 
that  by  your  pious  counsel  and  example,  I  might  be  brought 
up  in  the  fear  of  God:  but  you,  sir,  giving  w&y  to  your 
passion  the  last  night,  gave  me  a  very  evil  example,  such 
as  I  have  never  seen  in  my  father's  house.**  ^^  Sayest  thou 
so,*'  answered  Mr.  Baynes.  '^  Go  to  my  tailor,  and  let  him 
buy  thee  a  suit  of  clothes,  and  make  them  for  thee,  which  I 
will  pay  for,  to  make  thee  amends."  And  it  is'  added,  that 
Mr.  Baynes  watched  more  narrowly  over  his  own  spirit  ever 

His  Works.-— 1.  Holy  Helper  in  God's  Building,  1618.— -3.  Dii^ 
course  on  the  Lord's  Prayer,  1619. — 3.  The  Diocesans  Tirall,  whereia 
all  the  Sinnewes  of  Dr.  Downham's  Defence  are  brought  into  three 
Heads  and  orderly  dissolved,  1621. — 4.  Help  to  tme  Happiiieta» 
1635. — 6.  Brief  Directions  to  a  Godly  Life,  1637. — 6.  A  dmmah 
tary  on  Ephesians,  1668. 

William  Bbadshaw,  A.  M. — This  excellent  divine^ 
descended  from  the  ancient  family  of  Bradshaws  in  Lanca- 
'ahire,  was  bom  at  M arket-Boswoith  in  Leicestershire,  in  the 
year  ISTl,  and  educated  in  Emanuel  college,  GambricU;^ 
Having  taken  his  degrees,  he  went,  by  the  recommendatfDn 
of  Dr.  Chadderton,  to  Guernsey,  where  he  became  tutor'to 
the  children  of  Sir  Thomas  Leighton,  governor  of  the  islafld. 
In  this  situation  he  formed  an  intimate  acquaintance  witb 
Mr.  Thomas  Cartwright,  which  death  alone  could  dissolve. 
During  Mr.  Bradshaw's  abode  at  Guernsey,  he  maintained 
an  unblemished  character,  and  discovered  great  fixAjy 
industry,  and  faithfulness  in  his  official  situation.  Upon  Us 
jetum  to  England,  on  his  way  to  Cambridge,  he  Terjr 
narrowly  escaped  being  drowned.  He  was  chosen  fellow  of 
Sidney  college,  then  newly  erected.  Here  he  discovcKd 
much  prudence  and  piety,  and  was  highly  respected. '  Ht 


*  Clark's  Examples,  p.  79.    Edit.  1671. 

>  IBRADSHAW.  «65 

'^^as  of  so  amiable  a  disposition,  that  his  yeiy  enemies  ^ero 
'  constrained  to  speak  well  of  him.  Upon  his  settlement  at 
Cambridge,  he  entered  into  the  ministerial  office,  when  he 
i^as  not  particularly  urged  to  observe  those  things  which  he 
scrupled.  He  preached  occasionally  at  Abington,  Bassing- 
ibom,  and  Steeple-Morton,  near  Cambridge;  but  did  not 
settle  at  any  of  these  places. 

'     In  the  year  1601,  having  received  a  pressing  invitation 
from  the  people   of  Chatham  in  Kent,  he  became  their 
^pastor.     In  this  situation,  to  his  own'  great  comfort,  and 
'that  of  the  people,  his  labours  were  soon  made  a  bless- 
ing to  many.     Multitudes  flocked  to  hear  the  word  at  his 
tmouth,  which  presently  awakened  the  jealousy  and  envy  of 
other  ministers.     It  was  deemed  advisable  now  to  obtain 
dhis  confirmation  from  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  ;  and 
to  this  end.  Sir  Francis  Hastings  wrote  a  most  pious  and 
-modest  letter  to  his  lordship.*    At  this  particular  juncture^ 
;Mr.  Bradshaw's  enemies  falsely  accused  him  to  the  arch- 
bishop, of  preaching  unsound  doctrine;  thetefore,  instead 
of  obtaining  his  confirmation,  he  received  a  citation  from 
Dr.  Buckridge,  dated  May  S6,  1602,  to  appear  by  nine 
o*clock  the  next  morning,  before  his  grace  of  Canterbury, 
and  his  lordship  of  London,  at  Shorne,  a  small  distance 
from  Chatham.     Mr.  Bradshaw  appearing  at  the  time  and 
place  appointed,  the  Bishop  of  London,  aner  asking  certain 
questi(ms,  charged  him  with  having  taught, ''  That  man  is 
not  bound  to  love  God,  imless  he  be  sure  that  God  loves 
him."    Mr.  Bradshaw  denied  the  charge;  and  though  he 
offered  to  produce  numerous  respectable  witnesses  in  refuta- 
tion of  it,  and  to  prove  what  he  had  taught,  the  offer  was 
rejected.  .  But,  to  finish  the  business,  and  strike  him  at  once 
"  dumb,  he  was  required  to  subscribe ;  and  because  he  could 
'not,  with  a  good  conscience,  he  was  immediately  suspended, 
bound  to  appear  again  when  called,,  and  then  dismissed. t 

His  unexpected  suspension  and  expulsion  from  Chatham, 
caused  the  friends  of  Christ  to  mourn,  and  his  enemies  to 
triumph.  His  numerous  flock,  having  sat  under  his 
-ministry  with  great  delight,  were  peculiarly  anxious  to  have 
rhirn  restored.  A  supplication  was,  therefore,  drawn  up  in 
.the  name  of  the  parishioners  of  Chatham,  and  presented  to 
.the  Bishop  of  Rochester,  earnestly  desiring  the  restoratioh 

«  This  exceUeot  letter,  dated  April  25, 1602,  in  which  Sir  Francis  gives 
.   higb  commeiidations  of  Mr.  Bradshaw's  character,  is  still  preserved.— 
Ctark't  Lives  annexed  to  kU  MurtprQlogie^  p.  37. 
.     flliid.  p.  «h^«44. 




of  ibeir  silenced  pastor.  In  this  suppltcatton,  after  eaqxisiii^ 
the  false  charffes  of  his  adversaries^  they  declare,  ^  That 
Mr.  Bradshaw  s  doctrine  was  always  soimd,  holy,  leumd, 
and  utterly  void  of  faction  and  contention ;  that  his  life 
was  so  ornamented  with  unblemished  virtues,  that  malke 
itself  could  not  condemn  him ;  and  that  he  directed  all 
labours  to  beat  down  wickedness,  to  comfort  the 
and  to  instruct  the  ignorant,  without  meddling  with  the 
needless  controversies  of  the  day."  They  conclude  hj 
humbly  entreating  his  lordship's  fiivour,  tliat  he  would  be 
the  happy  means  of  restoring  to  them  their  viztuons  aad 
fiuthful  shepherd.*  But  the  decree  of  the  bishq^  and 
archbishop,  like  the  laws  of  the  Medes  and  Persiaiis,  was 

ne  forth ;  these  intercessions  were,  therefore,  inefiectaaL 

he  meek  and  pious  divine  quietly  yielded  to  be  driven 
from  his  ministry  and  his  flock. 

During  these  apparently  cross  dispensations,  GodL  who 
worketh  all  things  after  the  counsel  of  his  own  will,  was 
providing  for  Im.  Bradshaw  a  place  of  rest  Being  ton 
irom  his  beloved  and  affectionate  people,  by  treachery  aad 
episcopal  power,  he  found  a  comfortable  retreat  under- the 
hospitable  roof  of  Mr.  Alexander  Redich,  of  NewhaD, 
near  Burton-upou-Trent  in  Staffordshire.  This  pioos  and 
worthy  gentleman  not  onW  received  him  into  his  house,  but 
procured  him  a  license  uom  the  Bishop  ai  Lichfield  and 
Coventry,  to  preach  in  any  part  of  his  diocese :  thia  ikvenr 
was  continued  as  long  as  the  bishop  lived.  In  thia  retired 
situation,  Mr.  Braddiaw  preached  for  some  time  at  the 
chapel  in  the  park ;  then,  when  that  became  too  small,  ia 
the  parish  church  of  Stapenhill.  This  he  did  finr  alMt 
twelve  years,  receiving  nothing  from  Ae  pariah.  During 
the  whole  of  this  period,  he  was  supported  by  his  wtwdij 
jpatron,  in  whose .  &mily  he  lived,  and  was  treated  with  tbcr 
utmost  kindness,  Mr.  Bradshaw  was  afterwards  chosei 
lecturer  of  Christ's  church,  London ;  but  the  htahiop  abso* 
lutely  refused  his  allowance. 

Conformity  being  now  enforced  with  great  rigour,  seveid 
worthy  divines  ventured  to  set  forth  their  grievancies,  their 
exceptions,  and  the  grounds  of  their  dissen^  and  to  answor 
the  arguments  of  their  opponents.  Among  these  was  lb. 
3tadshaw,  who  published  his  Reply  to  l>r.  Bilaont  and  Dr. 

>  *  Clark*t  Livea  uwexed  to  his  Maityrologie,  p.  49. 
-    f  Or.  Bilsos's  celebrated  work  in  defence  of  the  natimial  ckaroh»  k 
entitled,   *^  The  perpetaall  Governnent  of  ChriKci  Charrhs  WhantiM 
arc  handled.  The  fatherly  saperioritie  which  God  fini  cHabUilMa  ia  thi 

BRADSHAW.      ,  •  ggT 

JDoswnbafli)  two  notable  chamiMions  for  episcopacy  and 
tlie  ceremonies.  The  puritans  being  treated  with  great 
jseverity^  and^  stis^matized  as  fanatics,  schismatics,  and 
.enemies  both  to  God  and  the  king;  Mr.  Bradshaw,  to 
jpraaoye  these  slanders,  and  to  give  the  world  a  correqt 
MfMemeat  of  their  principles,  published  his  '^  English 
Puritanism,  containing  the  main  Opinions  <^  the  rigidc^t 
sort  of  those  tliat  are  called  Puritans  in  the  realm  of  Eng- 
land.*' In  this  excellent  perfonnance,  to  which  the  learned 
Dr.  Ames  wrote  a  preface,  and  translated  it  into  Latin,  for 
the  benefit  of  foreigners,  it  is  observed,  '^  That  the  puritans 
jnaintain  the  absolute  perfection  c^the  holy  scriptures,  botti 
as  to  feith  and  worship;  and  that  whatever  is  required 
as  a  part  of  divine  service^  which  cannot  be  warranted  by 
the  word  of  God,  is  unlawful."  This  is  the  broad  basis  oa 
which  thev  founded  their  opinions  a^d  practice ;  and  ia 
correspcmdtence  with  this  generous  sentiment,  they  further 
maintained,  ^<  That  the  pastors  of  particular  congregatiomr 
are  the  highest  spiritual  (^cers  in  the  church  of  Cnrist,  oy^ 
whom  there  is,  by  divine  ordinance,  no  superior  pastor,, 
excepting  Jesus  Christ  alone. — That  they  are  led  by  the 
spirit  of  antichrist,  who  arrogate  to  themselves  to  be  pastors 
of  pastors^ — ^That  every  particular  church  hath  power  to 
elect  its  own  officers,  and  to  censure  its  own  members.-^-^ 
That,  to  fcNToe  a  congr^ation  to  support  a  person  as  their 
pastor,  who  is  either  unable  or  unwilling  to  instruct  them,  is 
as  great  an  injury  as  to  force  a  man  to  maintain  as  his  wife^ 
one  who  rrfuseth  to  perform  the  duties  of  a  wife^"  &;c.* 

All  books  published  in  defence  of  the  puritans  wer^ 
indeed,  accounted  dangerous  both  to  church  and  state ;  and 
when  they  came  forth,  the  most  diligent  search  was  made 
for  them,  as  well  as  for  their  authors.  Therefcnre,  Mr. 
Bradshaw  being  in  London,  two  pursuivants  were  sent  to 
his  lodginffs  to  apprehend  him,  and  to  search  for  suspected 
books.  When  the  pursuivants  came,  he  was  not  to  h$ 
found ;  and,  not  more  than  half  an  hour  before  their  arrival, 
ftus  wife,  to  prey^t  danger,  had  taken  a  quantity  of  those 

Fstriarkes  for  Uie  guidiiig  of  his  charch,  and  after  contianed  in  the  tribe  of 
Ijtii  and  the  Prophetest  and  lasUie  confirmed  io  the  New  Testament  to  the 
Apostles  and  their  Successors :  as  also  the  points  in  question  at  this  day* 
tonching  the  Jewish  Synedrion;  the  true  Kingdome  of  Christ i  m 
Aposttei  Commission  i  the  Laie  Presbyterie  i  the  Distinction  of  Bishops  aii4 
Pfofbyters^  and  their  succession  from  the  Apostles  times  and  bands :"  ftc« 
1593.  This,  It  is  said,  is  one  of  the  best  books  written  in  fiiTOor  w 
cpiscopac/.-rAiojr.  Britan.  ▼ol.  ii.  p.  SIO.  Edit.  1778. 
•  Sosllrii  Pvitaniim,  p.  36— 42.    Edit.  laOO. 


books  out  of  his  study,  and  cast  them  into  a  hgle  betweei 
two  chimnies :  and  though  they  broke  open  chests,  trunb^ 
and  boxes,  and  searched  evenr  comer  m  the  boisae  fbej 
could  think  of,  the  books  remained  undiscovered.  Nerer* 
theless,  they  carried  Mrs.  Bradshaw  before  the  high  com- 
mission, where  she  underwent  a  severe  examination,  with 
an  evident  design  to  make  her  betray  her  husband;  but 
their  purpose  having  utterly  failed,  after  binding  her  to 
appear  when  called,  she  was  dismissed.* 

In  the  year  1617,  Mr.  Bradshaw  returning  from  a  journey, 
the  bishop's  chancellor  welcomed  him  home  with  a  suspen* 
sion  from  preaching  any  more,  without  his  further  allow* 
ance.  But,  by  the  mediation  of  a  worthy  friend,  the  chan- 
cellor soon  became  satisfied;  took  oiF  his  restraint;  add 
tlie  good  man  went  forwards  in  the  peaceable  exercise  of 
his  ministry.  Besides  preaching  constantly  at  StapenhiU, 
this  learned  divine  united  with  his  brethren  in  their  associa- 
tions at  Ashby-de-la-Zoucb,  Repton,  and  Burton-upoii- 
Trent.  On  these  occasions,  besides  public  preaching, 
for  the  benefit  of  the  respective  congregations,  ihej 
had  private  religious  conference  among  themselves.  For 
their  mutual  advantage,  they  proposed  subjects  for  disciv- 
iion;  when  Mr.  Bradshaw  is  said  to  have  discovered  a 
depth  of  judgment,  and  a  power  of  balancing  points  of 
controversy,  superior  to  the  rest  of  his  brethren.  Qb. 
account  of  his  great  abilities,  he  was  conunonly  styled 
the  weighing  divine.  He  was  well  grounded  in  Ihe 
fundamental  doctrines  of  the  gospel,  and  well  studied  in  the 
points  about  subscription,  the  ceremonies,  the  civil  power, 
and  the  authority  of  the  prelates ;  yet  he  was  an  enemy  to 

Mr.  Bradshaw,  in  his  last  sickness,  had  very  humiliating 
views  of  himself,  and  exalted  views  of  God  and  the  poweir 
of  his  grace.  He  exhorted  those  about  him,  to  learn  to  die 
before  death  approached ;  and  to  lay  a  foundation  in  time 
of  life  and  health,  that  would  afibrd  them  comfort  in  timo 
of  sickness  and  death.  At  Chelsea,  near  London,  he  ita 
seized  with  a  malignant  fever,  which  baffled  all  the  power  of 
medicine,  and  soon  terminated  his  mortal  existence.  He  died 
in  peace,  and  in  great  satisfaction  with  his  nonconformity, 
in  the  year  1618,  aged  forty-seven  years :  his  r(»nain8  wem 
interred  at  Chelsea,  and  most  of  the  ministers  about  the 
fAty  attended  the  funeral  solemnity.     His  funeral  sennon 

•  Clark*8  Liyes,  p.  45-46.  i  Ibid.  p.  49,  A^  BOr 

BRADSHAMT.  '  «9' 

Iras  pfreached.  by  his  worthy  friend  Mr.  Thomas  Gataker^  * 
who  mre  him  the  following  character :  ^^  He  was  studious, 
humMe,  upright,  affectionate,  liberal,  and  compassionate. 
He  pofieessed  a  sharp  wit,  a  clear  apprehension,  a  sound, 
jodgment,  an  exact  method,  a  poweiful  delivery,  and  a. 
angular  dexterity  in  clearing  up  intricate  debates,  dis- 
covering the  turning  points  in  dispute,  stating  controversies 
aright,  and  resolving  cases  of  conscience."   The  celebrated 
Bi&op  H^says,  ^^  He  had  a  strong  understanding,  and  a 
free  spirit,  not  suiFerin|r  himself  for  small  matters  of  judg- 
ment to  be  alienated  n'om  his  friends;  to  whom,  notwith- 
standing his  seeming  austerity,  he  was  very  pleasing  in 
oonversation,  being  full  of  witty  and  harmless  urbanity.   He 
was  very  strong  and  eager  in  argument,  hearty  in  friendship, 
imrdless  of  uxe  world,  a  despiser  of  compliment,  a  lover 
ofreality,  full  of  digested  learning  and  excellent  notions,  a 
painful  labourer   in  God's  work,   and  now,   no  doubt, 
gkvioudy  rewarded."* 

The  productions  of  Mr«  Bradshaw's  pen  were  numerous, 
and  most  of  them  very  excellent.  His  '^  Treatise  of  Justi- 
fication," was  much  admired  by  men  of  learning,  as 
appears  from  the  following  anecdote :  Some  time  after  Mr. 
Bradshaw's  death,  the  famous  Dr.  Prideaux,  being  in  com- 
panv  with  his  son,  and,  finding  who  he  was,  said,  <<  I  am 
gha  to  see  the  son  of  that  man,  for  the  old  acquaintance  I 
kad,  not  with  your  father,  but  with  bis  Book  of  Justifica- 
ti(m."f  We  shall  give  a  list  of  his  pieces,  in  addition  to 
those  already  mentioned,  though  perhaps  not  in  the  exact 
order  in  which  they  came  forth,  as  it  is  difficult  to  procure 
an  exact  statement  of  the  time  of  their  publication. 

His  Works. — 1.  A  Treatise  of  Divine  Worship,  tending  to  prove 
that  the  Ceremonies  imposed  upon  the  Ministers  of  the  Gospel  in 
England,  in  present  Controversy,  are  in  their  use  unlawful,  1604. — 
2.  A  Treatise  of  the  Nature  and  Use  of  Things  Indifferent,  tending 
to  prove  that  the  Ceremonies,  in  present  Controversy,  are  neither  in 
Nature  or  Use  Indifferent,  1606. — 3.  Twelve  Arguments,  proving 
that  the  Ceremonies  imposed  upon  the  Ministers  of  the  Grospel  in 
England  by  our  Prelates,  are  unlawful;  and,  therefore,  that  the 
Ministers  of  the  Gospel,  for  the  bare  and  sole  omission  of  them  in 
GhorcllHBervice,  for  conscience  sake,  are  most  unjustly  charged  of 
Disloyalty  to  his  Majesty,  1606. — 4.  A  Protestation  of  the  King's 
Supremacy,  made  in  the  name  of  the  Afflicted  Ministers,  and  opposed 
to  the  shameful  Calumniations  of  the  Prelates,  1606.-^5.  A  Propo- 
sition concerhing  Kneeling  in  the  very  Act  of  Receiving,  1606. — 6.  A 
ihort  Tireatise  of  the  Cross  in  Baptism,— 7.  A  Consideration  of 

•  Clark's  Lives,  p.  51,  60.  t  Ibid.  p.  69. 


cierUiii  Potitioiis  ArcbiepiscopaL — 8.  A  Preparation  to  the  ImM 
Supper.—^.  A  Marriage  Feaat — 10.  A  Meditation  on  Map's  Mor* 
tality. — 11.  Sermons  on  the  second  Epistle  to  the  Tbesaalonians^— 
12.  A  Treatise  of  Christian  Reproof.^13.  A  Treatise  of  the  Sii 
against  the  Holy  Ghost — 14.  A  Twofold  Catechism. — 16.  An  Answer 
to  Mr.  G.  Powel. — 16.  A  Defence  of  the  fiaptism  of  InflurtSr-* 
17.  llie  Unreasonableness  of  Separation. 

Mr.  Jenkin  was  son  to  a  gentleman  of  oonsiderabk 
estate  at  Folkstone  in  Kent,  and  educated  in  the  uiiiTenitj 
of  Cambridge,  with  a  view  to  some  considerable  piefermcfli 
in  the  church.  Being  here  cast  under  the  ministry  of  tht 
celebrated  Mr.  William  Perkins,  be  soon  became  imprmad 
with  ffreat  seriousness,  and  embarked  with  the  pliritaBL 
His  mther  discovering  this  upon  his  return  bomei  aad 
disliking  that  sort  of  people,  was  pleased  to  disiiilierit  lam 
of  the  greatest  part  of  his  estate.  Thus  younff  Jenkin  !»u 
called  to  bear  the  yoke  in  his  youth,  ana  to  forsake  fttfa^t 
and  mother,  houses  and  land,  for  his  attachment  to  Chriit 
and  his  cause.  He  trusted  in  the  Lord,  and  found  Jiim.tli 
be  a  constant  iiriend.  When  he  found  his  compaoy  dia* 
agreeable  to  his  father,  he  removed  to  the  house  m  Mr# 
luchard  Rogers,  the  old  puritan  minister  of  Wethenfiddii 
Essex,  where  he  diligently  prosecuted  his  studies.  Enteruf 
afterwards  iipon  the  ministerial  function,  he  settled  M 
Sudbury  in  Suffolk.  In  this  situation  he  was  laborious  ii 
preaching  and  catechising;  and  while  he  was  ^ignaSLf 
usdful  to  many,  he  adomS  the  whole  by  a  conespondhiji 
holy  conversation.  After  his  settlement  at  this  placa^  hs 
married  the  grand-daughter  of  Mr.  John  Rogers,  the  fioofW 

Jrotomartyr.  Mr.  Jenkin  died  about  the  year  1618.*  Mr. 
ohn  Wilson,  another  celebrated  puritan,  was  his  fluooesn^ 
at  Sudbury ;  and  Mr.  William  Jenkin,  the  ejected  nooocfr 
formist,  was  his  son.t 

Samuel  Hieron. — This  Excellent  divine  was  the  Mirf 
a  most  worthy  minister,  who,  being  much  respected  I^  tht 
fiunous  Mr.  John  Fox,  was  persuaded  to  lay  aside  *f*w^«"g 
school,  and  enter  upon  the  christian  ministry.  He  Ubomn 
in  the  sacred  office  many  years  at  £pping  in  Essex,  wi^ 
God  was  pleased  greatly  to  bless  his  endeavours.  TUa  Ul 
son  was  educated  first  by  his  fi^er,  then  at  Kiog^a  8obNil|i 

•  Calamy's  Accoont,  ¥01.  ii.  p.  IT. 

f  iVamer's  Noocod.  Mem.  toI.  i.  p.  108; .      : 

JENKlN— HIERON.  !^*^ 

[|«sur  Windsor,  and  afterwards  at  King^s  college,  Cambridge, 
ivliere  he  made,  amazing  progress  in  the  yarioos  branches  of 
Sleratwe.  One  of  his  name  united  with  many  others  of 
[Ifrinity  college,  in  their  invitation  to  Lord  Barleigh,  in 
Ifi95,  to  accept  the  office  of  treasurer  of  the  college ;  bnt  it 
Sees  not  appear  with  certainty  whether  this  was  the  same 

He  entered  Upon  his  public  ministry,  and  gained,  at  the 
1^  of  twenty-four  years,  a  distin^ubhed  reputation,  and 
ima  greatly  admired  and  followed.  Haying  finished  his 
Aodi^  at  the  uniyersity,  he  was  presented  by  Sir  Henry 
Bftyile  to  the  yicarage  of  Modbury  in  Devonshire,  where  he 
toHtinued'  the  temainder  of  his  days,  the  Lord  greatly 
Heflsing  his  labours.  Here  he  was  reverenced  by  the  poor, 
idmired  by  the  rich,  countenanced  by  the  great,  and  re« 
■pected  by  all.f 

«-  Mr.  Hieron  was  a  celebrated  divine,  and  a  most  noted 
Mffilan.  He  wrote  several  excellent  pieces  in  defence  of 
mconfiirmity,  though  they  were  never  collected  and  pub* 
idled  with  his  other  works.  One  of  them  is  entitled,  ^<  A 
itort  Dialogue  proving  that  the  Ceremonies  and  some  other 
QHmptions  now  in  question,  are  defended  by  no  other 
Al]mments  than  such  as  the  Papists  have  heretofore  used, 
flM  our  Protestant  Writers  have  long  since  Answered ; 
Mieieanto  are  annexed  certain  Considerations  why  the 
Ministers  should  not  be  moved  by  the  Subscription  and 
Oeiemonies,"  1605.  He  was  also  the  anonymous  author  of 
iiibtiier  piece,  entitled,  <^  A  Defence  of  the  Ministers^  Rea* 
Mis  for  refusal  of  Subscription  to  the  Book  of  Common 
Iteyer,  and  of  Contbrmity,  in  Answer  to  Mr.  T.  Hutton, 
Ihr.  W.  Covel,  and  Dr.  T.  Sparke,"  1607.  This  work  was 
^Mttted  in  Holland,  and  sent  over  packed  up  with  the  goodn^ 
flTdne  Mr.  T.  Sheveril,  an  eminent  merchant  of  Plymouth; 
tmt,  as  no  bookseller  durst  sell  it,  on  account  of  the  severity 
of  the  times,  the  whole  impression  was  given  away.  Some 
of  the  copies  were  sent  to  the  persecuting  bishops,  some  to 
Inb  antagonists,  and  some  to  the  universities ;  but  the  author 
iVItt  never  discovered  to  his  enemies,  or  to  the  collectors  of 
ijte  works.  Thus  Mr.  Hieron  was  deeply  engaged  in  the 
lie  controversies  of  the  day,  though  unknown  to 'bis 
ents.     There  was  also,  «  The  Second  Rirt  of  the 

of  the  Ministers'  Reasons,"  1608 ;  and  "  The  Third 
ctf*  the  Shime,"  1608;  but  I  am  not  sure,  says^  mj 

«  Baker't  MS.  QoUec.  toI.  if.  p.  50. 


author,  Tphether  Mr.  Hicron  was  the  author  of  them.*    |le 
was  particularly  intimate  with  some  of  the  most  celebni&l 

Suritans,  especially  Dr.  Lawrence  Chadderton^  to  whom  he 
edicated  some  of  his  works. 
Though  Mr.  Hieron  was  a  minister  of  most  eminent  fnetf 
and  usefulness ;  yet,  during  the  greatest  part  of  his  bJA. 
sickness,  which  continued  about  a  month,  his  mind  waft 
under  a  cloud,  and  very  uncomfortable.  For  the  most  part, 
he  remained  altogether  silent,  oftentimes  not  answering  any 
question  tiiat  was  proposed  to  him,  and  sometimeB  he  wq^ 
most  bitterly.  A  brother  minister  addressing  him,  with  a. 
view  to  administer  comfort  to  his  troubled  mind,  he  saidy 
<<  There  is  a  great  mist  betwixt  rae  and  the  happiness  I  have 
looked  after.  I  have  judged  partially  of  my  own  state,  and 
thought  better  of  myself*  than  I  deserved.  He  could  not 
then  be  prevailed  upon  to  speak  any  more. 

About  four  days  before  he  died,  he  began  to  revive  and 
speak  in  a  more  comfortable  strain,  declaring  his  gmt 
peace  and  abundant  consolation.     To  a  friend  who  asked 
nim  how  he  did,  he  said,  '^  A  very  weak  man.*'     When  it 
was  recommended  that,  though  he  was  weak  in  body,  he 
should  labour  to  be  strong  in  the  spirit,  he  replied.  ^'  I 
thank  God,  I  have  labour^  and  do  labour,  and  I  find  my 
labour  is  not  in  vain.     I  have  many  tilings  to  speak  ihiut 
way,  but  now  I  want  a  tongue  to  utter  them  ;  vet  something 
I  must  speak :  I  would  not  have  it  thought  that  my  deatS 
is  hopeless;  for  though  I  have  lain  all  this  time  silent, ai 
you  have  seen,  yet  my  thoughts  have  been  engaged  about 
matters  of  great  consequence ;  and  now,  I  thank  my  God, 
my  soul  is  full  of  comfort    I  do  verily  believe  ]  shall  see 
the  light  of  the  Lord,  in  the  land  of  the  living.     But  what 
am  I,  or  what  is  my  father's  house,  that  God  should  deal  so 
graciously  with  my  soul  ?    He  hath  called  me  unto  a  state 
of  grace ;  fitted  me  in  my  education  for  the  ministry  of.ttjB 
word;  brought  me  in  his  appointed  time  to  the  pradioe 
thereof;  given  me  some  reputation  in  it ;  and  blened  my 
labours  in  some  measure  unto  his  people.     He  hath  n^ 
dealt  thus  with  every  one ;  no  not  of  his  own  chosen.    I 
speak  not  boastingly,  but  comfortably ;  not  to  extol  mysdj^ 
but  to  magnify  the  goodness  of  my  God.    I  know  whom  1 
have  professed,  whom  1  have  preached,  whom  I  have 
believed,  and  now  I  see  heaven  open  to  receive  me.    I  am 
freed  from  all  care,  except  for  my  people.    I  wish,  if  God 

•  MS.  Acconnt  of  Mr.  Hicrwi. 

6.  6IFF0RD.  S73 

were  so  pleased,  that  nothing  I  have  taught  them  may 
prove  thesavour  of  death  unto  death  to  any  of  them.  But 
mjr  own  sin  hath  been  the  cause  that  I  have  seen  no  more 
fruit  of  my  labour  in  their  conversion;  yet,  it  may  be, 
another  may  come  after  me,  and,  as  the  apostle  says  of 
bimseli^  reap  that  which  I  have  sown.  I  confess  that,  in 
public,  I  have  been  somewhat  full  in  reproof,  in  admonition, 
m  instruction ;  but  in  private  my  backwardness,  my  bash- 
fulness,  my  dastardliness,  hath  been  intolerable ;  and  I  may 
truly  say,  that  if  any  thing  lies  as  a  burden  on  my  con- 
science, it  is  this,  out  I  praise  my  God,  I  know  upon 
ivhose  shoulders  to  cast  it,  with  the  rest  of  my  transgres- 
sions." Many  other  things,  in  the  same  comfortable  strain^ 
lie  spoke  previous  to  his  departure.  He  died  in  the  year 
1618;  for  his  funerd  sermon  was  published  that  year,  though 
it  does  not  contain  the  least  account  of  the  deceased.  It  is 
entitled,  "  Hieron's  last  Farewell ;  a  Sermon  preached  at 
Modbuiy  in  Devon,  at  the  Funeral  of  the  Reverend  and 
Faithful  Servant  of  Christ,  Master  Samuel  Hieron,  some- 
tunes  .preacher  there,  by  J.  B.,"  1618. 

j^nller,  who  has  classed  Mr.  Hieron  among  the  eminent 
.men  and  learned  writers  of  King's  college,  Cambridge^ 
styles  him  "  a  powerful  preacher  in  his  printed  works."* 
±ne  learned  and  pious  Bishop  Wilkins  has  given  an 
honourable  testimony  of  the  excellency  of  his  sermons.f 
His  works,  consisting  of  sermons  and  other  pieces,  were 
collected  and  published  after  his  death,  entitled,  <<  The 
Works  of  Mr.  Sam.  Hieron,  late  Pastor  of  Modbuiy  in 
Devon,''  in  two  volumes,  folio,  in  162^1.  A  divine  of  the 
same  name,  who  was  ejected  in  1662,  was  his  grandson.]: 

George  Gifforo,  A.  M. — This  excellent  divine  was 
educated  in  Hart-hall,  Oxford,  where  he  continued  some 
years.  In  the  year  1582,  he  became  vicar  of  Maldon  in 
£8sez.V  The  Oxford  historian  denominates  him  <^  a 
Teiy  noted  preacher,  a  man  admirably  well  versed  in 
die  various  branches  of  good  literature,  and  a  great 
enemy  to  popery. "|  Mr.  Strype  says,  ^^  he  was  a  great 
Md  diligent  preacher,    and   much   esteemed  by  many 

•  FaUer't  Hist,  of  Cam.  p.  76. 
•f  WUkiM  on  Preaching,  p.  8S. 
•  -^  Pkhaer't  HoBcoB.  JUfm.  ¥ol.  ii«  p.  38. 
4  Kew€oart*t  Repert.  Eccl.  ¥ol.  ii.  p.  S96.  4 

f  Wood*t  AtheaoB  Ozon.  vol.  i.  p.  3S7«  ^ 

▼OL.  II.  T 


penons  oF  rank.  By  his  labours  he  broaght  Ae  town  to 
much  more  sobriety  and  knowledge  of  tnie  fdifficm.*'* 
Though  he  was  a  decided  puritan,  and  scni|>led  conrormiCjr 
in  yanoils  particukirs,  he  wrote  with  grtst  zeU  against  tat 
Brownisls,  and  in  defence  of  the  church,  fiat  atl  tlEei^ 
things  were  mere  trifles,  so  long  as  he  did  not  acfiAire  t&^ 
ceremonies,  nor  come  up  to  the  standard  of  cOtafonmtj  ^ 

Suired  by  tlie  prelates.  Thrrefofe,  having  prcsafcfc^d  tike 
octrine  of  limited  obedience  to  the  civil  itu^^trate^  CMft* 
plaiiits  were  brought  against  him,  and  he  wa)?  lAiAiMii'  ~ 
suspended  and  cast  into  prison.  This  was  in  thib  feOt  ll 
About  the  same  time,  this  learned  dfivlrffe,  Mid  d 
ministers  of  Essex,  to  the  ndmber  of  tweift^^fteven,  pit^ 
rented  a  supplication  to  the  lords  of  the  cMaicfij  extimfy 
eliciting  a  redress  of  their  grievances;  though  it  cbMnn 
appear  with  what  degree  ofsuccess. 

The  ministers  who   subscribed  this  sttppficaiidfi  VMJ 
highly  celebrated  for  learning,  piety,  and  usdulneM.  ftU^ 
of  whom  were  already  suspended  for  nobcohforiiiity.    Ut 
the  supplication  thev  express  themselves  as  follows:  ^  We 
cheerfully  and  boldly  offer  this  our  humbte  iMi(  onto  ytmr 
honours,  being  our  only  sanctuary  upon  eattfi,  Aeitt  io  lltt 
inajesty,  to  which  we  can  repair  in  our  present  ncJoeAdtjr: 
and  most  of  all  we  ette  encouraged,  when  we  congid^nr  ii&k 
richly  God  hath  adorned  your  honours  -^iih  ktiM^J£d|g& 
wisdom,  and  zeal  for  the  gospel,  and  T^th  godly  ttat  iaii 
tender  love  to  those  who  protess  the  same.     Most  Ktiltihly* 
therefore,  we  beseech  your  honours,  with  yoiif  acduMtttned 
fiivour  in  all  godly  and  just  causes,  to  hedr  and  to  jddge  0f 
our  matters.    \Ve  liave  received  the  chaijge  c^  her  im^esty'tf 
loyal  and  faithful  subjects,  to  instruct  and  teach  our  people  . 
in  the  way  of  life ;  and  every  one  of  ust  having  this  soonded 
from  the  God  of  heaven,  Iroe  be  unto  mcj  iffpredchtiotthe 
gospel,  t^e  have  all  endeavoured  to  discharge  oar  duties, 
anci  to  approve  ourselves  both  to  Grod  and  men*    NotiHth* 
standing  this,  we  are  in  ^eat  heaviness,  and  some  tt  aft 
already  put  to  silence,  and  the  rest  living  iii  fbat ;  liot  tt^ 
we  have  been,  or  can  be  charged,  We  hope,  with  fitittb  ddC^ 
trine,  or  slanderous  life ;  but  because  we  rdfiise  to  Mjibtetiltf 
<  that  there  is  nothing  contained  in  tiie  Bdok  of  CotahiMH 
Prayer  contrary  to  the  word  of  Grod.^    We  do  protest  in 
the  sight  of  Grod,  who  searcheth  all  hearts,  that  ^  ddid 
refuse  from  a  desire  to  dissent,  or  from  any  sinister  a&eiMn; 

•  Strype'i  Aylmer,  p.  110. 

G;  GIFFORD.  1876. 

but  in  the  fear  of  God,  and  from  the  necessity  of  conscien^ 
The. apostle  teacheth,  that  a  person  who  donbteth  is  con* 
demn^  if  he  eat.  If  a  man  then  be  condemned  for  doing  a 
lawful  action,  because  he  doubts  whether  it  be  lawful;  how 
much  more  should  we  incur  the  displeasure  of  the  Lord,  and 
justly  deserve  his  wraih,  if  we  should  subscribe,  being  fully 
persuaded  that  there  are  some  things  in  the  book  contrary 
to  his  ivord  1  If  our  reasons  might  be  so  answered  by  the 
doctrine  of  the  Bible,  and  we  could  be  persuaded  that  we 
might  subscribe  lawfully,  and  in  the  fear  of  God,  we  would 
wifiingly  consent.  In  those  and  other  respects  we  humbly 
craye  your  honourable  protection,  as  those  who  from  ti^ 
lieart  do  entirely  love,  honour,  and  obey  her  excellei^ 
majesty  and  your  honours,  in  the  Lord.  Giving  moi^ 
hearty  thanks  to  God  for  all  the  blessings  we  have  received 
from  him,  by  your  government,  constantly  praying,  night 
and  day,  that  he  willbless  and  preserve  her  majesty  and 
your  honours  to  eternal  salvation.  Your  honours'  poor 
and  humble  supplicants, 

*^  George  Qifford,  Samuel  Cotesford, 

Richard  Rogers,  Richard  Illison, 

Nicholas  Colpotts,  William  Serdge, 

liAw^ANCE  Newman,  Edmund  Barker, 

William  DfKE,  Richard  Black  well. 

Thomas  Chaplain,  Thomas  Howell, 

Arthur  Dent,  Mark  Wirsdale, 

Thomas  Redrich,  Robbrt  Edmonds, 

Giles  Whiting,  Augustine  Pigot, 

Ralph  Hawden,  Camillus  Rusticus, 

Je^fert  Jesselin,  John  Huckle, 

Thomas  Upche,  Thomas  Cauew, 

Roger  Carr,  John  Bishop."* 
John  Wilton, 

When  Mr.  Gifford  was  brouj^ht  to  trial  before  the  high, 
commission,  his  enemies  utterly  failed  in  their  evidence,  and 
he  was  accordingly  released.  This,  however,  was  not  the 
mid  of  bis  troubles.  He  did  not  long  enjoy  his  liberty. 
Bidlop  Aylmer  appointed  spies  to  watch  him,  and  fresh 
complaints  were  soon  brought  against  him  on  account  of  his 
nonconformity ;  when  he  was  again  suspended  and  cast  into 
inrisoo.f  Upon  this  he  made  application  to  the  lord 
treasurer,  who  endeavoured  to  obtain  the  favour  of  the  ' 

•  MS.  Resiiter^  p.  330. 

f  8trype*t  Whitgift,  p.  158.— NeaFt  ParitaDs,  yel.  i.  p.  379. 


archbishop ;  but  his  grace  having  consulted,  his  brother  of 
London,  told  the  treasurer  that  he  was  a  ringleader  of  the 
nonconformists;  that  he  himself  had  received  complaiirti 
against  him,  and  was  determined  to  bring  him  before  the 
high  commission.* 

Mr.  Gifford  had  many  friends,  and  was  much  beloved 
by  his  numerous  hearers.     The  parishioners  of  MaldoD, 
therefore,  presented  a  petition  to  the  bishop,  in  behalf  a 
their  minister,  signed  by  jifly'lvM)  persons,  two  of  whom 
were  bailiffs  of  the  town,  two  justices  of  the  peace,  fbnr 
aldermen,  fifteen  head  burgesses,  and  other    respectable 
people.     In  this  petition,  they  shewed  that  his  fonner 
accusations  had  been  proved  to  be  false ;  that  the  present 
charges  were  only  the  slanderous  accusations  of  wicked 
men,  who  sought  to  injure  his  reputation  and  usefulness; 
that  they  themselves  and  a  i^reat  part  (^  the  town  had 
derived  the  greatest  benefit  from  his  ministry;    that  Us 
doctrine  was   always   sound  and   good;  that  in  all  Ur 
preaching  and  catechising  he  taught  obedience  to  magis- 
trates; that  he  used  no  conventicles ;  and  that  his  life  was 
modest,    discreet,   and  unreprovable.    For  these  reasons 
they  eamestiv  entreated  his  grace  to  restore  him  to  his 
ministry.f    Lideed,  the  distresses  of  the  people  in  Enex 
were  at  this  time  so  great,  that  the  inhabitants  of  Maldon 
and  the  surrounding  country  presented  a  petition  to  parlia- 
ment for  the  removal  of  present  grievances.     In  this  peti- 
tion, now  before  me,  they  complain,  in  most  affecting  lan- 
giiage,  that  nearly  all  their  learned  and  useful  ministers 
were  forbidden  to  preach,  or  deprived  of  their  livings ;  and 
that  ignorant  and   wicked  ministers  were    put  in  their 

These  endeavours  proved  ineffectual.  Mr.  Gifford  did 
not  enjoy  his  liberty  for  several  years,  as  appears  fnim  a 
supplication  of  several  of  the  suspended  ministers  in  Essex, 
presented  to  parliament,  dated  March  8, 1587,  when  he  was 
still  under  the  episcopal  censure.  It  will  be  proper  to  give 
the  substance  of  it  in  their  own  words :  <<  In  most  hnmUe 
and  reverent  duty  to  this  high  and  honourable  court  ol 

Jarliament,  sundry  of  the  ministers  and  preachers  of  Gtod'i 
oly  word  in  the  county  of  Essex,  present  this  our  earnest 
supplication,  and  lamentable  complaint,  beseeching  yoi 
upon  our  knees  for  the  Lord's  sake,  and  the  sake  of  hii. 


•  Strype's  Whit^rift,  p.  ]52. 
+  Strype'i  Aylincr,  p.  Ul,  112. 
t  MS.  Rei^ister,  p.  748. 

6.  QIFFORD.  S77 

« people,  whose  salvation  it  conceraeth,  to  bow  down  a 

;  ^acious  ear  to  this  our  most  dutiful  suit,  and  to  take  such 

order  as  to  your  godly  wisdom  shall  be  thought  most  con- 

Tenient.     Your  humble  suppliants  haying,  by  the  good- 

.  Bess  of  God,  conducted  themselves  at  all  times,  both  in  their 

\  doctrine  and  life,  as  becometh  their  vocation,  they  submit 

themselves  to  any  trial  and  punishment,  if  it  should  be  found 

^citherwise.     Notwithstanding  this,  they  have  been  a  long 

.  time,  and  still  are,  grievously  troubled  and  molested ;  of 

•  which  troubles  this  is  one  of  the  heaviest,  that  we  are 
•.Jhindered  from  the  service  of  God  in  our  public  ministry. 
:To  this  restraint  we  have  hitherto  yielded  and  kept  silence. 
4.  .*^  We  hoped,  from  the  equity  of  our  cause,  the  means 

that  have  been  used,  and  the  necessities  of  our  people,  that 
our  suspension  would  have  been  taken  off  by  those  whose 
.  erasure  lieth  upon  us :  but  they  neither  restored  us  to  our 
ministry,  nor  furnished  the  people  with  suitable  persons  to 
supply  our  places.     We  and  our  people  have  been  humble 
.suitors  to  them,  desiring  that  we  might  be  restored  to  our 
-former  service  and  usefulness  among  them;  and,  notwith- 
standing our  cause  hath  been  recommended  to  them  by 
'9ome  of  the  chief  nobility  in  the  land,  even  of  her  majesty's 
.  Jbonou'rable  privy  council,  we  have  obtained  no  relief  for 
,  cmmelves,  nor  comfort  for  our  distressed  people.    Therefore, 
to  appear  before  this  high  and  honourable  court  of  parlia- 
ment, is  the  only  means  left  unto  us ;  that  if  there  be  in  us 
no  desert  of  so  heavy  a  sentence,  it  may  please  this  high 
.  <x>urt  to  take  such  order.for  the  relief  of  your  most  humble 
^  suppliants  as  to  your  godly  wijsdom   shall  be   thought 

'     "  We,  indeed,  acknowledge  that  divers  caused  of  our  re- 

.straint  are  alleged  against  us;  but  our  earnest  desire  is, 

that  this  high  court  would  by  some  means  be  informed  of 

•  this  weighty  matter.  The  chief  of  them  is  pur  refusing  to 
subscril^  to  certain  articles  relating  to  the  present  policy  of 
the  church,  that  every  word  and  ceremony  appointed  to  be 

ijiead  and  used  in  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer,  is  according 
.to  the  word  of  God.  We  declared  that  we  could  not,  with 
*»  good  conscience,  subscribe  to  all  that  was  required  of  us ; 

and  we  humbly  requested  to  have  our  doubts  removed,  and 

to  be  satisfied  in  the  things  required ;  but  we  have  not  re- 
.iceived  one  word  of  answer  to  this  day ;  and  their  former 

rigorous  proceedings  have  not  in  the  least  been  mitigated. 
"  We  humbly  pray  this  high  court  to  be  assured  of  our 

dutiful  obedience  to  all  lawful  authority,  unto  which,  as 



tbe  ordinance  of  God,  and  for  conscience  snke,  with  all  oar 
hearts,  we  promiMC  and  protest  (Mir  8ul>mi«»ion.  Wencek 
unfo  you  to  obtain  some  relief  for  us.  And  we  commit  oirr 
lives  and  wh'>le;it(^  in  Almighty  God,  to  your  graeiou 
clemency,  and  to  the  c  irr  of  her  right  ifxrellent  majeHtj, 
ceasing  not,  day  and  night,  to  pray  that  the  blessings  of 
grace  and  giory  may  rest  upon  yon  for  ever."* 

This  supplication  was  signed  by  Messrs.  (/eorgc  Giffofd| 
Ralph  Hawden,  William  Tunstall,  John  Huckle,  Gilfli 
Whiting,  and  Roger  Carr ;  l)ut  whether  it  proved  of  aiijr 
advantage,  is  extremely  doubtful.  Most  probably  thty 
continued  much  longer  under  suspension.  Mr.  Giflbrd 
BubscriF)ed  the  "  B(Kik  of  Disciplme.'V  He  lived  to  i 
good  old  age,  and  died  about  the  year  1690. 

His  Works, — 1.  Conntry  Divinity^  containing  a  Disooone  of 
eertain  points  of  Religion  among  the  Common  sort  of  Cbristiuis,  vltli 
a  plain  Confutation  thereof,  1681. —  '2.  A  Sermon  on  tbe  Panible  of 
the  Sower,  1681. — 3.  A  Dialogue  between  a  Papist  and  a  PriHo^ 
anty  applied  to  the  caparJty  of  the  Unlearned,  1683.— 4.  Agiioit  tlw 
Priesthood  and  saeriflce  of  tlie  (/burcli  of  Rome,  wherein  ymi'M^ 
perceive  their  Impiety  in  usurping  that  Ofiice  and  Action  wbicb  etcr 
appertaineth  to  Christ  onl^,  1584. — 6.  A  Sermon  on  2  Pet  i  \U 
1684. — 0.  A  CatechiHm,  givnig  a  moftt  excellent  light  to  thoie  tint 
seek  to  enter  tbe  Path-way  to  Salvation,  1680. — 7.  A  SernNNi  €Q 
Jam.  ii.  14 — 30.,  ]68fl.-*8.  A  Difteoiirfie  of  tbe  Mihtile  Praeticct  of 
Ueviln  by  Witf^hcs  and  SoreererN,  1687. — 9.  Sermons  on  tbe  fint 
four  Cbaptern  and  part  of  the  fifth  (/hapterof  I'^cleiiiajites,  1580.^ 
in.  A  fihort  TreafiMC  against  the  DonutijitH  of  f^^ngland,  whom  wecill 
BrowniMii,  wherein,  by  Aniiwcr  unto  their  AVritingH,  their  llere»ifi 
are  noted,  1690. — 11.  A  Plain  Declaration  that  our  l>rownbits  be  full 
DonatiHtH,  by  comparing  them  togethfrr  from  point  to  point  out  of 
the  Writings  of  AugUHtIn,  l.'iOI.— 12.  A  Reply  to  Mr.  Job.  Green- 
wrK)d  and  lien.  Jitirrow,  toiKthing  read  Prn>er,  wherrin  tbeir  grotf 
Ignorance  in  detected,  1691. — l.'l.  A  Sernir»n  at  Panl's  (/rm»,  od 
Psalm  cxxxiii.,  I.'jOI. — 14.  A  Diiilogiie  eoneerntng  Witcheo  uA 
WiteheraftA;  iu  which  in  laid  open  how  craftily  the  Devil  decetTOtb 
not  only  tbe  Witchcu,  but  otbcrK,  1,'VJ>3.— I.O.  A  Treatiae  of  irac 
I'ortitudr,  1694. — 10.  A  (*ommcnt»ry  or  Scrnionn  on  tbe  whole 
Book  ot  Revclatiomi,  1690.— 17.  Two  Scrmonn  on  1  Pet.  v.  8,9.,  \^ 
—18.  I  our  Scimons  upon  Kcveral  parlii  of  Scripture,  1608.— 19.  An 
£xp<jMition  on  the  (/unticlcN,  1012.-*  20.  I  ive  Sermons  on  tbe  Soo^ 
of  Solomon,  1020.— 21.  An  iCnglinb  'iranslation  of  Dr.  Fulke'sPrO' 
lections  on  tbe  ifoly  Revelations. 

•  M8.  Ragiitf r,  p.  818-8S0*  f  Neal*!  Fartteas,  vol.  i.  p.  4£9' 

Ji^EMJAH  Dyke,  A.  M.  was  younger  brother  to  the 
^c;elebrfited  Mr.  Daniel  Dyke^  and  educated  in  Sidaej 
jCCfU^ge^  Cambridge.  He  was  beneQced  at  ^Epping  in  jElssex^ 
^here  he  entered  upon  his  pastoral  charge,  in  the  year 
ji^P.*  He  was  a  person  of  a  cheerf^u  spirit,  jichly 
Jli^misbed  with  divine  grace,  and  eminently  uset'fil  ,in  ^^lip 
ministry.  He  was  a  divine  of  great  peace  and  moderation, 
fffyi  is  ^aid  f o  ,have  been  no  jzealot  for  the  ceremonies,  but 
4p  have  qu^e^y  subqiitted  to  the  ^se  .of  them.  Tjiis  he 
j^rtainly  did,  for  the  sake  of  peace,  so  f^  as  he  could  do  it 
^rith  fi  .good  co(iscience.  But  he  ^as  a  thorough  puritan^ 
jpd/disa^ted  to  the  ceremonies.  He  died  a  pious  death^ 
$iBLj8  qur  author,  in  the  year  1620,  when  his  remains  were 
interred  in  his  own  churcb.f  A  minister  of  the  same  nan^e 
jbecapae  vic^r  of  Stansted- Abbots  in  Middlesex,  in  1^0; 
ibot  resigned  it  previous  to  April  23,  1644 ;  and  ^he  became 
jp^otor  ^  .Qjceat  Parndofi  in  £s^;c,  in  1645.  ,B^t  if  the 
fbpye  jaccouut  of  Mr.  Dyke's  death  be  correct,  this. must 
.  j^e  :b^n  .pother  person. t  Mr.  Dyke  published  the 
j^QB^hmnous  wo^ks,  of  his, brother,  and  |¥as  himself  author  qf 
HP^ei^  exqeUent  books,  ^e  is  classed  ampng  the  le^m^ 
jqitm  of  Sidney  college,  Cambridge;^  and  a  high  encp- 
JKiiapi  is  ,pl^»ed  upon  his  sermpns,||  ^e  was  author, (^  a 
jpryaik  ,Qn  the  ^prd's  supper,  entitled,  «  The  Worthy 
lp(H9>pupicai|t.'-  Mr.  Darnel  Dyke,  the  sile^cpd  npncon* 
^^[^ipi^.inl^S,  M[as  his,son.i 


THOiMAs  tl£i(wissE. — .This  ^zealous  puritan  was  a  man 
ippips^ss^  pf^ood  natural  parts,  and  some  acquired  endow 
.inents,  though  it  does  npt  appear  whether  he  received  any 
^Hpiyeisity  education.  He  was  a  member  of  the  ancient 
church  of  separatists,  founded  in  the  beginning  of  the  reign 
f  of  Queen  EUssabeth ;  and  lyas  peculiarly  serviceable  to  those 
.people  when,  to  escape  the  oppressions  of  the  times,  they 
^  .fled  to  HoII^mI.  There,he  was.  esteemed  a  man  of  eminent 
•fidth  and  charity,  possessing  excellent  spiritual  gifts.  When 
•  Mr.  John  Smyth  raised  the  pontroversy  about  baptism, 
•Mr.  H^^wisse  became  one  pf  his  disciples,  received  baptism 
f  fcom  him^bfy  imn^ersion,  apd  is  s^id  to  haye  be^  ej^commu* 

♦  Newcoart*8  Repert.  EccI.toI.  ii.  p,  248. 

f  FuUer's  Worthien,  part.  ii.  p.  89. 

±  Newcoart*8.Repeit.  £ccl.  r^l.  i.  p.  890.  ii.  p.  46S. 

S  Foner*t  Hist,  of  Camb.  p.  164. 

I  Wilkins*!  Discourse  on  Preachiog,  p.  82. 

1  Palm^*i  Noocoo.  Mem.  Yol.  ii.  p.  304. 


nicated  by  the  contrary  party.  He  vfas  one  of  the  find  ia 
the  constitution  of  the  church  to  which.  Mr.  Smyth  wai 
chosen  pastor ;  and,  upon  Mr.  Smyth's  death,  he  ivaschosea 
to  the  piistoral  office.  Thou;;h  he  did  not  go  forwardi 
vith  an  equal  degree  of  cointort  and  6ucc<*ss  as  Mr.  Smytk 
had  done,  it  lYas  acknowledged  that  his  preaching  and 
writings  promoted  the  cause  he  ( spoused. 

The  chief  (vpposcrs  of  Mr.  Helwisse  and  his  chaidi| 
according  to  Crosby,  w(»re  the  Brownists,  from  whom  fhf*y 
had  serrated.  These  persons,  haviuii^  incorrect  notions  v 
religious  liberty,  wrote  a(>:ainst  them  with  too  much  warmthi 
calling  them  heretics,  anabaptists,  &c. ;  yet  made  seveial 
concessions  in  their  fayour,clearing  them  oft  hose  extrayaeiliit 
opinions  which  distinguished  the  old  anabaptists.  Thef 
acknowledged,  that  Mr.  Helwisse  and  his  people  disclaimra 
the  doctrine  of  free-will;  that,  though  they  exchidM 
infants  from  baptism,  they  believed  in  infant  safoaiion  ;  and 
that  they  even  agreed  with  their  opponents  in  the  great  traths 
of  the  gospel.  And  with  respect  to  their  morals,  as  im 
author  adds,  they  confessed  that  they  had  attained  to  some 
d^ree  of  knowledge  and  godliness ;  that  they  had  a  m1 
of  God,  though,  in  their  opinion,  not  according  to  know- 
ledge ;  and  that  when  they  found  any  person  of  their  oom* 
munion  guilty  of  sin,  they  proceeded  to  censure  him. 
People  ofwhom  these  things  could,  with  truth,  be  said,  oisglA 
not  to  have  received  any  unkind  usage  from  their  hretlmn, 
though  they  differed  from  them  about  baptism,  or  some 
other  subordinate  points.  It  is  extremely  probable,  how- 
ever, tliere  was  fault  on  both  sides ;  and  if  each  paify 
had  been  less  influenced  by  a  spirit  of  intolerance,  and 
more  by  a  spirit  of  forbearance,  their  history  would  bare 
appeared  no  less  honourable  in  the  eye  of  a  discerning 

Upon  Mr.  Smyth's  death,  Mr.  Helwisse  and. his  people 
published  a  confession  of  their  faith,  entitled,  *^  A  Declara- 
tion of  Faith  of  the  English  People  remaining  at  ^4 raster- 
dam  in  Holland."*  .  Mr.  John  Robinson,  pastor  to  the 
'  English  church  at  Leyden,  published  some  remarks  upon 
it.  AlK)ut  the  same  time,  Mr.  Helwisse  began  to  reflect 
upon  himself  and  his  brethren  for  deserting  their  country  on 
account  of  persecution.  He  resolv*^,  therefore,  to  r^bun 
home,  that  he  might  share  the  same  lot  with  that  of  lus 
brethren  who  had  continued  to  endure  the  storm,    fieiiig 

*  Crosby's  HUt.  of  Baptists,  yoU  iU  Apptn.  p. 

.  HELWISSE.  281 

accompanied  by  the  greater  part  of  his  congregation,  ho 
Returned  to  England,  and  settled  in  Ldndon,  where  thev 
gained  many  proselytes,  and  became^  as  it  is  conjectured^ 
the  first  6Ei<rERAL  Baptist  society  in  England.  However, 
to  justify  their  conduct  in  returning' home,  Mr.  Helwisse 
'pttblishra  ^'  A  Short,  Declaration,''  in  which  he  stated  in 
^hat  cases  it  was  lawful  to  flee  in  times  of  persecution.  To 
'this,  also,  Mr.  Robinson  published  a  reply. 

In  the  year  I6I5,  Mr.  Helwisse  and  his  church  in 
London,  published  a  treatise,  entitled,  ^<  Persecution  for 
Religion,  Judged  and  Condemned."  Though  there  was  no 
'nanie  prefixed  to  it,  they  were  certainly  its  authors.*  In 
this  work,  besides  defending  their  own  opinions  as  baptists, 
and  attempting  to  clear  themselves  of  several  false  charges, 
they  endeavour  to  expose  the  evil  of  persecution.  They* 
maintain,  that  every  man  has  an  equal  ri^ht  to  judge  for 
himself  in  all  matters  of  religion ;  and  that  to  persecute 
any  person,  on  account  of  his  religion,  is  illegal,  and  anti- 
christian.  They  acknowledge  that  civil  magistrates  are  of 
"divine  appointment ;  and  that  kings,  and  such  as  are  in 
authority,  ought  to  be  obeyed  in  all  civil  matters.  But  that 
f^inst  which  they  chiefly  protest,  is  the  pride,  luxury,  and 
<^pression  of  the  lordly  bishops,  and  their  pretended 
q>iritual  power,  by  which  many  were  exposed  to  confisca- 
tion of  goods,  long  and  painful  imprisonment,  hungering, 
burning,  and  banishment.  ^'  It  is  no  small  persecution/* 
say  they,  "  to  lie  many  years  in  filthy  prisons,  in  hunger, 
cold,  idleness,  divided  from  wife,  family  a^d  calling,  ana 
left  in  continual  miseries  and  temptations :  so  that  death  to 
many  would  be  less  persecution.f  How  many,  only  for 
seeking  reformation  in  religion,  have  been  put  to  death  by 
you  r  power  (meaning  the  bi^ops)  in  the  days  of  Queen 
Elizabeth  ?  And  how  many  have  been  consumed  to  death 
in  prisons  ?  Hath  not  hungering,  burning,  exile,  imprison- 
ments, and  all  kinds  of  contempt  been  used  ?  It  is  most 
'  grievous  cruelty  to  lie  several  years  in  most  noisome  and 

•  Crosb^^B  Hist,  of  Baptists,  vol.  i.  p.  269— «TS. 

*  f  Bishop  Warbiirton's  opinion  of  persecution  is  very  singular.    *^  The 

•  ezactini^  conformity  of  the  ministry  by  the  goTernors  of  the  cliurch/' 
.  ffiys  he,  '^  is  no  persecution.**  This  is  certainly  a  strange  sentiment  to 
>  come  from  the  pen  of  a  protestant  prelate.  Admitting  this  principle,  there 
'  "Was  no  persecution  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Mary.     It  was  no  persecution, 

when  the  Jewish  sanhedrim  agreed,  **  That  if  any  man  /did  confess  that 
Jesus  was  the  Christ,  he  should  be  put  out  of  the  synagogue.**  It  was  no 
persecution,  when  the  parliament  imposed  the  Scot*t  coTCoant.—- Ais«r« 
PiirtfMs,  tioa.' i.  p;  919/ 


jiltby  prisons,  and  continual  temptations,  hw^g  wnivoi 
in  their  estates,  and  many  of  them  nevcur  coming  outtiil 

Tills  was  a  bold  protestation  against  the  illeggj  wi 
iniquitous  procoedin^s  of  the  vuiing  prelates,  and  a  OOU0 
'Stand  in  defence  of  rdigious  liberty.  For  making  .the.  abovo 
generous  -principles  the  foundation  of  their  practiw,  their 
were  grievously  harassed  in  the  ecclesiastical.courta;  yAm 
their  goods  were  seized,  and  they  were  many  years  confined 
in  loathsome  jails,  being  deprived  of  their  wives,  .cbildm 
«nd  friends,  till  the  Lord  was  pleiised  to  release  .aome  of 
4hem  by  death.  Mr.  Helwisse  had  his  sbaie  jn'.the» 
^barbarous  oppressions.  Being  a  leading  person  {unoDg  tbe 
jionconformists  of  the  baptist  persuasion,  he  felt  the.inhuQiai 
cruelties  of  the  spiritual  rulers,  but  wont  fcxwaidii,  b$  he 
had  opportunity,  with  courage  and  success.  Mt  died  molt 
probably  about  the  year  16S0.t 

Thomas  Wilson. — This  learned  and  piousidiniie  irv 
many  minister  of  St.  Greorge's  church,  CantortiQiy, 
one  of  the  six  preachers  in  that  city,  chaplain  .'to  Loid 
Wotton,  and  a  man  of  high  reputation.  Hewaa  a  penoD 
deservedly  famous  in  his  time,  preaching  regnlaiiy  three 
times,  and  occasionally  every  day,  in  the  week.  He  was  a 
hard  student,  endowed  with  a  healthy  constitution  and  a 
'Strong  memory.  As  his  gifts  were  more  than  ordinaiy,  so 
were  his  trials.  He  had  to  contend  with  open  eo^es, 
false  teachers,  and  notorious  heretics,  against  .whom  he 
boldly  ()efended  the  truth,  detecting  and  refuting  their  erran, 
He  was  troubled  with  certain  false  brethren,  who  secretly 
endeavoured  to  promote  his  ruin  ;  but  the  Lord  delivered 
him  out  of  their  hands.  He  was  once  complained  of  to 
Archbishop  Abbot,  for  nonconformity ;  but,  throu^  the 
kind  intt^rference  and  endeavours  of  Lord  Wotton,  he 
escaped  the  snare.  He  used  to  say,  ^  That  so  long  as 
idolatry  is  publicly  tolerated  in  the  land,  public  judgments 
will  not  cease.*'  Ilis  great  concern  f(Nr  tne  nyeUare  of  bis 
flock  was  manifest  by  his  frequent  preaching,  expounding, 
and  catechising,  for  a  great  number  of  years.  ^ik>r  was  he 
.unmindful  of  them  on  his  death-bed.  With  his  dying 
breath,  he  charged  Dr.  Jackson,  his  chief  patron,  as  be 
would  answer  the  same  at  the  bar  of  God,  that  he  wooM 

»  Cro8by*8  Baptiits,  i^ol.  i.  p.  126, 127.  i  VM.jf.  iM-r9l^ 


provide  for  tbem  an  able  and  a  sufficient  pastor.  This 
the  Jioetor  promised  to  do;  but  added,  ^<  that  not  one 
vf  u  thousand  could  be  found,  like  this  worthy  servant  of 

Mn  Swift,  who  preached  Mr.  Wilson's  funeral  semnm^ 
gives  the  following  account  of  him:  ^^  He  was  a  most 
painful  and  careful  pastor ;  a  man  called  forth  into  the 
▼inej^rd  of  the  Lord,  and  well  qualified  for  so  ^eat  a  work. 
He  was  a  judicious  divine,  sound  in  the  truth,  and  an 
^M:cell6nt  interpreter  of  scripture;  a  professed  enemy  to 
idolatry,  superstition,  and  all  false  worship ;  for  which  he 
incurri^  the  displeasure  of  those  who  were  otherwine 
disposed.  He  was  richly  furnished  with  excellent  gifts, 
which  he  fally  employed  in  the  Lord's  work,  bein^  in- 
^oessanfly  laborious  and  faithftd  in  his  public  muuistry. 
Having  received  ten  talents,  he  employed  them  all  to  the 
use  of  his  Master.  He  preached  at  Canterbury  thirty-siK 
years,  during  the  whole  of  which  period  he  was  always 
abounding  in  the  work  of  the  Lord.  Being  requested,  upon 
his  death-bed,  to  spare  himself  in  future,  irthe  Lord  should 
be  pleased  to  raise  him  up,  he  immediately  replied,  ^  Were 
I  in  health  of  body,  I  should  always  say  with  the  apostle. 
Woe  be  unto  me^  if  I  preach  not  the  gospeV  He  was 
particularly  mindful  of  his  flock  to  the  last ;  and  with  his 
dying  breath  prayed  that  God  would  provide  for  them  a 
faithful  shepherd,  to  feed  them  with  k:nowledge  and  under- 
standing."f    He  died  in  January,  162L 

His  Works. — 1.  A  Commentary  on  Romans,  1614.t — 2.  Christ% 
Farewell  to  Jerasalem,  1614. — 3.  ITieological  Rules,  1615. — 4.  Holy 
Riddles,  1615.—^.  A  Complete  Christian  Dictionary,  with  the  Con- 
tinuation by  Bagwell  and  Symson,  sixth  edition,  I655.§-— 6.  ▲ 
Dialogue  about  Justification. — 7.  A  Receipt  against  Heresie. 

•  Christian  Dictionary,  Pref.     Edit.  1655. 

f  Funeral  Sermon  for  Mr.  Wilson. 

X  This  work,  which  is  in  the  form  of  a  dialogue,  abounds  with  jadiciovs 
'4isttacti6ns,  and  practical  uses. — Williams's  Christian  Preacher ^  p.  436. 

§  This  worlc  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  that  was  ever  composed  ia 
"Eoglbb,  by  way  of  concordance. — Granger's  Miog,  UisU  vol.  i.  p.  SW. 


AifDREw  WiLLCT,  D.  D. — ^This  leained  and  bborini 
divine  was  bora  in  the  city  of  Ely,  in  the  year  1568^  jui 
educated  tint  in  Peter-house,  then    in   Qiiiit*8  ocdkM 
Camhridee.     He  was  blessed  with  pious  parents,  m 
brought  him  up  in  the  nurture  and  admonition  of  the  LariL 
His  rather,  Mr.  Thomas  Wilkt,  was  sub-ahnoner  to  Ki^g 
Edward  VI.,  and  a  painhd  sufferer  during  the  cruel  pene- 
.  cut  ions  of  Queen  Mary.  In  the  reign  of  Queen  Eligahfth,  he 
became  rector  of  Bark^y  in  Hertfordshire,  and  was  prefiarrad 
to  a  prt4)(*nd  in  the  church  of  Ely.    His  son  Andrew,  while 
a  boy  at  school,  discovered  an  uncommon  genius,  and 
made  extraordinary  progress  in  the  various  rudiments  of 
knowledge.    He  was  so  intense  in  his  application,  thailrii 
pnrents  were  obliged  to  use  various  methods  to  divert  hii 
attention  frcHn  his  books.    At  the  age  of  fourteen,  he  was 
sent  to  the  university,  where  he  was  soon  preferred  ts  a: 
fellowship.    Here  he  became  intimate  witb   Downhao, 
Perkins,  and  other  cdebrated  puritans,  who  encopraged 
each  other  in  their  studies.      WiUet  soon  distingQisbed 
himself  by  his  exact  acquaintance  with  the  languages^  the 
arts,  and  all  the  branches  of  useful  literature.     He  wai 
concerned  not  to  have  these  things  to  learn,  when  he  caipe 
forth  to  teach  others;   wisely  judging  that  youth. shoold 
prepare  that  which  riper  years  must  use.     Among  the 
anecdotes  related  of  him  while  at  Cambridge,  shewing  the 
promising  greatness  of  his  abilities,  is  the  following :— -^  The 
proctor  of  the  college  being  prevented,  by  some  unforeseqp 
occurrence,  from  executing  his  office  at  the  commencement, 
Just  at  hand,  none  could  be  found  to  take  hi$  place  excepting 
AVillet,  who  acquitted  himself  so  well,  that  his  orations 
gained  him  the  approbation  and  applause  of  the  imivenitj, 
and  the  high  admiration  of  all  who  knew  how  short  a  time 
he  had  for  preparation."*    In  the  year  1586,  he  united 
with    the    master    and    fellows    of    Christ's    collie,    in 
defence    of  themselves  against  the  accusations  oi   their 
enemies,  in  which  they  acquitted  themselves  with  great 
honour.f  . 

Having  spent  thirteen  years  at  the  university,  he  caiiie 
forth  richly  fraught  \yith  wisdom  and  knowledge.  On  the 
death  of  his  father,  the  queen  prrscmted  him  to  the  lectoit 
of  Barley,  and  gave  him  his  father's  prebend  in  the  chufcn 

*  Bark»da1e*8  Remembrancer,  p.  5S — 58. 
i  Baker't  MS.  CoUec.  vol.  iv.  p.  79. 

willet;  MS 

ef  Ely.    Jle  ^tered  npon  his  charge  at  Badejr^  January 
JH^  1598.«.    Though  he  is  said  to  have  sought  no  other' 

Eeferment,  one  oi  his  name  became  rector  of  Reed  in 
iddlesex,  jn  the  year  16  IS ;  and  rector  of  Chishall-Parva 
bk  Essex,  in  IGSO.t  We  cannot,  however,  learn  whether 
tkis  was  the  same  person.  He  studied  to  deserve  prefer- 
ts,  rather  than  to  obtain  them.  His  own  observation 
,  that  some  enjoj/  promotions,  while  others  merit  them. 
He  always  abounded  in  the  work  of  the  Lord,  and  ac- 
counted me  work  in  which  he  was  engaged  as  part  of  his 
wages.  About  the  time  that  he  entered  the  ministerial 
work,  he  married  a  near  relation  to  Dr.  Goad,  by  whom  he 
hftd  eleven.sons  and  seven  daughters. 

Dr.  Willet  was  a  man  of  uncommon  reading,  having- 
ffigested  the  fathers,  councils,  ecclesiastical  histories,  the 
otvil  and  canon  law,  and  numerous  writers  of  ahnost  all 
descriptions.    Indeed,  he  read  so  much,  and  understood 
and  retained  what  he  had  read  so  well,  that  he  was  deno- 
nmiated  a  living  library.     To  secure  this  hiffh  attainment, 
!»  was  extremely  provident  of  his  time.    He  constantly 
mse  at  a  very  early  hour,  by  which  means  he  is  said  to 
liave  got  half  way  on  his  journey  before  others  set  out.   He 
ivas  laborious  in  the  numerous  duties  of  his  ministry ;  and 
ke  greatly  lamented  the  condition  of  those  who. sat  under 
idle  and  ignorant  ministers.    He  also  often  lamented  the 
•bUe  of  the  prelates  of  those. times,  who,  after  obtaining 
rich  livings,  thqugh  they  were  men  of  talents  and  learning, 
woidd  not  stoop  to  labour  for  the  welfare  of  souls.    But  he^ 
as  a  faithful  steward  of  Christ,  constantly  preached  three 
times  a  week,  and  catechised  both  old  and  young  throughout 
bis  parish.    And  though  he  was  a  man  of  most  profound 
learning,  had  been  some  time  chaplain  to  Prince  Henry, 
and  had  frequently  ^preached  at  court,  his  sermons  and 
catechetical  instructions  were   dressed    in  so  plain  and 
familiar  a  style,  that  persons  of  the  weakest  capacity  might 
easily  understand  him.;^    He  esteemed  those  the  best  dis- 
courses which  were  best  adapted  to  the  condition  of  the 
people,  and  most  owned  of  God:  not  those  which  were 
most  dec(H*ated  with  human  ornaments,  and  most  admired* 
ainong  men.      Though  he  could  administer  all  ne<^ful 
reproof  and  warning  to  the  careless  and  the  obstinate ;  yet 
his  great  talent  was  to  Und  tip  the  broken-hearted,  and 
comfort  the  weary,  fainting  pilgrim. 

•  Newcourt's  Repert.  Ecd.  toI.  i.  p.  8U0^      f  Ibid.  p.  862.  If.  p.  161, 
t  FnUtr't  Abel  RedivlTiiii  p.  569. 


His  external  deportment^  at  home  and  abroad,  Vfad  mA 
as  became  bis  profession.  He  livedj  as  wdl  as  preachd^ 
the  gospel*  His  house  was  the  model  erf*  a  little  chonh 
and  house  of  Grod;  where  morning  and  evening  sacn- 
fices  were  daily  offered  unto  God.  He  had  laws  and 
ordinances  set  up  in  his  house,  directing  all  the  membenof 
his  numerous  family  to  the  observance  of  their  lespedhe 
duties ;  and  be  was  a  pattern  to  them  ail  in  ^11  things.  Hii 
humility  and  beneyolencc  were  two  of  the  brightest  jeweb 
in  his  crown.  Though  he  had  a  numerous  family  of  chit 
dren,  he  did  not  consider  that  a  sufficient  reason  ftr 
abridging  his  constant  and  extensive  liberality.  Qa 
the  contrary,  he  was  of  the  same  mind  as  one  of  the  firthen^ 
who  said,  <^  The  more  children,  the  more  charity.'*  And  it 
is  said  of  Dr.  Willet,  that  his  substance  increased  with 
his  liberality.*  Many  poor  ministers  tasted  the  sweetness  sf 
his  bounty. 

Dr.  Willet  obtained  a  great  degree  of  celebrity  by  the 
numerous  and  valuable  productions  of  his  pen.  One  of 
his  voluminous  publications  appeared  in  the  rdgn  of  Qaeea 
Elizabeth,  entitled,  <<  Synopsis  P^pismi;  or,  a  gnenl 
View  of  P^pistrie.^'  This  work,  which  was  dedicirfed 
to  the  queen,  contains  upwards  of  thirteen  hundred  paga 
in  folio.  It  is  perhaps  the  best  refutation  of  popeiT  tost 
ever  was  published.  In  this  work,  says  Mr.  Toplaay,  no 
less  than  fifteen  hundred  errors  and  heresies  aref  chaiged 
against  the  church  of  Rome,  and  most  ably  refntod.  It 
passed  through  five  editions ;  and  was  highly  approved  hj 
many  of  the  bishops ;  held  in  great  esteem  by  the  tvro 
universities;  and  very  much  admired,  both  by  the  clemr 
and  laity,  throughout  the  kingdom.  The  author,  it  is 
incorrectly  added,  was  most  zealously  attached  to  Ae 
church  of  £ngland,  and  not  a  grain  of  puritanism  mingted 
itself  with  his  conformity.f 

This  celebrated  divine  continued  his  numerous  and 
painful  labours  to  the  last.  He  used  to  say,  <^  As  it  is  most 
honourable  for  a  soldier  to  die  fighting,  and  for  a  bishop  or 
pastor  praying ;  so,  if  ray  merciful  Uod  will  vouchsafe  to 
grant  me  my  request,  I  desire  that  I  may  finish  my  days  in 
writing  and   commenting   on  some    part   of  scripture.'* 

*  Dr.  Wniet*8  mother  uras  a  person  who  aboBsded  io  acts  of  charity. 
When  her  children  were  gone  from  her,  and  settled  in  iifc,  the  vied  tt 
feed  her  poor  neighbours,  saying,  '*  Now  I  have  my  children  aboit  wnt 
again.** — Bark  dalt^9  Rtmembrancer^  p.  56,  64,  65. 

f  TopUdy'i  Historic  Proof,  vol.  ii.  p.  191,  102,  305. 

wiLLEt.  m 

tterehi  God  gave  Mm  the  desire  of  Ms  heart*  He  WW 
lealled  to  his  father's  house,  as  hte  w^s  cowpttsing  h?s  ^  Gatti^ 
waesktBLvy  on  Leviticus."  Though  he  did  not  desire,  as 
|Kiod  Archbishop  Leigbton  did^  that  hie  might  die  at  an  inn^ 
&e  unerrinj?  providence  of  Gtod'  bad  appomted  that  he 
riiould.  The  occasion  of  &is  death  Was  a  falf  from  his 
korse,  as  he  was  riding  homewards  from  London,  by  which 
lie  broke  his  leg^  and  was  detained  at  Hoddesdon  in  Hert* 
finrdshire,  incapable  of  being  removed.  On  the  tenth  day 
after  his  fall^  having  supped  (Cheerfully  the  preceding 
evening,  $tnd  rested  well  during  the  greatest  part  of  the 
U^ht,  he  awoke  in  the  momiBg  by  the  tolling  of  a  bell, 
wben  he  entered*  into  sweet  conversation  with  his  wife 
tfmut  the  joys  of  hedv^.  Afteif"  singing  with  melody  in 
DbeSr  b^rts  tor  the  Lord,  and  unitedly  pre^sentin^  their  slip- 
plications  to  God,  he  turned  himself  in  bed,  and  giving  a . 
deep  groan^  he  fell  into  a  swoon.  His  wife,  being  alarmed, 
immediately  called  in  assistance ;  and  upon  the  applica- 
tion ofi  suitable  means,. he  recovered  a  little,  and  raised 
himself  up  in  bed,  but  imihediatelv  said,  ^<  Let  me  alone* 
I  8(hall  be  well,  Lord  Je^u^;^^  and  then  resigned  his  happy 
loul  to  God,  December  4,  1621,  aged  ftffy-eight  years.* 
His  funeral  was  attended  by  a  great  number  of  knights, 
gentlemen,  and  ministers,  wlio,  having  esteemed  and  ho* 
OMred  him  ih  life,  testified  their  respect  to  his  memory 
'mhnsa  dead.  Though  he  wrote  against  the  unmeaning  and 
Krijte^fstitiOBs  practice  of  bowing  at  the  nattie  of  Jesus,f 
aflia  was  a  sufferer,  in  the  cause  of  nonccmformity  ;i  jety 
Ddfig  so  excellent  a  man,  so  peaceable  in  his  behaviour, 
umA  so  ihcderate  in  his  principles,  he  was  enabled  to 
kecj*  his  benefice  to  the  day  of  his  death.  "  He  was 
k.  berson,"  saysi  Fuller,  "  of  a  souiid  judgment,  admirable 
indiifiiiy^  a  pious  life,  and  bountiful  above  his  ability/'^ 
He  is  classed  among  the  learned  waiters  and  fc^Uows  of 
fSif ist's  college,  Mt.  Strype  denominates  him 
^  a  learned  and  zealous  puritan.^'ir 

Dr.  Willefs  remains  were  interred  in  the  chancel  of 
Barley  church,  where  there  is  a  representation  of  him  at 
filU  lengthy  in  a  praying  attitude;  and  underneath  is  a 

•  FoUer's  Abel  Red.  p.  575. 

f  Wood's  Athenae  Ozon.  toI.  i.  p.  348. 

?N«arB  Poritaoi,  yoI.  ii.  p.  189. 
Church  Hist.  b.  x.  p.  91.— Worthies,  part  i.  p.  158. 
I  Faller*8  Hist,  of  Cam.  p.  92. 
I  Strype's  Annals,  vol.  Hi.  p.  441,  490. 


monumental  inscription  erected  to  his  memoiyi  ci 
tbe  following  is  a  translation  :• 

Here  liei 

Andrew  Willet,  D.D* 

once  Minuter  of  this  Church, 

and  a  great  ornament  of  the  Cluirch  in  cenend. 

He  died 

December  4, 1621,  in  the  50th 

year  of  hin  age. 

Reader,  admire !  within  this  tomb  there  lies 
Willel,  though  dead,  still  livinff  with  the  wise; 
Seek  you  his  boase : — his  polished  works  pemse. 
Each  vala*d  page  the  living  Willet  shews : 
All  that  of  him  w^as  mortal  rests  below. 
Nor  can  }  uu  tearless  from  the  relics  go. 

Subjoined  to  the  Latin  inscription  aie  the  foUowiof 
lines  in  English : 

Thou  that  erewhile  didst  sach  strong  reasons  frame. 
As  yet,  great  WiUet,  are  the  popelings  shame ; 
Now  by  thy  sickness  thy  death  hast  made. 
Strong  arguments  to  prove  that  man's  a  shade* 
Thy  life  did  shew  thy  deep  divinity, 
Death  only  taught  us  thy  humanity. 

■  I 

His  Works. — 1.  Synopsis  Papismi,  1600.— 2.  Thesamras  Eecknei 
1604. — 3.  De  Gratia  Generi  Hnmano  in  primo  Parents  odl]ata,d» 
Lapsu  Adami,  Peccato  Origioali,  1600. — 4.  Hexapla  apon  DaBisI^ 
1610.-1^-6.  Hexapla  upon  Romans,  161 1. — 6.  Hexapla  upon  Leritkofi 
1631. — 7.  Hexapla  upon  Genesis,  1632. — 8.  Hexapla  upon  Exoda^ 
1632. — 9.  De  animae  natnra  et  viribus. — 10.  Sacra  Emblemafa^^ 
11.  Dc  univcrsali  Yocatione  Judeeonim. — 12.  Do  Conciliis.— 13.  De 
nuiversali  Gratia. —  14.  De  Anticbristo. —  16.  EpithalanivB^— 
16.  FunebVes  Consciones. — 17.  Apologia  serenessimi  Regie  Jae. 
Defensio. — 18.  Harmony  of  the  First  and  Second  Book  of  SunadL— 
19.  Hexapla  upon  the  Twenty-second  Psalm. — ^20.  Upon  the  Scnroh 
teeuth  of  John.— 21.  Upon  the  Epistle  of  Jude.^22.  TetnwjykM 
Papismi. — ^23.  A  Catalogue  of  Good  Works. — ^24.  Limbomastix^ 
25.  Funeral  Sermons. — 86.  A  Catechism. — ^27.  A  Prelection^— M  As 
Antilogy. — ^29.  Epithalamium  in  English.— He  left  mn  imneow 
quantity  of  manuscripts  behind  him. 

*  Theological  and  Biblical  Magazine,  vol.  vii.  p.  S83. 

-f  This  work  affurds  mach  iDformation,  as  it  cootaioi  the  eptahNU  tf 
many  aathon  on  each  point  of  difficulty.— Fn(teiM*«  Chritiim  Frmtlm^ 
p.  4S3. 


*  SteI^hen  Egerton,  A.m. — This  excdlcnt  divine  was 
incorporated  in  both  universit'cs,  and  ailerwards  for  many 
years  the  learned,  zealous,  and  faithful  minister  of  Black- 
fnars,  London.  He  was  a  thorough  nonconrorniist,  a 
zealous  promoter  of  a  further  reformation  of  the  church, 
•and  an  avowt^d  advocntc  for  the  pre^byterian  discipline. 
He  WIS  a  member  oi' the  presbjrtery  erected  at  Wandsworth 
in  Surrey,  and  fn^qiiently  united  with  his  brethren  in  their 
associations,  when  he  was  commonly  chosen  to  the  office  of 

In  the  year  1584,  he  and  Mr.  John  Field  wer(^  suspended 
for  refusina;  subscription  to  VVhitgift's  three  articles.  After 
receiving  the  censure  of  this  tyrannical  prelate,  they' 
assigned  their  reaF:oas  for  not  subscribing  to  the  second 
article,  viz.  "  That  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer,  and  the 
Book  of  Ordination,  containeth  in  it  nothing  contrary 
to  the  word  of  God."" — *'  We  cannot  subscribe  to  this 
article,"  say  they,  "  because  the  book  alloweth  a  mere 
reading  ana  insutiicient  ministry ;  and,  what  is  still  more 
intolerable,  it  containeth  many  things  ttiiding  to  harden 
obstinate  papists,  and  to  encourage  ignorance  and  supersti- 
tion among  the  conunon  people.  All  this  is  apparent, 
Seeing  most  of  the  things  contained  in  the  book  are  trans- 
lated out  of  the  popish  portuis,  with  little  or  no  alteration^ 
We  cannot  consent  thtit  certain  parts  of  the  apocrypha 
should  be  used  in  public  worship,  and  some  parts  of 
scriptnre  omitted.  In  tlie  burial  of  the  dead,  every  wicked 
man  must  be  committ<  d  to  the  ground  in  sure  and  certain 
hopecd  the  resurrection  to  eternal  life.  The  book  maketh 
eonfirmation,  the  cross  in  baptism,  and  matrimony,  to  be 
sacraments.  In  one  of  the  collects,  it  is  said,  '  Give  us 
those  things  which  we  dare  not  ask.^  The  book  main- 
taineth  the  offices  of  archbishops,  bishops,  &c.  as  being 
different  from  that  of  ministers."  In  addition  to  these, 
thcv  assign  many  otlier  reasons.* 

ft  does  not  appear  how  long  Mr.  Egerton  remained  under 
the  above  ecclesiastical  censure.  \Ve  find,  however,  that 
about  this  time  he  united  with  his  brethren  in  subscribing 
the  "  Book  of  Discipline."+  In  the  year  1590,  during  the 
imprisonment  of   Mr.  Barrow  and   Mr.  Greenwood,  our 

J  ions  divine  and  other  puritan  ministers  were  sent  by  the 
iishop  of  Loniion  to  confer  with  them.     Tholigh  he  was 
deemol  unworthy  of  the  public  ministry,  the  persecuting 

•-MS.  Register,  p.  460—463. 
i  Mcal*8  Puritans,  vul.  i.  p.  423. 

YOL.  II.  U 


J>relate8  accounted  him  sufficiently  qualified  to  hold  a  eoo« 
erence  with  those  whom  they  stigmatized  schisniatic*  and 
heretics.  Mr.  £gerton  exchanged  several  letters  with  tke 
suiFering  prisoners,  one  of  which  was  dated  April  14^ 
1590.  The  rest  were  written  about  the  same  time.*  In  tlui 
year  he  was  still  under  suspension ;  haying  suffisred  the  croel 
censure,  no  doubt,  for  the  space  of  six  years*  Nor  was  Um 
all.  For,  during  the  same  year,  he  was  summoned,  with 
many  of  his  brethren,  before  the  high  commission,  and  con- 
mittcd  to  the  Fleet,  where  for  several  years  he  saflfered  tht 
€xtremit^  of  the  prison.  An  account  of  these  barbavoni 
proceedings  is  given  in  another  place.f 

Mr.  E^rton,  having  at  length  obtained  his  rekaic^ 
became  minister  of  Blackfriars  in  the  year  1598,  wheie  ke 
continued  many  years.}  The  celebrated  Dr.  Nowell,  dam 
of  St.  PauPs,  in  a  letter  which  he  wrote  during  this  jreii^ 
denominates  him  '^  a  man  of  great  learning  and  godliness.^ 
Upon  the  accession  of  King  James«  numerous  petitiOM 
were  presented  to  his  majesty  for  a  further  refonnatioii  cf 
the  church.  In  the  year  1603,  when  that  which  was  called 
<<  The  Millenary  Petition,^'  subscribed  by  upwards  of  a 
thousand  ministers,  was  presented  to  the  king  and  padta* 
ment,  none  were  deemed  so  well  qualified  to  undertake  tlui 
business  as  Mr.  Egerton  and  Mr.  Hildersham,  with  sone 
other  eminent  divincs.||  Mr.  Eeerton  died  about  the  year  | 
1621,  and  was  succeeded  at  Blackfriars  by  the  famous  ^ 
Dr.  William  Gouge,  who  appears  to  have  been  for  some  -^ 
time  hb  assistant.  These  two  eminently  faithful  servants  of  j 
Christ  spent  about  seventy  years  in  their  minbterial  laboan  ^ 
at  Blackfriars.n 

Hiu  Works.— L  A  licclurc  on  Gen.  Xii.  17—20.,  1680.^1  A  ^ 
brief  Method  of  Catechizing,  1594.-— 3.  The  Doctrine  of  SabjediOB  • 
to  God  and  the  Kin|2^,  1616.-— 4.  The  Boring  of  the  Ear,  1021^ 
5.  Comforts  to  strengthen  the  Weak  in  Faith,  1630.— 6.  A  Defcrif 
tion  of  UncomelinetMi. — He  publi»hed  an  enlarged  cation  of  Mr.  Pw 
JIaincti's  **  Help  to  True  llappineMK  ;*'  and  wrote  an  Epiitlt  to  Vr. 
Richard  Rogers's  "  Seven  Treatises/'  1604. 

*  MS.  Remarkt,  p.  495. 
-¥  See  Art.  Cartwrigbt. 

?Newcaart*t  Repert.  Eccl.  wo],  i.  p.  915. 
Bior.  Britan.  vol.  v.  p.  S25d.    Edit.  1747. 
g  Foller*!  Church  Hlit.  b.  ix.  p.  7. 
t  Jeokini  on  Jude,  Pref. 

T.  PAGET.  291 

Thomas  Paget  was  a  zealous  and  worthy  minister  in  the 
teoces;*  of  Chester,  but  much  persecuted  for  nonconformitj. 
Tkrou^  the  severity  of  the  times,  when  he  could  no  longer 
CDJoy  me  blessing  of  religious  liberty  in  his  own  country,  he 
toogbt  refuge  in  a  foreign  land ;  and,  to  escape  the  perse* 
citing  funr  of  the  prelates,  retired  to  Holland  as  a  place  of 
flifety.  He  had  been  many  years  employed  in  the  ministry, 
in  the  above  diocese,  when  Dr.  Thomas  Morton  became 
Bishc^  of  Chester.  This  learned  prelate  was  no  sooner 
comfortably  seated  in  the  episcopal  chair,  than  he  began  to 
prosecute  the  nonconformists  within  his  jurisdiction,  and 
sent  forth  letters  missive,  summoning  them  to  appear  before 
the  high  commission.  Among  those  who  were  cited  was 
Mr.  PlEiget  This  was  no  sooner  known  in  the  country 
tlan  many  of  the  most  worthy  knights  and  gentlemen  in  the 
diooese  took  the  matter  into  serious  consideration,  espoused 
fte  cause  of  the  distressed  ministers,  and  wrote  a  very  appro- 
priate letter  to  the  bishop ;  in  which  they  expressed  them- 
adves  as  follows : 

<<  Right  Reverend,   &c.  Whereas  we   understand  that 
divers  of  our  jpainful  and  discreet  ministers  are  lately,  by 
letters  missive  from  your  lordship  and  others  of  his  majesty  g 
Imjfa  commission  for  causes  ecclesiastical  within  the  diocese 
f/Chester,  enjoined  to  appear  before  you,  to  answer  to  such 
natters  as  shall  be  objected  against  them.    We,  whose 
names  are  subscribed,  have  thought  fit  to  acquaint  your 
hwdship  with  our  opinion  of  those  ministers,  for  the  pre- 
venting, if  need  require,  of  such  sinister  and  malicious 
iafimnations ;  which,  in  these  cases,  are  frequently  stirred 
up  against  men  of  their  sort  and  quality ;  sometimes  by 
lewd  and  profane  persons ;  and  many  times  by  the  disguisea, 
nbtil,  and  superstitious  Romanists  and    church-papists, 
iriiose  hearts  are  wholly  a^inst  us,  all  the  while  their  faces 
aie seemingly  for  us.     We  have  observed,  so  far  as  we  are 
dde  to  judge,  in  these  our  ministers,  integrity  of  life  and 
ooaversation,  orthodox  soundness  of  doctrine,  diligence  and 
painfulness  in  their  places,  sobriety  and  peaceableness  in 
their  dispositions,  and  freedom  from  faction.      Also,  as  the 
peat  good  and  profit  which  our  congregations  where  they 
five  have  abundantly  received  from  their  ministry ;  tliere- 

fore  we  are  emboldened  to  entreat  your  favour,  &c."* 
This  letter  was  delivered  to  his  lordship  at  Stockport ; 

^lio,  after  reading  it,  said,  "  They  whom  the  letter  con- 

♦  Paget's  Defence,  Pref. 


eemeth  are  the  worse  to  be  liked,  for  the  good  testimonj 
bere  given  of  them."  Mr.  Paget  was  one  m  the  ministen 
in  whose  behalf  the  letter  was  written,  and  being  present  at 
tiie  reading  of  it,  the  bishop  immediately  requirea  his  argu- 
ments against  the  use  of  the  cross  in  baptism ;  that,  as  be 
then  boasted,  he  might  instantly  discover  their  weakness  aad 
folly  in  refusing  to  conform.  Mr.  Paget  and  his  brethren  at 
first  declined  all  disputation,  partly  because  their  errand 
was  not  to  dis);)ute,  but  to  obtain  their  release  from  the  bigfc 
commission ;  and  because  the  bishop  was  to  be  the  sole 
judge ;  so'  that  they  might  bring  themselves  into  danger. 
However,  the  bishop  continuing  to  urge  them  in  the  pre- 
fence  of  many  persons  of  quality,  lest  they  should  seem  to 
betray  a  good  cause  by  total  silence,  Mr.  Paget  at  length 
entered  upon  a  disputation  with  his  lordship ;  who,  in  the 
conclusion,  ingenuously  acknowledged  his  own  nej^lect  io 
study  the  controversy,  but  resolved  in  future  to  direct  his 
attention  more  that  way.  And,  besides  releasing  them  fiw 
the  high  commission,  he  frankly  owned,  that  he  found  in 
tliem  more  learning  than  he  expected.  But,  in  order  to 
brin^  them  to  conformity,  he  commanded  each  of  them  to 
produce  in  writinj?,  three  arguments  against  the  cross  ia 
Daptism,  the  use  of  the  surplice,  and  kneeling  at  the  LctfiTv 
fupper,  and  brin^  them  to  him  in  the  space  of  a  month.  Hi9 
order  was  accordingly  obeyed;  but  it  failed  of  the  success 
which  his  lordship  expected. 

Soon  after,  several  df  the  ministers  were  again  cited  into 
the  hi^h  conmiission  court,  and  used  with  great  crueltj. 
Mr.  rkget  himself  met  with  much  unkind  treatment,  and 
was  unucr  the  nccessily  of  making  three  joiimies  of  sucty 
miles  each,  within  the  space  of  fourteen  days,  the  bishop 
and  other  commissioners  still  deferring  the  consideration  of ' 
his  case  to  a  future  court-day.    The  bishop's  officers  treated 
him  with  much  vile  and  abusive  language,  attended  with 
blasphemous  cursing  and  swearing,  declaring  he  should 
assuredly  be  damned.     On  a  day  appointed,  the  good  roan 
again  appeared  before  the  commission  at  Chester ;  when  the 
bishop  expostulated  with  him  a  full  hour,  concerning  the 
observance  of  the  ecclesiustical  ceremonies,  and  signified 
that  his  own  remissness  in  prosecuting  the  nonconformisti, 
had  hindered  his  preferment  to  the  bishopric  of  Lincoh' 
In  the  conclusion,  his  lordship  I)eing  in  a  violent  pawion, 
threatened  to  suspend,  excommunicate,  and  demde  hiin> 
and  to  make  the  land  too  hot  for  him ;  and  asked  him  what  be 
would  then  do.     Mr.  Paget  meekly  replied,  in  the  woids  of 

T.  PAGET.  S9S 

Ae  iMfOphet :  <<  I  wiU  look  unto  the  Lord ;  I -will  wait  Ibr  th« 
Gcd  of  my  salyaticm.  My  God  will  hear  me."  The 
failBliop  immediately  retorted,  saying, ''  God  will  not  hear  a 
Uasphemer :  a  blasphemer  of  his  mother  the  church  of 
England,  and  one  who  despiseth  her  ordinances."  Mr. 
faget  then  replied,  ^^  I  desire. to  fear  God  and  abhor 
blasphemy  ;  and  my  refusal  of  conformity  to  superstitious 
ceremonies,  which  even  by  the  prelates  themselves  are 
esteemed  indifferent,  is  neither  blasphemy  nor  contempt." 
The  angry  prelate  at  length  dismissed  him  without  any  cen- 
sure, but  ordered  him  to  pay  large  fees  to  the  officers  of  the 

In  the  year  1618,  Morton  being  translated  to  the  see  of 
Lichfield  and  Coventry,  Dr.  Bridgman  became  his  succes- 
sor at  Chester.  The  latter  prelate  did  not,  at  first,  manifest 
any  great  opposition  against  the  nonconformists,  except  by 
suspending  a  few  of  them,  together  with  Knutsford  chapel.f 
Afil^rwards,  however,  the  bishop  took  courage,  and  inhibited 
mosA  of  the  puritans  in  his  diocese.  Mr.  Paget,  among  the 
rest,  was  convened  before  him,  when  the  good  old  man 
humbly  desired  his  lordship^s  coimivance ;  which  he  denied^ 
lest,  as  he  observed,  he  should  lose  the  favour  of  his  prince. 
And  when  he  required  Mr.  Paget  to  assign  his  reasons  for 
refusing  to  kneel  at  the  sacrament,  he  cited  the  words  of  our 
Lord :  "  Howbeit,  in  vain  do  they  worship  me,  teaching 
for  doctrines  the  commandments  of  men.'*  These  words, 
he  observed^  might  be  justly  applied  to  the  imposition  of 
kneeling  at  the  I^ord's  supper.  The  bishop  then  signified, 
that  he  ei^pected  a  more  learned  argument,  and  supposed 
that  Mr.  Paget  would  have  insisted  upon  the  posture  used 

*  This  leaned  prelate,  writing  of  these  times,  says,  *^Tbe  nonconformists 
fULwe  mffered  what  is  next  to  death;  and  too  many  have  suffered  unto 
4ealh  io  prisons.  Imposers,"  he  justly  adds,  *^  should  not  esteem  any  thtii|;. 
ajnsC  cause  of  bringing  any  under  the  censores  of  silencing  of  preachers 
from  preaching,  for  which  they  may  not  adventure  to  take  away  their 
lives."  Dr.  Morton  was  a  bishop  forty  years;  and  during  that  lone  period, 
it  is  iiid,  there  was  not  his  superior  in  the  church,  for  temperance,  industry, 
and  piety.  He  constantly  rose  at  four  o'clocl^  in  the  morning  to  his  studies, 
when  he  was  eighty  years  of  age;  usually  lay  upon  a  straw  bed;  and, 
tbroQgb  the  whole  course  of  his  life,  seldom  exceeded  one  itkeal  a  day. — Con* 
famUttg  PUa^  p.  14.     Edit.  1681.— GraR^«r'«  Biog,  Hist.  vol.  ii.  p.  15^ 

f  The  corions  occasion  of  the  bishop's  suspending  this  chapel,  was  the 
foUowing :  **  A  gentleman  of  Knutsford,  being  fond  of  sport,  caused  a  bear, 
passing  ^ong  the  streets,  to  be  led  into  the  chapeh  The  bishop  no  sooner 
heard  of  the  chapel  being  thus  profaned  by  the  bear,  than  he  suspended  k 
firom  being  used  for  public  worship,  and  it  remained  a  long  time  under  his 
lordship's  ecclesiastical  censure.  This  was  episcopal  superstition  in  per- 
fection I — Paget*8  Deftnc€i  Pref,  * 


by  Christ  and  his  disciples,  at  the  institution -of  the  ordi- 
n»rice.    And,  to  convince  Mr.  Paget  how  unseemly  that 

i>os(ure  would  now  be  in  the  church,  his  lordship  gravely 
aid  himself  upon  a  bench  by  the  side  of  a  table,  leaning  oil 
his  elbow,  affirming  that  to  have  been  the  posture  of  Christ 
at  the  institution  of  the  supper;  which,  said  he,  you  canneC 
contradict,  especially  if  you  understand  Greek.  Mr.  Riget 
replied,  that  whatever  was  his  knowledge  of  Greek,  donoi' 
less  the  translators  of  the  New  Testament  were  skilful  in  tint 
language,  and  they  had  rendered  it  sitting*  Also,  he  fhither 
observed,  that  Dr.  Morton,  his  lordship  s  predecessor,  not- 
withstanding the  stir  he  made  about  the  translation,  con- 
fessed it  was  a  kind  of  sitting.  However,  to  close  the  busi- 
ness, Mr.  Paget,  together  with  many  others,  was  suspended 
from  the  ministry,  and  remained  under  his  lordship's  censiuf 
about  two  years. 

In  the  year  16S1,  when  it  was  hoped  the  storm  was  abated| 
means  were  used  to  obtain  his  liberty,  but  without  eflSsct. 
Afterwards,  written  testimonies  were  procured  froin  York, 
signed  by  the  register  of  the  high  commission  court,  in 
behalf  of  Mr.  Paget  and  two  other  ministers  in  Cheshire, 
releasing  them  from  suspension,  and  allowing  them  to  go  on 
in  their  ministerial  work  as  usual.   But  within  three  months, 
xdthout  any  previous  warning,  attachments  were  issned 
from  the  high  commission  to  apprehend  them,  and  Imng 
them  to  York;  when  they  were  ordered  to  he  cast  into 
prison  till  they  could  give  satisfaction  to  the  court     In 
these  painful  circumstances,  obtaining  information  of  the 
approaching  storm,  and  having  already  too  much  felt  tbt 
cruel  oppressions  of  that  coud,  they  withdrew,  as  did  tho 
prophet  to  escape  the  fury  of  Ahab.     When  they  could 
not  be  found,  heavy  fines  were  laid  upon  them;  and,  for 
their  non-appearance,  their  fines  were  aggravated  from  on^ 
court-day  to  another ;  till  at  length  their  case  was  retunieA- 
.into  the  exchequer.     In  the  end,   having  suffered  grea^^ 
poverty,  and  many  other  troubles,  they  were  obliged  t 
compound.     But  upon  no  consideration  could  they  obtaii 
their  liberty  to  preach.     Therefore,  Mr.  Paget  forsook  1' 
native  country,  and  went  to  Holland,  where  he  most  pn 
bably  spent  the  remainder  of  his  days.    He  wrote  the  pr 
face  to  Mr.  John  Paget's  "  Defence  of  Church  Goven^  * 
ment,"  1641,  whence  the  above  account  is  collected.    ])i3it 
whether  they  were  at  all  related,  we  have  not  bc«n  able  C^ 


-  Mr.  Kmight  was  of  Pembroke  college,  Oxford,  and,  one 
of  the  preachers  to  the  university.  He  was  a  divine  of  good 
Jamming,  great  moderation,  and  genuine  puritan  pinciples. 
Having  delivered  a  sermon  on  the  Lord's  day,  April  15, 16S2, 
befinre  the  university,  from  2  Kings,  xix.  9.,  he  advanced 
this  position,  <^  That  subordinate  magistrates  might  lawfully 
make  use  of  force,  and  defend  themselves,  the  comroon- 
vealth,  and  the  true  religion,  in  the  field,  against  the  chief 
ma^strate,  within  the  cases  and  conditions  following : 
1.  When  the  chief  magistrate  turns  a  tyrant*  2.  When  he 
teoes  his  subjects  to  blasphemy  or  idolatry.  S.  When  any 
intolerable  burdens  or  pressures  are  laid  upon  them.  Andf, 
4.  When  resistance  is  the  only  expedient  to  ^secure  their 
Kves,  their  fortunes,  and  the  liberty  of  their  consciences."* 
Fcnr  this  prc^iosition  in  the  sermon.  Bishop  Laud  denomi- 
imtes  it  ^<  a  treasonable  sermon."f  The  preacher  was, 
flierefbie,  sent  for  to  court,  and  asked  what  authority  he 
luul  for  his  assertion.  He  answered,  that  it  was  the  opinion 
of  Piaraeuson  Rom.  xiii. ;  but  that  his  principal  authority 
was  King  James  himself,  who  was  then  affording  assistance 

tthe  oppressed  Uochellers  against  their  prince.    Upon  this 
Id  and  unexpected  answer,  Mr.  Knight  was  immediately 
committed  to  Uie  Gatehouse ;  Paraeus's  %  Commentary  was 
•udered  to  be  burnt  at  Cambridge,  Oxford,  and  Paul's  cross, 
LcMidon  ;  his  assertions  were  condemned  as  false  and  sedi- 
IJaus ;  and  the  university  of  Oxford,  in  full  convocation, 
anade  the  following  decrees  t  ^^  That  it  is  not  lawful  to  resist 
the  sovereign  by  force  of  arms,  either  offensively  or  de^ 
ftnsively,  upon  any  pretence  whatsoever :  that  all  doctors, 
«iiaslier&  CKf  arts,  &c.  within  the  university,  shall  subscribe  to 
these  decrees  and  censures :  and  that  whosoever  shall  here-> 
9ifler  take  any  degree,  shall  first  acknowledge  the  truth  and 
justice  of  these  censures  by  subscription  to  the  sape  ;  and 
dball  take  his  oath,  that  he  doth  from  his  heart  not  only 
4xmdemn  the  said  doctrine  of  Paraeus,  but  that  he  will 
neither  preach,  teach,  nor  maintain  the  same,  or  any  of  them, 
al  any  time  in  future."^    Thus  all  the  graduates  in  tlii9 

«  Neal'i  Paritans,  yoI.  ii.  p.  126. 

,  i.  Prypn^'d  ))rf  Tiat^  pf  La^d,  p.  S. 

'  %  Parens  Was  highly  celebrated  for  true  christian  piety,  a  qiost  learned 
^ntfessor  of  divinity  at  Heidelberg,  and  rector  of  the  university  at  that 
pl^Ce.  He  was  an  admirable  writer,  a  celebrated  divine,  and  appointed  by 
^^  elector  palatine  to  attend  the  synod  of  Dort ;  but,  on  account  of  his  age 
*^  infirmftlet,  be  desired  to  be  excused.— l^u/fer'f  Ahtl  Redivivu$,  p.  579| 

i  MS.  Clmniolc^,  toI.  ii.  p.  097.  (26.) 


university  were  bound  down  as  slaves  to  their  tyrannical 
m>pres8ors,  and  required  to  SAvear,  that  they  would  nevier 
change  their  opinions.  Was  ever  any  thing-  more  uores- 
sonable?  Yet  such  was  the  tyranny  and  barbarity  of  the 
times !  But  how  lon^  Mr.  Knight  remained  in  the  Gatehoqitei 
or  what  other  punishment  was  inflicted  upon  hira,  we  hate 
not  been  able  to  learn. 

John  Randall,  B.  D. — This  zealous  minister  erf*  Chrut 
was  bom  at  Missenden  in  Buckinghamshire,  in  the  yev 
1568,  and  educated  first  in  St.  Mary's-hall,  then  in  Truaity 
college,  Oxford,  and  afterwards  elected  fellow  of  Lincoui 
college.    Having  entered  upon  the  ministry,  he  became 
one  of  the  most  noted  preachers  in  the  university.    In  the 
year  1598,  he  removed  from  Oxford,  and  became  rector  rf 
St.  Andrews,  Little  Ekistcheap,  London.    In  this  aituatioa 
he  continued  to  the  end  of  his  days ;  and  by  hii  eooftant 
preaching,  resolving  cases  (^  conscience,  and  his  othoi 
ministerial  exercises,  he  went  beyond  most  of  his  brethrePf 
to  the  admiration  of  all  who  knew  him.    Thoufffa  he  to 
unconuncmly  laborious  in  the  Lord's  vineyard^  he  yhi 
mostly  exercised  with  very  painful  bodily  afflictum.    Hift 
learning  and  piety  were  unreservedly  devoted  to  public 
usefulness.    It  does  not,  however,  appear  whether  Ifr^ 
Randall  was  ever  proseputed  for  his  nonconformity.-  -  Be 
was  accounted  a  zealous  and  innocent  puritan,  a  judicioitt 
and  orthodox  divine,  a  harmless  and  holy  man,  and  one 
wholly  devoted  to  usefulness  in  the  church  of  Christ    Bf 
his  constant  and  faithful  labours,  true  religion  was  gfes^j 
promoted,  many  were  reclaimed  from  the  ways  oF  ungod* 
liness,  and  others  established  in  the  truth.    He  died  in  the 
beginning  of  June,  163S,  aged  fifty-four  years ;   and  hii 
remains  were  interred  in  his  own  church.*    Mr.  Randall 
was  tutor  to  the  famous  Mr.  Rob^  Bolton. 

His  Works.—!.  Several  Sermons,  1623.— 2.  The  Great  Mysteiy 
of  Godliness,  1624. — 3.  A  Treatise  concerning  the  Sacraments,  1690.—* 
4.  Catechistical  Lectures,  1630. — 5.  Lectures  of  the  Church,  1631. 

•  Wood's  Athens  Os^pn.  tqI.  i.  p.  509, 400,^Newcoiirt'i  Repeirt*  £ccl. 
Yol.  1.  p.  SS5. 


Nicholas  Byfield. — This  pious  and  learned  divine 
was  born  in  Warwickshire,  in  the  year  1579,  and  educated 
in  Exeter  allege,  Oxford.  He  was  son  to  Mr.  Richard 
Bjrfield,  who  became  minister  of  Stratford-upon-Avon  in 
1596.  He  was  a  hard  student ;  and  having  spent  four  years 
in  the  closest  application,  he  left  the  university,  entered 
upon  the  ministerial  work,  and  intended  to  have  gone  into 
Ireland  ;  hut  preaching  at  Chester,  on  his  way  thither,  he 
received  an  invitation  to  be  pastor  of  St.  Peter's  in  that 
cityf  where  he  continued  a  number  of  years.  He  waa 
suicIl  followed  on  account  of  his  pious  and  profitable 
meachii^,  especially  by  all  who  had  any  relish  for  religion. 
The  excellent  and  celebrated  JohnBruen,  esq.  was  one  of 
Ids  hearers,  from  whom  he  received  many  acts  of  kindness.* 
In  the  year  1615,  he  removed  from  Chester,  and  became 
Ticar  (^Isleworth  in  Middlesex,-*- where  he  continued  the  rest 
of  his  days.  He  was  a  divine  of  ^<  a  profound  judgment, 
a  strong  memory,  a  quick  inventicm,  and  unwearied 
indust|ry."$  He  was  a  constant,  powerful,  and  useful 
{Treacher;  a  thorough  Calvinist^  a  nonconformist  to  the 
ceremonies, ^and  a.  strict  observer  of  the  sabbath.  By  his 
aeal  for  the  sanctification  of  the  Lord's  day,  his  labours  in  the 
ministry,  an4  hia  exemplary  life,  religion  flourished,  many 
were  converted,  and  puritanism  gained  ground.  Yet  to 
was  a  sufferer  with  his  brethren  in  the  cause  of  noncon- 

Mr.  Byfield,  during  the  latter  part  of  his  life,  was 
exceedingly  afflicted  with  the  stone  in  the  bladder,  most 
probably  the  effect  of  intense  study  and  hard  labour.    And 

*  Mr.  Brnen  had  a  servant,  named  Robert  Pasfield,  but  commonly  caUed 
Old  Robert^  who  was  **  mighty  in  the  scriptures,"  though  he  could  neither 
write  nor  read.  He  was,  indeed,  as  remarkable  for  remembering  texts 
amd  sermons,  as  Jodidiah  Buxton  for  remembering  numbers.  For  by  the 
lielp  of  his  memory,  he  invented  and  framed  a  girdle  of  leather,  long  and 
large,  which  went  twice  about  him.  This  he  divided  into  several  parts, 
allotting  every  book  in  the  Bible,  in  their  order,  to  some  of  these  divisions  $ 
then  for  the  chapters,  he  affixed  points  or  thongs  of  leather  to  the  several 
divisions,  and  made  knots  by  fives  or  tens  thereupon,  to  distinguish  the 
chapters  of  that  book;  and  by  other  points,  he  divided  the  chapters  into 
their  particular  contents  or  verses,  as  occasion  required.  This  he  used 
ikistead  of  pen  and  ink,  in  bearing  sermons,  and  made  so  good  a  use  of  it, 
that,  coming  home,  he  was  able  by  it  to  repeat  the  sermon,  quote  the  texts 
of  scripture,  &c.  to  his  own  great  comfort  and  to  the  benefit  of  others. 
This  girdle  Mr.  Bruen  kept  after  Old  Robert's  death,  hong  it  op  in  his 
stndy,  and  would  pleasantly  call  it  *♦  The  girdle  of  Verity.'* — Riiide's 
Life  of  Bruen,  p.  58,  135.— Granger's  Biog.  Hist.  vol.  i;  p.  251. 

+  Newconrt*s  Repert.  Eccl.  vol.  i.  p.  676. 

±  Wood's  AthensB  Oxon.  vol.  i.  p.  402. 

^  MS.  Chronology,  vol,  iU-  p.  699.  (2.) 


having  groaned  for  sereral  years  under  the  most  excrucia* 
ting  pain,  it  brought  him  at  length  to  his  grave,  in  the  year 
1622j  and  the  forty-third  of  his  age.  FuUer  observes,  thai 
for  fifteen  years  together^  he  preached  at  Isleworth  twice 
every  Lord's  day,  and  expounded  the  scriptures  everj 
Wechiesday  and  Fridav,  till  five  weeks  before  his  death. 
If  this  account  be  just,  tne  time  of  his  removal  fh)m  Chester, 
or  the  period  we  have  given  of  his  death,  must  evidently 
one  of  them  be  incorrect.*  His  bodv  being  opened  afler 
his  death,  a  stone  was  taken  out  of  his  bladder,  which 
weighed  thirtt/'three  ounces,  and  measured  about  the  edges 
fift^n  inches  and  a  half,  the  length  and  breadth  aboat 
thirteen  inches,  and  of  a  substance  like  flint.  ''  There  afe 
many  eye-witnesses,  besides  myself,"  says  Dr.  William 
Gouge,  in  his  account  of  this  wonderful  phenomenon,  ^  who 
can  justify  the  truth  of  what  I  say.*'f  He  meekly  and 
patiently  endured  his  torturing  pains  till  death  gave  him 

Eerfect  ease.  Mr.  £yfield  published  several  books  during 
is  life,  and  others  came  forth  aftei  his  death,  shewing  him 
to  have  been  a  person  of  good  parts,  great  learning,  and 
nnconunon  industry.  Bishop  Wilkins  passes  a  hiffa  enco- 
mium upon  his  sermons,  classing  them  with  me  most 
excellent  in  his  day.]:  He  was  mther  to  Mr.  Adoniram 
Byfield,  another  puritan  divine,  of  whom  some  account  will 
be  given.  Mr.  Richard  Byfield,  the  ejected  nonconformist 
in  1662,  was  his  half-brother.  S 

His  Works. — 1.  An  Essay  on  the  Assurance  of  God's  Love  aiid 
Man's  SalTation,  1614. — 2.  An  Exposition  on  the  Epistle  to  the 
Colossians,  1615.|| — 3.  Directions  for  the  private  reading  of  the 
Scriptures,  1618. — 4.  A  Treatise  shewing  how  a  godly  Christian  may 
support  his  Heart  with  comfort  against  aU  the  Distresses  which*  by 
reason  of  any  Affliction  or  Temptation,  can  befall  him  in  this  life, 
1618. — 5.  The  beginning  of  the  Doctrine  of  Christ,  or  a  Catalogue  of 
Sins,  1609.— 6.  The  Marrow  of  the  Oracles  of  God,  1620.-7.  Com- 
mentary or  Sermons  on  the  second  Chap,  of  the  1  Epis.  of  St 
Peter,  1623. — 8.  Sermons  on  the  first  ten  verses  of  the  third  Chap,  of 
the  1  Epis.  of  St.  Peter,  1626. — ^Thc  two  last  were  published,  with 
additions,  entitled,  '^  A  Commentary  upon  the  whole  First  Epistle  of 
St.  Peter,'?  1637.— 9.  An  Exposition  of  the  AposUe's  Creed,  lOaa— 
10.  Answer  to  Mr.  Brcenyood's  Treatise  of  the  Sabbath,  1630.— 
U.  The  light  of  Faith  and  Way  of  Holiness,  1630.^1?.  The  Signs  of 

•  Fuller's  Worthies,  part  iii.  p.  127. 

f  Ibid. — Evangel;  Mag.  yol.  zvi.  p.  416. 

t  Wilkins  on  Preaching,  p.  82,  83. 

^  Palmer's  Noncon.  Mem.  vpl.  iil.  p.  SOI. 

I  This  work  is  full  of  gobd  sense  and  spiritual  savour,  and  abounds  with 
pertinent  citations  of  'scriptnre,  wit|io'at  any  prttciuiont  to  orttoriml  dreis. 
tViUiams^s  Christian  Freacher^  p.  487t 


GedVi  Love  to  us,  1630. — 13.  The  Practice  of  Christianity;  or, an 
Jl^tomc  of  Mr.  Rich.  Rogers's  Seven  Treatises.— 14.  The  principal 
GrouncU  of  the  Christian  Religion. — 15.  Several  Sermons. 

Henby  Ainsworth. — This  person  was  a  celebrated 
scholar,  an  excellent  divine,  and  a  painful  sufferer  for 
nonconformity.  Though  little  is  known  of  him,  especially 
during  the  early  part  of  his  life,  his  uncommon  skill  in 
Hebrew  learning,  and  his  excellent  commentaries  on  the 
sacred  scriptures,  are  held  in  high  reputation  to  this  day. 
About  the  y^r  1590,  we  find  him  a  distinguished  leader 
among  the  Brownists,  to  whom  he  adhered,  and  with 
vhom  he  bore  his  share  of  grievous  persecution.  About 
the  same  period,  among  the  books  that  were  written  against 
the  churcn  of  England,  and  seized  by  authority,  was  one 
entitled  ^'  Counter-Poyson."*  The  author  of  this  work, 
jQiouffh  not  mentioned  in  the  first  edition,  was  Mr.  Ains- 
vortn ;  and  as  it  probably  drew  upon  him  the  vengeance 
of  the  ruling  prelates,  so  it  might  hasten  his  departure  into 
aibreign  land.  Though  he  was  a  native  of  England,  this  is 
all  that  we  know  of  him  till  he  became  a  resident  in  Holland; 
but  at  what  period  he  removed  thither,  cannot  be  exactly 
9$certained.  It  is  most  probable,  however,  that  he  accom- 
panied the  Brownists  in  their  general  banishment,  in  the 
year  1593.  t  And  it  is  most  certain  that  he  was  in  Holland 
in  1596,  when  he  carried  on  a  correspondence  with  the 
celebrated  Junius.  Hoornbeck  relates,  that  during  Mr. 
Ainsworth's  abode  in  Holland,  he  made  a  voyage  to  Ireland, 
and  there  left  some  disciples,  i 

Mr.  Ainsworth  lived  at  Amsterdam,  where  his  external 
^arcumstances,  like  those  of  the  church  in  general,  were 
very  low.  He  is  said  to  have  been  porter  to  a  bookseller, 
who,  having  discovered  his  skill  in  the  Hebrew  language, 
made  it  known  to  his  countrymen.  Mr.  Roger  Williams, 
founder  of  Providence  Plantation  in  New  England,  in 
whose  testimony  we  have  reason  .to  confide,  informs  us, 
**  that  he  lived  upon  nine-pence  a  week,  and  some  boiled 
joots."^  The  account  which  the  Brownists  give  of  them- 
jBelves  is,  "  that  they  were  almost  consumed  with  deep 
poverty;  loaded  with  reproaches;  despised  and  afflicted 
jby  alL"||    The  reception  which  they  met  with  from  a 

*  Neal's  Puritans,  vol.  i.  p.  441. 

-¥  Ibid,  p.468,  496.— Lifeof  Ainiworth,  p.  IS.  t  Ibid.  p.  14, 

^  Cotton's  Aoswer  to  Williams,  p.  1 19.  |t  Life  of  Ainwortb,  p.  Id. 


people  just  emerging  from  civil  and  eccIesiasticaI<^;^remon^ 
iras  ycrj  different  from  what  might  have  been  expected. 
The  civil  power,  commonly  more  friendly  to  a  toleratioiil 
than  the  ecclesiastical,  does  not,  indeed,  seem  to  have- 
troubled  them.  But  the  Dutch  clergy  regarded  them  with 
a  jealous  eye ;  and  they  appear  to  have  been  screened  fitm 
persecution  chiefly  by  their  own  insignificance.*  Durii^ 
this  season  of  tribulation,  Mr.  Ainsworth  did  not  remaio 
idle ;  for  most  of  his  books,  which  are  evidently  the  fruit  of 
good  learning,  much  reading,  and  close  application,  woe 
written  at  this  period. 

After  the  publication  of  the  above  piece,  the  next  work 
in  which  we  find  liim  to  have  been  engaged  was  a  traoda- 
tion  of  the  Brownists^  Confession  of  P\nitn  into  Latin.  It 
appeared  in  1598,  and  was  dedicated  to  the  universities -of 
lieyden,  Heidelberg,  Geneva,  St.  Andrews,  and  the  other 

Eublic  seminaries  of  Holland,  Germany,  France,  and  Scot- 
md.  It  was  afterwards  translated  into  English,  aiul  doei 
not  differ  much  in  doctrine  from  the  Harmony  of  Con- 
fessions.f  In  this  confession  the  Brownists  did  not  intend  td 
erect  a  standard  of  faith  for  others,  and  impose  it  upon 
them ;  but  merely  to  vindicate  themselves  from  the  odium 
under  which  they  laboured,  as  discontented  and  factions 
sectaries.  Their  cohduct  was  very  different  from  that  of 
the  most  famous  councils  or  synods,  which,  while  they  have 
compiled  systems  of  faith  and  tests  of  orthodoxy  for  ages 
and  nations,  have  seldom  failed  to  sow  the  seeds  of  discoid 
and  enmity  among  men. 

After  the  Brownists  were  first  settled  at  Amsterdam,  tbqr 
erected  a  church,  as  they  tliought,  according  to  the  model 
of  the  New  Testament,  choosing  Mr.  Francis  Johnson  for 
their  pastor,  and  Mr.  Ainsworth  for  doctor  or  teacher.  Tk^ 
church,  however,  did  not  continue  long  in  peace,  but  was 
torn  in  pieces  by  several  unhappy  divisions,  as  will  be  found 
particularly  noticed  in  another  placet  Ii^  the  first  of  these 
divisions  Mr.  Ainsworth  took  part  with  Mr.  Johnson  the 
pastor ;  but  was  so  much  grieved  at  the  unnatural  heafs 
which  the  controversy  excited,  that  he  spoke  of  laying 
down  his  office  as  teacher.  In  the  next  controversy,  Mr, 
Ainsworth  took  an  active  part  against  Mr.  John  Smyth, 
who  had  espoused  sentiments  similar  to  those  of  Arminius, 
and  who  rejected  infant  baptism.  And  of  the  third 
division,    in   which    he    was    personally   concerned,    he 

•  Life  of  Ainiworth,  p.  16.  f  Ibid.  p.  \5, 18. 

X  See  Art.  Francii  Johnson. 


{mblished  a  particular  account  in'  a  book  entitled  ^  An 
Animadversion  to  Mr.  Richard  Clifton's  Advertisement^ 
who,  under  pretence  of  answering  Mr-  Chr.  Laune^s  book, 
kath  published  another  man's  private  letter,  with  Mr. 
Francis  Johnson's  Answer  thereto.  Which  letter  is  here 
justified  ;  the  answer  thereto  refuted  ;  arid  the  true  causes 
of  the  lamentable  breach  that  hath  lately  fallen  out  in  the 
£nglish  exiled  church  at  Amsterdam,  manifested,"  1613.* 
The  occasion  of  this  breach  appears  to  have  been  a 
diflference  of  opinion  respecting  church  discipline.  Upon 
iiiis  division,  a  second  congregation  was  raised  at  Amsterdam 
nnder  the  superintendence  ^  of  Mr.  Ainsworth,  who  is  said 
to  have  been  succeeded  by  the  &mous  Mr.  John  Canne, 
author  of  marginal  references  to  the  Bible.  +  Mr.  Ains- 
•Worth's  enemies,  to  cast  an  odium  on  his  memory,  have 
been  pleased  to  say,  that,  after  his  death,  his  people  con- 
tinued many  years  without  a  pastor,  and  without  the  admi- 
nistration of  the  ordinances  of  baptism  and  the  Lord's 
iujmer ;  and  that  they  were  rent  by  another  division,  one 
half  following  Mr.  JohndeCluse,  and  the  other  Mr.  Canne.if 
But  these  representations,  evidently  designed  to  reproach 
fliese  persecuted  people,  are  unsupported  by  sufficient 
evidence,  and  several  particulars  are  denied  and  refuted  by 
olie  who  lived  in  those  times,  and  obtained  the  most  correct 
information.^  With  regard  to  Mr.  Ainsworth  himself,  he  is 
reproachfully  charged  with  having  changed  his  opinions 
from  a  conformist  to  a  separatist,  and  from  a  separatist  to  a 
conformist,  no  less  than  six  times;  but,  as  there  does  not 
appear  the  least  shadow  of  truth  in  the  charge,  the  deserved 
odium  will  doubtless  fall  upon  its  bigoted  author.|| 
•  It  is  a  circumstance  which  deserves  to  be  recorded  to  the 
honour  of  Mr.  Ainsworth,  that  in  the  midst  of  the  above 
onhappy  controversies,  in  which  his  own  pen  was  actively 
employed,  he  preserved  a  meek  and  true  christian  spirit. 
Tl«)ugh  he  is  represented  by  his  enemies  to  have  been 
extremely  rigid,  intemperate,  and  severe,  the  contrary  is 
yeiy  evident.  Mr.  Jolui  Paget  having  challenged  him  to  a 
disputation  upon  points  of  church  discipline,  Mr.  Ainsworth, 
in  a  letter  dated  July  12,  1617,  returned  the  following 
mild  and  peaceable  answer : — ^'  If  any  thing  pass  betwixt 
^you  and  me  about  those  points,  you  shall  be  th^  first 

•  Life  of  Ainsworth,  p.  28—38.  f  Neal's  Puritans,  vol.  ii.  p.  45. 

i  BaHie*s  Dissuasive,  p.  15.->Paget's  Answer  to  Best  and  Davenport^ 
1^134. — Paget's  Defence,  p.  33.  . 

4  Qotton's  Coogregational  Churches,  p,  6. 
g  &Uie's  Vindication,  p.  7, 


<<  provoker  of  it.  And  if  you  desire  it,  I  will  not  leluse^ 
<<  it  shall  be  at  your  own  choice.  As  I  love  not  to  beeik 
<<  controversy,  so  I  will  not  be  wanting  to  do  any  ^ood  I 
<«  can,  to  you  or  any  other ;  or  to  defendany  point  <rf  tnilii 
^^  which  God  hath  given  me  to  see  and  witness,  whra  I  am 
*'  duly  called  thereunto."* 

Mr.  Ainsworth  cultivated,  at  the  same  time,  those  stodiei 
which  were  more  congenial  to  his  profession,  and  moir 
beneficial  to  the  best  interests  of  men.  His  great  work, 
the  ^^  Annotations  on  the  Five  Books  of  Moses,  the  F^abu, 
and  the  Song  of  Solomon,"  was  published  separately,  in 
the  year  161S,  and  several  following  years ;  and  afterwvdi 
collected  and  printed  in  London,  in  one  volume  folio,  1687, 
and  again  in  1639.  This  last  edition  is  said  to  be  ver? 
scarce.  As  to  the  execution  of  the  work,  its  great  wm 
has  been  established  by  the  strongest  testimonies  of  foreign 
as  well  as  British  divines.  Succeeding  critics  have  adopted 
Lis  remarks,  and  he  is  frequently  cited  by  modem  com- 
mentators. Dr.  Doddridge  says,  "  Ainsworth  on  tk 
Pentateuch,  Psalms,  and  Solomon's  Song,  is  a  good  book, 
full  of  very  valuable  Jewish  learning ;  and  his  tianshtioB 
is,  in  many  places,  to  be  preferred  to  our  own,  especiallyoD 
the  Psalms.'  + 

The  manner  of  Mr.  Ainsworth's  death,  as  related  by  Mr* 
Neal,  was  sudden  and  singular,  and  not  without  stroog 
suspicion  of  violence.  For  it  is  observed,  that  he,  having 
found  a  diamond  of  great  value  in  the  streets  of  Amsterdam) 
advertised  it  in  print ;  and  when  the  owner,  who  was  a  Jev, 
came  to  demand  it,  he  offered  him  any  acknowledgment  be 
desired.  Mr.  Auisworth,  however,  though  poor,  would 
accept  nothing  except  only  a  conference  with  some  of  the 
rabbles,  upon  the  prophecies  of  the  Old  Testament  relating 
to  the  Messiah,  which  the  other  promised ;  but  not  having 
sufficient  interest  to  obtain  the  favour,  it  is  thought  & 
caused  him  to  be  poisoned.  :t  Other  accounts  say,  that  he 
obtained  the  conference,  and  so  confound'ed  the  t^ws,  thal^ 
from  spite  and  malice,  they  in  this  manner  put  a  period  to 
his  life.  Some  writers,  however,  doubt  the  truth  of  this 
account,  because  it  is  never  mentioned  by  any  of  the  editoB 
of  his  posthumous  pieces.  His  death,  by  whatever  cause  it 
was  produced,  happened  about  the  close  a£  the  year  1622, 
or  the  beginning  oi  I62S.§ 

*  Panel's  Arrow  against  Separation,  p.  9. 

f  Doddridge's  Worlds,  vol.  ▼.  p.  472.    Edit.  1804. 

t  Neal*s  Paritans,  vol.  ii.  p.  46.    .  §  Life  of  Ainsworth^  p.  00, 61. 


Mr.  Ainsworth  was  a  man  of  great  piety^  uncommon 
Ifirudition,  and  extraordinary  abilities.  Whatever  engaged 
his  pen  was  treated  with  proper  respect,  even  by  his  adyer- 
Haries ;  who,  while  they  disapproved  his  sentiments,  could 
not  fail  to  admire,  his  abilities.  The  famous  Bishop  Hall, 
who  wrote  against  the  Brownists,  always  speaks  of  him 
as  the  greatest  man  of  their  party ;  and  rerers  to  him  as 
ibeir  doctor,  their  chief,  their  rabbi.*  He  was  unquestion- 
ably a  person  of  profound  learning,  exquisitely  versed  in 
a-  knowledge  of  the  scriptures,  and  deeply  read  in  the 
Jewish  rabbins.  He  possessed  a  strong  understanding, 
a  quick  penetration,  and  wonderful  dilig^ce.  His 
lODeiper  was  meek  and  amiable,  his  zeal  for  divine  truth 
forvent,  and  he  conducted  himself  with  great  moderation 
towards  his  adversaries.  The  following  account  is  given 
of.  Mr.  Ainsworth,  by  one  of  his  contemporaries,  and  oq« 
unfriendly  to  his  peculiar  sentiments :  <^  For  the  life  of  the 
man,  myself  bein^  eye-witness,  living  some  time  with  him 
at  Amsterdam,  of  his  humility,  sobriety,  and  discretion, 
petting  aside  his  preposterous  zeal  in  the  point  and  practice 
of  separation,  he  lived  and  died  unblamably  to  the  world ; 
9Qd  1  am  thoroughly  persuaded  that  his  soul  rests  with  his 

His  Works. — 1.  Counter-Poyson,  1690.— 2.  A  Defence  of  the 
Holy  Scriptures,  Worship,  and  Ministry,  used  in  the  Christian 
elfturches  separated  from  Antichrist,  against  Mr.  Smyth,  1609. — 
S.  An  Animsidversion  on  Mr.  Richard  Clifton's  Advertisement,  1613. 
-•^  The  Trying  out  of  the  Truth,  begun  and  prosecuted  in  certain 
Letters  and  Passages  between  John  Aynsworth  and  Henry  Ayns- 
worth :  the  one  pleading  for^  the  other  against  the  present  Church  of 
Rome,  1615. — 6.  A  Reply  to  the  pretended  Christian  Plea  for  tlie 
Antichristian  Church  of  Rome,  published  against  Francis  Johnson, 
1090. — 6.  Certain  Notes  of  Mr.  Ainsworth's  last  Sermon,  on  1  Pet.  ii. 
4^  6.,  1630.— 7.  The  old  orthodox  Foundation  of  Religion,  1641.— 
$•  A  seasonable  Discourse ;  or,  a  Censure  upon  a  Dialogue  of  the  Ana- 
iNiptists,  1643. — ^9.  The  Book  of  Psalms  Englished  both  in  prose  and 
lietre,  1644.-^10.  A  Guide  to  Zion. — 11.  An  Advertisement  touch- 
ing some  Objections  against  the  sincerity  of  the  Hebrew  text ;  and 
tbe  Allegations  of  the  Rabbins. — 12.  A.  Treatise  of  the  Communion 
of  Saints. — 13.  An  Arrow  against  Idolatry. — ^The  two  last  were  re- 
praited  together  in  1789,  with  a  copious  and  interesting  account  of 
tte'  author  prefixed. — 14.  His  Annotations  already  mentioned,  and 
pnbMy  some  others. 

4»  Hmll'i  Apologie  a^ainit  the  Brownists.  f  Life  of  Ainsworth,  p.  6?. 


William  Pemble,  A.  M. — This  learned  diyine  -was  the 
son  of  a  minister,  born  at  £gerton  in  Kent,  in  the  year  I59f, 
and  educated  in  Magdalen  college,  Oxford,  where  Mr. 
Richard  Capel  was  his  tutor.  From  a  child  he  was  trained 
up  in  good  literature,  and  profited  in  all  kinds  of  know- 
ledge, more  than  most  others.  From  the  tender  years  of 
infancy  he  was  constantly  taught  in  the  school  of  ChrisI; 
so  that,  under  the  influence  of  divine  grace,  together  with 
the  sanctified  use  of  his  manifold  afllictions  and  temptatioiu, 
he  attained  a  high  degree  of  heavenly  wisdom.  Thongb 
he  was  young  in  years,  he  ofiered  to  God  a  more  excellait 
sacrifice  than  many  of  his  elder  brethren.*  At  the  univeisitf 
he  acquired  a  most  distinguished  reputation,  and  became  a 
celebrated  Ireader  of  divinity  in  Magdalen  college.  Ae^ 
cording  to  our  author,  ^'  he  was  a  zealous  Calvinist,  a 
famous  preacher,  an  excellent  artist,  a  skilful  linguist,  s 
good  orator,  an  expert  mathematician,  and  an  ornament  to 
the  society  to  which  he  belonged."  Adrian  HeereboiMd, 
the  famous  professor  of  philosophy  at  Leyden,  was  verf 
profuse  in  the  commendation  of  his  learning  and  learned 
works.f  Another  writer  observes,  ^^  that  he  thoroughly 
traced  the  circle  of  the  arts;  and  attained  a  degree 
of  eminence,  not  only  in  the  sciences,  but  even  in 
those  more  sublime  speculations  of  which  many  sire  not 


Magdalen  college  was  the  veiy  nursery  of  puritans* 
Mr.  Pemb^e  was  justly  denominatedf  one  of  them,  thondi  he 
did  not  carry  his  nonconformity,  in  certain  points,  quite  so 
far  as  some  of  his  brethren.  He  laboured  openly  to 
promote  the  reformation  of  the  church,  and  encouraged  the 
relaxation  of  subscription  and  other  points  of  conformilj. 
fie  was  tutor  to  many  puritans,  who  afterwards  becanM 
distinguished  ornaments  for  learning,  piety,  and  usefulneeik 
This  divine,  with  many  others,  afibrds  sufficient  proof  fluit 
the  puritans  were  not  all  unlearned,  or  at  all  inferior  m 
learning  to  those  who  conformed.^ 

Mr.  Pemble  going  on  a  visit  to  Mr.  Capel,  formerly  hb 
tutor,  but  now  minister  at  £astington  in  Gloucesteishuo^ 
was  taken  ill,  and  died  at  his  tutor's  house,  in  the  thirtv* 
second  year  of  his  age.    His  remains  were  interred  in  m; 

•  Pemble's  Works,  Prcf.    EdiL  1627. 
i-  Wood's  Atbeoae  Oxon.  vol.  i.  p.  405. 
1  Pemble  on  JustificatioD,  Pref.    Edit.  1625. 
MS.  Chronology,  vol.  ii.  p.  705.  (4.) 


Anrch-yard  at  that  place,  and  over  his  grave  was  the 
Ulowiiig  plain  monumental  inscription : 

Here  lieth 

the  Body  of 

William  Pemble, 

Master  of  Arts  aDd  Preacher, 

who  died  April  14, 


He  left  the  world  in  the  comfortable  and  full  persuasion 
Nf  jostifiication  by  faith  in  the  righteousness  of  Jesus  Christ.* 
lishop  Wiikins,  in  his  list  of  the  most  excellent  sermons 
a  his  time,  includes' those  of  Mr.  Femble.f 

Bis  Works.—-!.  A  Treatise  of  Justification  by  Faith,  1625^— 
L  A  Treatise  of  Providence. — 3.  The  Book  of  Ecclesiastes  Ex- 
ruined,  1628. — 4.  A  Plea  for  Grace,  more  especially  the  Grace  of 
^aitii,  1629.— 6.  An  Exposition  of  the  first  Nine  Chapters  of  Zecha- 
iah,  1629.-6.  Five  godly  and  profitable  Sermons,  1629.— 7.  Fruitful 
knnons  on  I  Cor.  xv.  18,  19.,  1629.-8.  An  Introduction  to  the 
SViprthy  Receiving  of  the  Lord's  Supper,  1629. — 9.  De  formarum 
itkine,  1629.— 10.  De  Senibus  intemis,  1629.-11.  A  Sum  of  Moral 
^iuktoophy,  1630.— 12.  The  Period  of  the  Persian  Monarchy,  1631.— 
13.  Enchmdion  Oratorium,  1633. — 14.  An  Introduction  to  Geography, 
1086.— ^The  above  articles  in  English  were  collected  and  published 
D  fme  Tohune  iblio,  1635,  being  much  esteemed  and  often  reprinted. 

John  Sprint,  A.  M. — This  learned  person  was  the  son 
tf  Dr..  John  Sprint,  dean  of  Bristol,  a  frequent  Calyinistic 
macher;  was  bom  in  or  near  that  city,  and  educated  in 
!3iiisf  8  Chupch,  Oxford.  After  taking  bis  degrees  in  arts, 
le  became  vicar  of  Thornbury  in  (Gloucestershire;  but 
Aerwards  lemoyed  to  London,  where  he  became  a  very 
)opiilar  preacher.  Wood  says,  ^'  he  was  a  grave  and 
lioiis  divine,  but  for  the  most  part  disaffected  to  the  ceremo- 
lies  of  the  church  of  England,  at  least,  while  he  continued 
It  Thornbury.  He  was,  indeed,  called  in  question  for 
Ittering  certain  things  against  the  ceremonies  and  discipline 
f  the  established  church."  This  writer  also  adds,  that  he 
lot  only  conformed  himself,  but  was  the  great  instrument 
^persuading  others  to  do  the  same,  by  his  book,  called 
^  Gusander  Anglicanus."  Fullers  says,  he  put  in  the  one 
cde  the  woe  pronounced  against  those  who  preach  not  the 
[ospel,  or  desert  their  flocks  upon  pretended  scrupulosity ; 
od  in  the  other,  the  nature  oi  those  ceremonies  that  were 
ngoined  by  lawful  authority ;  and  finding  the  former  to 
iieponderate,  he  concluded  it  to  be  unlawful,  on  any  such 

•  Wood's  AthcM,  wfAf  i.  p.  405.       i  Wnkins  on  Preachiof ,  p.  89,  89. 

roh.  II.  X 


tccotmt,  for  any  me  to  leave  or  lose  his  miniiterial  finie^ 
tion.*  Dr.  Calainy,  baying  mentioned  Mr.  Sprint^t  ^  0» 
gander  Anglicanus,*'  addf,  <^  I  think  it  not  improper  to 
communicate  to  the  world  a  paper  concerning  iL  whidi  im 
written  by  the  hand  of  his  own  son ;  a  copy  of  which  wm 
sent  me  by  the  grandson  of  the  author,  with  assurance  that 
it  was  drawn  up  by  his  fother,  Mr.  Samuel  Sprint  of 
Tidworth/*     The  paper  was  as  follows : 

1.  ^<  This  book  meddles  not  with  subseriptum^  but  di^ 
claims  it,  p.  237. 

3.  ^^  In  all  the  arguments,  it  supposeth,  that  the  oeraMh 
nies  imposed  are  inconyeniencies,  and  the  churches  budeoL 

3.  ^'  By  the  quotations,  p.  194,  196,  and  elaewhcie^  he 
adyiseth  us  to  bear  witness  against  thenu  and  to  e3EpreBB  our 
dissent  from  them,  and  then  conform :  Wnich  is  not  to  utMSf  y 
and  much  less,  to  declare  our  unfeigned  assent^  as  wdl  ai 
consent  to  them. 

4.  '^  Bishop  Laud  said,  <  It  had  been  no  great  mafiai  if 
this  book  and  the  author  had  been  burnt  tog^er/ 

5.  <<  This  book  is  not  fully  comprehensiyeof  the  anthof'i 
judgment :  for,  besides  what  is  extant  of  his  in  print,  (Vil 
his  <  Bellum  Cercmonialc,*  printed  by  another,)  and  idnt 
he  hath  left  in  manuscript,  this  book,  as  he  hath  acknow- 
ledged to  his  acquaintance,  hath  buffered  much  by  the  h^mds 
of  the  bishop's  chaplain,  who  was  appointed  the  leyiici  of 
books  to  be  printed."f 

From  this  account,  and  eyeii  from  the  words  ci  Foliar, 
as  cited  above,  it  appears  that  Mr.  Sprint  was  a  puritaa  in 
principle  and  a  nonconformist  in  practice ;  cmly  he  wodd 
conform,  and  recommended  others  to  conform,  rather  ihiB 
suffer  deprivation  •  ^^  To  speak  my  free  thoughts/'  ohserm 
Calamy,  ^^  I  take  that  book  of  Mr.  Sprint's  to  be  a  ddeace 
of  occasional  conformity  to  the  church,  in  eyideqce  </ 
charity,  while  a  testimony  is  publicly  borne  against  id 
remaining  corruptions ;  rather  than  a  plea  for  entire  coD' 
formity."^  He  was  a  man  of  excellent  wisdom  and  md 
moderation.  He  died  in  London,  May  7, 1683,  and  liii 
remains  were  interred  at  St.  Ann's,  Blackfiriars,  when  kf 
appears  to  have  been  for  some  time  minister.  Mr.  Saanrf 
Sprint  and  Mr.  John  Sprint,  jun.  both  gected  in  IDGty 
were  his  sons^S 

His  Works. — 1.  Propositions  tending  to  prove  the  neeessny  V* 
of  the  Christian  Sabbath,  or  Lord's  Day,  1007.-2.  The  praefis^  ' 

•  Wood's  Atheoas,  vol.  i.  p.  406.~Faner'8  Worthies,  part  i.  p.M. 

f  Calamy's  Account,  vol.  ii.  p.  S4S. 

±  Moderate  Noncjonforinity,  vol.  i.  p.  27.    Edit.  ITQS. 

^  Pahner*8  l^oncon.  Mem.^o\»  u.  ^.  HSfit^  466. 




J,  GEE.  30T 

^mt  Sacred  Day,  framed  after  the  Rules  of  God's  Word,  1607.-0.  The 
fl^m  of  Christian  Religion  by  way  of  Question  and  Answer,  1613.^^ 
4^  Cassander  Anglicanus:  or,  the  Necessity  of  Conforming  to  the 

r»eribed  Ceremonies  of  the  Church,  in  case  of  Deprivation,  1618. 
The  Christian's  Sword  and  Buckler ;  or,  a  Letter  sent  to  a  Man 
ivren  yean  gricTOusly  afliicted  in  Conscience  and  fearfully  troubled 
kk  Mind,  1638. — 6.  Bellum  Ceremoniale,  already  mentioned. 

John  Gee,  A.  B. — This  zealous  person  was  the  son  of  a 
minister,  born  in  Devonshire,  in  the  year  1597,  and  educated 
first  in  Brazen-nose  college,  then  in  Exeter  college,  Oxford. 
Bntering  uponi  the  ministerial  work,  he  was  beneficed 
■t  Newton,  near  Winwick,  in  Lancashire.  Being  at  this 
period  much  inclined  to  popery,  he  left  the  place,  and 
wtired  to  London,  where  he  became  intimately  acquainted 
vith  several  leading  persons  of  the  popish  persuasion. 
October  S6,  16IS3,  Mr.  Gee  was  in  the  assembly  of  above 
throe  hundred  persons,  collected  in  an  upper  room,  in 
Blackfnars^  London;  when,  about  the  middle  of  the 
•eimon,  the  flool:  giving  way,  Drury,  the  Roman  catholic 
wiestp  And  nearly  one  hundred  of  the  congr^ation.  Were 
iSUed,  and  many  others  severely  bruised.*  This  he  con- 
«dered  a  most  alarming  and  awakening  providence. 
Steving  already  received  many  urgent  letters  from  bis 
fiilher,'  and  by  means  of  a  conrcrence  which  he  had  with 
Archbishop  Abbot,  he  renounced  the  errors  of  popery,  and 
became  a  zealous  protestant.  Some,  it  is  said,  thought  he 
became  too  xealous  a  protestant.  For  he  embraced  the 
principles  (^  the  puritans,  and  wrote  with  great  spirit  and 
'iriUlity  against  the  papists,  exposing  their  errors  and 
froeistitions.  The  papists,  however,  in  return,  loaded  him 
''inth  much  slander  and  abuse.  After  renouncing  popery, 
ke  preached  at  Tenterden  in  Kent,- where  he  died,  but  at  what 
particular  time  we  are  not  able  to  learn.f  He  had  a  younger 
bvolhar,  called  Orlando  Gee,  who  was  afterwards  knightra. 

His  Works. — 1.  The  Foot  out  of  the  Snare,  with  a  Detection  of 

ffll■ildl7  late  Practices  and  Impostures  of  the  Priests  and  Jesuits  in 
Sogland,  1624.— 2.  A  gentle  Excuse  to  Mr.  Greg.  Musket  for 
ing  him  Jesuit,  1624. — Both  these  passed  through  four  editions 
year. — 3.  Hold  fast,  a  Sermon  at  Paul's  cross,  on  Rev.  iii.  11., 
U24^-«4.  New  Shreds  of  the  old  Snare,  containing  the  Apparitions  of 
two  Female  Ghosts,  the  copies  of  divers  Letters,  and  Indulgences 
purchased  at  Rome,  1624. 

*  Princess  Worthies  of  DeTon,  p.  SS8,  339. 
f  Wood's  Athene  Ozoo.  vol.  i.  p.  487. 


John  Knbwstubs,  B.  D.— This  learned  dirine  wa»  iMhri 
at  Kirkby  Stephen  in  Westmoreland,  in  the  year  I540,  and 
chosen  fellow  of  St  John^s  college,  in  the  universi^  of 
Cambridge,*  where  he  was  much  esteemed  for  his  gmt 
piety,  abilities,  and  learning.    During  his  abode  in  the 
university,  he  united  with  Dr.  Andrews,  afterwards  hiahap 
of  Ely,  Dr.  Chadderton,  Mr.  Culverwell,  Mr.  Carter,  and 
other  distinguished  persons,  in  the  observance  of  weeUj 
meetings  for  conferoioe  upon  certain  portions  of  scripture. 
These  meetings  were  conducted  with  great  decorum,  aad 
found  of  signal  advantage  to  all.  > 

In  the  year  1579,  Mr.  iCnewstubs,  upon  his  removal  frOD 
Cambridge,  became  minister  at  Cockfield  in  Suffolk.  Heie 
he  was  labouring  in  the  vineyard  of  Christ,  when  msif 
ministers,  from  the  counties  of  Norfolk,  Suffolk,  and  Cam- 
bridge, assembled  in  his  church  to  confer  about  the  Book 
of  Common  Prayer,  with  the  view  of  coming  to  an  agree- 
ment concerning  what  things  might  be  tolerated,  aind  what 
were  to  be  refused.  They  consulted  also  abotit  the  derical 
apparel,  holidays,  fasts,  injunctions,  and  other  mattonkt 
Dr.  Heylin  says,  this  meeting  was  held  May  8, 1588.t .  • 

In  the  year  1583,  upon  the  publication  of  Whitgi&'s 
three  articles,  Mr.  Knewstubs  and  sixty  other  ministeisof^ 
Suffolk,  whose  names  are  now  before  me,  were  not  icadtviSi 
to  subscribe,  and,  for  further  satisfaction,  wrote  to  their 
diocesan,  desiring  the  resolution  of  their  doubts,  some 
of  which  were  the  following : — <<  The  administration  of 
baptism  in  private. — The  use  of  the  cross  in  baptisn]>f- 
The  interrogatories  proposed  to  the  infants.— Tte  burial 
service,  requiring  us  to  commit  to  the  ground  aO  ekof 
ractersj  in  sure  and  certain  hope  of  the  resurrection  to  eternal 
life. — ^And  the  reading  of  apocryphal  books  in  public 
worship,  to  the  exclusion  of  some  parts  of  canonical  scrip- 
ture."^ Their  application,  however,  proved  unsucceaMl^ 
and  they  were  all  suspended  from  their  ministerial  wolk^ 
upwards  of  forty  of  whom  received  the  ecclesiastical  censuic 
on  one  day.|| 

This  excellent  divine  being  laid  aside  from  his  bdovefl 
work,  the  Lord  Treasurer  Burleigh  wrote  to  him  and  Mir. 
John  Oxeiibridge,  another  suspended  minister,  requesting 
them  to  declare,  ''  That  tliey  would  use  the  Bodk  ^ 
Common  Prayer;  and  that  in  their  public  ministry  thej 

*  Peck's  Desiderata  Curiosa,  vol.  i.  b.  vi.  p.  28. 
-f  FaUer's  Church  Hist.  b.  iz.  p.  1S5. 
}  Heylio's  Hist,  of  Pres.  p.S92, 
S  MS.  Register,  p.  434»  435. 
fIt>'d*P- 436,437. 


Woilild  not  preach  against  it."  Upon  the  reception  of  this, 
fkey  returned  his  lordship  the  foUoHving  open  and  generous 
declaration,  earnestly  soliciting  his  favourable  attention  to 
their  case,  as  the  silenced  ministers  of  Christ : — ^'  Right 
llQQOurable  and  very  good  lord,'^  say  they,  ^'  we  find  it  is 
jroar  lordship's  pleasure  that  we  should  declare  in  writing 
mir  consent  to  these  two  points :  That  we  will  use  the  Book 
of  Ck>mmon  Prayer ;  and  that  we  will  not  inveigh  against 
it  in  our  public  ministry. — In  the  first  place,  as  we  have 
bitherto  used  the  said  book  in  our  public  worship,  so  we 
do  purpose  to  use  it,  and  no  other,  except  some  other  shall 
be  established  by  public  authority.  And,  secondly,  we 
always  have  had  a  special  regard,  both  in  our  publiq 
liptinistry  and  private  life,  for  the  peace  of  the  church  and 
oar  duty  to  her  majesty,  and  to  walk  in  all  quiet  and 
christian  behaviour  towards  all  who  use  the  book  in  some 
Uungs  more  strictly  than  we  can  do :  and  we  mean  always 
to  act  thus  in  future. 

**  Seeing  these  are  the  things  which  your  honour  thinketh 
,good  to  request  at  our  hands,  we  most  humbly  beseech 
your  lordship's  favour,  that  we  may  be  relieved  from  that 
sabscription,  which,  as  we  verily  think,  the  states  of  the 
realm  have  not  required  of  us ;  and  that .  we  may  be 
restored  to  our  ministry,  as  in  times  past.  Which,  if  we 
obtaiii,  we  shall  be  bound  both  to  praise  God  for  your 
clemency  and  to  pray  for  the  increase  and  continuance  of 
jrour  honour's  estat&^and  happiness,"* 

It  dors  not  appear  how  long  these  learned  divines 
remained  under  the  bishop's  censure,  nor  whether  their 
wplication  to  the  treasurer  proved  at  all  available.  Mr. 
Knewstubs  joined  with  his  brethren  in  subscribing  the 
"  Book  of  Discipline."  He  laboured  with  great  zeal  and 
moderation  to  carry  on  the  work  of  reformation  in  the 
church,  and  frequently  met  with  his  brethren  at  their  asso- 
ciations in  the  counties  of  Suffolk,  Norfolk,  and  Cambridge. 
Being  a  known  and  decided  nonconformist,  though  a  man 
of  no  severe  principles,  his  house  was  narrowly  watched, 
and  afterwards  strictly  searched,  by  the  prelate's  officers.+ 

In  the  year  1603,  Mr.  Knewstubs  was  one  of  the  puritan 
jdivines  appointed  by  King  James  to  attend  the  Hampton- 
court  conference.  He  signified,  on  this  occasion,  his 
olgections  against  the  interrogatories  in  baptism.  But  Dr. 
Barlow,  who  published  '^  The  Sum  and  Substance  of  the 


•  MS.  IUsist«r,  p.  587, 688.        f  MS.  Chrooolof y,  vol.  il.  p.  SOS.  (4.) 


Conference,"  instead  of  informing  us  i?hat  he  said  iipoB 
this  point,  is  pleased  to  observe,  that  his  discourse  was  » 
extremely  perplexed  that  it  was  very  difficult  to  be  under^ 
stood.*  This,  surely,  is  a  short  and  easy  method  of  answer- 
ing an  argument,  and  of  reproaching  an  adversary.  Mil 
Knewstubs  also  excepted  against  the  cross  in  baptism  ;i 
because,  as  he  observed,  it  gave  offence  to  many  weak 
brethren,  contrary  to  Rom.  xiv.  and  3  Cor.  viii.,  wherp 
their  consciences  are  not  to  be  offended.  He  inqniied 
whether  the  church  had  power  to  add  external  si^ijGcaiit 
signs.  Then,  if  it  had  such  power,  whether  it  might  add 
them  where  Christ  hath  already  ordained  one.  To  attempt 
this,  appeared  to  him  no  less  derogatory  to  the  institution  of 
Christ,  than  if  any  person  in  the  land  should  presume  io 
add  his  own  seal  to  the  great  seal  of  England.  But  if  the 
church  had  this  power  also,  Mr.  Knewstubs  further  inquired, 
How  far  is  such  an  ordinance  to  bind  us,  without  impeach- 
ing our  christian  liberty  ?  The  king,  hearing  this,  was 
greatly  moved,  and  said  it  smelt  rankly  of  anabaptism; 
and,  therefore,  he  would  not  arffue  the  point  with  him !  ^^  I 
will,"  added  his  majesty,  "have  one  doctrine,  cme  dis- 
cipline, and  one  religion,  in  substance  and  in  ceremony; 
and,  therefore,  I  charge  you  never  more  to  speak  upon  that 
point,  how  far  you  are  to  obev,  when  the  church  hath 
ordained  it!"{  Such  was  the  logic  of  that  prince  who 
was  styled  the  Solomon  of  the  age ! 

Towards  the  close  of  the  conference.  Dr.  Chadderton 
having  requested  that  the  wearing  of  the  surplice,  and  the 
use  of  the  cross  in  baptism,  might  not  be  urged  upon 
certain  pious  and  painfid  ministers  in  Lanca^ire,  Mc 
Knewstubs,  upon  his  knees,  requested  the  like  favour  and 
forbearance  for  certain  of  his  brethren  in  Suffolk,  ^saying,  it 
would  be  much  against  them  to  require  these  things. 
**  Sir,"  replied  the  king,  "  you  shew  yourself  to  be  uncha- 
ritable. We  have  taken  pains,  and  in  the  end  have  con- 
cluded on  unity  and  uniformity ;  and  you,  forsooth,  must 
prefer  the  credit  of  a  few  private  men,  before  the  peace 

•  Barlow'f  Account,  p.  163. 

f  He  might  with  propriety  have  asked,  Why  may  not  any  other  sign  be 
used  in  baptism,  as  well  as  the  sign  of  the  cross  ?  If  ft  Ittd  been  said, 
Becaose  oor  Saviour  was  crucified  upon  the  cross  i  lie  might  have  inqaired 
of  what  shape- or  figure  was  the  Saviour's  cross ;  lesl,  itf  nuULing  the  sign  of 
.  it,  they  should  not  make  the  sign  of  that  cross,  bat  of  some  other.  ,BjiA  how 
shall  we  know  the  exact  flgnre  of  our  Saviour's  cross  ?  The  originl  word, 
as  used  in  the  New  Testament,  according  to  the  opinion  of  the  learned, 
signifies  a  stake  or  jsosi,  as  well  as  a  cross.        .        . 

t  Ibid.  p.  164—160. 


of  Ae  church.  I  will  none  of  that ;  and^  therefore,  let  them 
4Bither  conform  themselves,  and  that  sIuHtlj,  or  they  shall 
hou  of  it  ^*  Some  further  account  of  this  mock  confei^^tce^ 
at  it  is  very  oommonly  and  very  justly  denonunated,  iy 
ghren  in  andher  place.t 

Mr.  Knewstubs  was  a  learned  and  cdebrated  diviMe,  and 
Aott^  the  productions  of  his  pen  do  not  appear  to  ha^e 
been  very  numerous,  Fuller  denominates  him  one  of  thf 
faanied  writers  of  St.  John^s  coll^,  Cambridge.^  H« 
eontinued  his  zealous  and  faithful  ministry  at  Cockifield  Uk 
Ihft  day  of  his  death,  haying  laboured  at  that  place  forty-fiv« 
▼ears.  He  died  May  S9,  1624,  aged  eighty  years,  when 
his  remains  were  interred  at  Cockfidd,  and  over  hm  grare 
m  monumental  inscription  was  erected  to  bis  memofy,  of 
vrliich  the  following  is  a  translation  i^ 

In  Memory 
of  that  most  hvmbie 
'  and  -Affectionate  ServanI  of  Cod, 

John  Knbwstubs, 

forty-five  years  the  very  watcliful 

and  fiuthful  pastor  of  the  chtirch  of  CockfieM; 

« teacher  ef  the  church,  and  an  exeeUent  scholar; 

a  firm  asserter  and  defender  of  Christian  Truth, 

the  wholesome  doctrines  of  the  Gospel, 

and  uncormpted  Religion, 

liyainst  the  Roman  Antichrist  and  his  emissaries. 

He  bravely  withstood  the  storms  of  life, 

and  patiently  endured  the  greatest  sufferinfs 

for  the  glory  of  God. 

At  length,  worn  out  with  infirmitiety 

in  the  80th  year  of  his  age, 

wkh  divme  serenity, 

^  he  withdrew  from  this  mortal  life, 

and  entered  the  celestial  Country, 

on  the  29th  of  May,  1624. 

As  there  are 

never-fading  momimencts  of  bis  Genius, 

lest  posterity  should  wish 

for  some  memorial  of  his  body  also ; 

this  Monument, 

too  small  for  so  great  a  man, 

contains  the  mortal  part  of 

John  Knewstubs. 

Friends  maye  awile  by  Arte  our  Yiewe  commende. 
But  tys  not  longe  eare  all  Thinges  heere  shall  ende. 
The  Arte  of  Artes  is  so  to  ly  ve  and  dye. 
As  we  may  ly  ve  in  Heav'n  eternally. 

.    •  Barlow's  Account,  p.  176, 177.  f  See  Art.  Dr.  John  iUiaoldSi 

i  Faller't  Hist,  of  Cambridge,  p.  9&. 
S  Peck's  Dcitderata  Curioiay  vol.  i.  b.  vi.  p.  SS. 



M ri'  Knewstubs  is  classed  among  the  generous  beiiefactav 
of  St.  John's  college,  Cambridge.  September  1,  IGSS,  he 
founded  two  exhibitions  tor  two  poor  scholars ;  for  wiuch  • . 
purpose  he  gave  to  the  college  eleven  pounds  a  year,  oat 
of  certain  lands,  called  squires'  lands,  at  Southminster  aiM| 
Steeple  in  Essex.  He  appointed  twenty  shillings  of  tbtf 
annuity  for  the  use  of  the  college,  and  ten  pounds  for  two 
poor  scholars,  to  be  elected  at  the  general  election  oischciaaif 
one  of  them  to  be  out  of  the  north,  the,  other  from  the  sooth. 
The  former  of  these  was  to  be  a  person  bom  within  tb 
parish  of  Kirkby  Stephen ;  or,  in  case  of  the  want  of  sadi 
a  one,  any  one  born  in  the  county  of  Westmoreland^or 
educated  in  the  school  at  Kirkby  Stephen :  but  in  the  wiiit 
of  such  a  one,  then  a  person  to  he  chosen  out  of  the  school 
at  Appleby.  The  scholar  from  the  south  was  to  be  a  penbt 
born  within  the  parish  of  Cockfield  in  Suffolk ;  and  in  the 
want  of  such  a  one,  then  a  person  to  be  chosen  from  the 
school  at  Sudbury.  He  appointed  the  nomination  of  the 
one  to  the  vice-chancellor,  or  the  incumbent  of  Kirkby 
Stephen  and  the  schoolmaster  for  the  time  being ;  and  of  tte 
other*  to  the  incumbent  of  Cockfield  for  the  time  being. 
He  further  ordered,  that  if  either  of  the  scholars  should  oe 
absent  from  the  college  upwards  of  fifty  days  together,  the 
allowance,  during  that  period,  shoulci  go  to  the  use  at  the 
coll<*ge  ;  and  if  absent  ninettf-one  days,  he  should  forfeit  his 

His  Works. --r  I.  A  Confutation  of  certain  Monstrous  and  Horrible 
Heresies,  taught  by  H.  N.  (Henry  Nichols)  and  embraced  by  a 
number  who  call  themselves  The  Family  ofLove^  1579. — ^2.  Lectiurei 
on  Various  Portions  of  Scripture, — 3.  An  Answer  to  certain  Asser- 

Richard  Crakenthorp,  D.  D. — This  learned  divine 
was  born  of  respectable  parents  near  Strickland  in  West- 
moreland, in  the  year  1577,  and  educated  in  Queen's 
college,  Oxford,  where  he  was  chosen  fellow.  About  the 
year  1603,  he  became  chaplain  to  Lord  Eyers,  in  his 
mission  as  ambassador  to  the  court  of  Germany,  by  which 
be  became  acquainted  with  many  persons  celebrated  for 
learning,  and  visited  several  of  the  ibreign  universities. 
Upon  his  return  to  England  he  became  chaplain  .in 
ordinary  to  King  James;  and,  by  the  favour  of  Sir  John 
Levesen,  was  presented  to  the  rectory  of  Black-Notely, 

•  Baker*s  MS.  CoUec.  vol.  xziii.    This  Tolame  Is  not  pag*^* 



^near  Bmintree  iin  Essex.  In  the  year  16 17,  he  became 
WqtoF  of  Packekham.* 

r  This  learned  divine  attempted  to  vindicate  the  famous 
^Dr.  John  ilainolds  from  i;he  reproachful  imputation  of 
buritanism,  but  evidently  with  very  little  success,;  and,  in 
met,  while  he  laboured  to  clear  his  friend  and  favourite  of 
die  reproachful  charge,  he  was  himself  found  guilty.  He 
was  justly  denominated  a  puritan,  as  well  as  Rainolds* 
The  Oxford  historian  says,  "  he  was  a  noted  preacher,  a 
profound  disputant,  and  a  good  divine,  and  was  greatly  ad- 
mired and  venerated  by  all  great  men,  especially  by  those  of 
the  puritanical  party,  being  himself  a  zealot  among  them." 
He.further  adds,  ''  that  Dr.  Crakenthorp  was  esteemed  by 
nost  to  have  been  replenished  with  all  kinds  of  virtue 
•Qd  learning;  to  have  been  a  profound  philosopher  and 
4heQlogian,  a  great  canonist,  and  so  familiar  in  the  fathers^ 
<souncils,  and  schoolmen^  that  scarcely  any  in  his  time  went 
beyond  him ;  and  that  few  authors  have  written  with  greater 
diligence  and  success."+  He  died  at  Black-Notely,  says 
ihis  writer,  ^^  for  want  of  a  bishopric,"  as  King  James  used 
to  say  in  reproach  of  such  men;  and  his  remains  were 
interred  in  the  chancel  of  the  church  at  that  place, 
November  25,  1624,  aged  forty-seven  years.  Dr.  John 
Barkham,  dean  of  Bocking,  preached  his  funeral  sermon, 
BMkd  gave  the  deceased  high  commendations  tor  learning 
and  piety.  Dr.  Crakenthorp  sometimes  preached  the 
sermon  at  Paul's  cross,  and  one  or  more  of  these  sermons 
was  afterwards  published* 

His  Works. — 1.  Sermons  on  several  Occasions,  1608. — 2,  Jns- 
iinjan  the  Emperor  defended,  against  Card.  Baronius,  1616. — 
9.  Introductio  in  Metapbysicam,  1619. — 4.  A  Defence  of  Constan- 
tine,  with  a  Treatise  of  the  Pope's  Temporal  Monarchy,   1621.— 

5.  Logicae  libri  quinque,  de  praedicalibus,  prsedicamentis,  etc.,  1622,-^— 

6.  Tractatas  de  Providentia  Dei,  1622. — 7.  Defensio  Eccl.  Anglicanae 
eoDtra  M.  Anton,  de  Dominis  Archcp.  Spalatensis  injurias,  I626.J — 
0.  Yirgelios  dormitans;  or,  a  Treatise  of  the  first  <^eneral  Conncii 
keld  at  Constantinople,  an.  563,  under  Justinian  the  Emperor,  1631.-^ 
^ough  he  left  numerous  manuscripts,  it  does  not  appear  whether 
Muy  other  articles  were  ever  published. 

•  Newcoprt's  Repert.  Eccl.  vol.  ii.  p.  443,459. 
f  Wood's  Atbenae  Ozod.  vol.  i.  p.  417,418. 

J  Arcbbishop  Abbot  caUs  this  work  **  the  most  exact  piece  of  cootro« 
vcny  since  the  reformatioo."— X/ci^A  011  Rtligion  and  Ltarning,  p.  172. 


Walter  TbaybrS)  B.  D. — ^This  celebrated  divine  wm 
educated  in  Trinity  college,  Cambridge;  whoe  he  tod^ 
hif  degrees  in  arts,  and  was  incorporated  in  tiie  same  i^ 
Oxford.  Aflerwaids  he  travelled  to  GSeneva,  whore  he 
formed  an  intimate  and  abiding  acquaintance  with  Ben  aid 
other  learned,  divines.  Upcm  his  return  to  Cambridge^ 
where  he  remained  for  some  time,  he  took  his  degree  ii 
divinity.  In  1572,  he  was  member  of  the  first  presbyteriaa 
church  in  Eln^land,  erected  at  Wandsworth  in  Survey.* 
While  the  prelates  rigorously  imposed  subscription  upai 
ministers,  and  lequirra  an  exact  conformity  to  the  esteb- 
lisbed  church,  many  learned  persons,  who  had  aHMcientioH 
objections  against  the  English  mode  of  ordination,  weot 
abroad  to  Middleburg,  Antwerp,  and  other  plaon,  and 
received  ordination  according  to  the  foreign  reforraed 
churches ;  which,  in  their  opinion,  was  much  inore  agrees 
able  to  the  word  of  God.  Among  those  whose  confio* 
tions  led  them  to  adopt  this  course  was  Mr.  Travels,  who 
went  to  Antwerp,  and  was  there  ordained  by  the  piesb^rterv. 
His  honourable  testimonial,  dated  May  14,  1578^  is  tie 
fdlowing  :f — ^<  For  as  much  as  it  is  just  and  reasauaUe, 
^  ^  that  such  as  are  received  into  the  number  of  the  mimsters 
^^  of  God's  word  should  have  a  testitnonial  of  theur  vooa- 
^  tion ;  we  declare,  that,  having  called  together  a  synod  of 
^<  iwehe  ministers  of  God's  word,  and  almost  the  sane 
"  number  of  elders,  at  Antwerp,  on  May  8,  1578,  our  voy 
*'  learned,  pious,  md  excdO/egd  brother,  the  reverend  Doctor 
^  GauUer  Traversy  was,  by  the  unanimous  votea  and  ardent 
^  desires  of  all  present,  received  and  instituted  into  the 
'^  ministry  of  God's  holy  word,  and  confirmed  according 
^  to  our  accustomed  manner,  with  prayer  and  impositioa 
^  of  hands ;  and  the  next  day  after  the  sabbath,  having 
^<  preached  before  a  full  congregation  o(  EngUshj  at  the 
^^  request  of  the  ministers,  he  was  acknowledged  and 
^'  received  most  afiectionately  by  the  whole  church.  That 
*^  Almighty  God  would  prosper  the  ministry  <^  this  our 
^'  reverend  brother  among  the  English,  and  attend  it  wiOi 
^^  great  success,  is  our  most  earnest  prayer,  through  Jesoi 
**  Christ.    Amen. 

"  Given  at  Antwerp,  May  14,  1578,  and  signed, 

"  Johannes  Taffinus,  V.  D.  M. 


"  Johannes  Hochelcus^  V.  D.  M.** 

*  See  Art.  Jobo  Field.  f  Faller'i  <;bHrch  Hilt.  b.  ix.  p.  914. 

TRAVERS.  815 

'  Mr.  Traters,  soon  after  his  ordination,  became  assistant 
to  Mr.  Cartwri^bt,  then  preacher  to  the  English  merchants 
at  Antwerp.  He  was  a  person  highly  distinguished  foe 
prudence,  learning,  and  piety;  and,  therefore,  upon  his 
letam  to  England,  the  Lord  Treasurer  Burleigh  made 
dioice  of  him  for  his  domestic  chaplain,  and  as  tutor  to  his 
son  Robert,  afterwards  Earl  of  Ssdisbury.  The  treasure 
was,  indeed,  a  constant  friend  and  patron  of  the  ncHicon- 
fonnisfs,  and  discovered  his  affectionate  regard  for  them 
through  the  whole  of  his  life.*  In  the  face  of  the  whole 
nation,  therefore,  he  countenanced  this  learned  and  excel- 
lent divine,  and  received  him  into  his  family,  notwith- 
ftending  his  nonconformity.  Mr.  Travers  could  not' 
conscientiously  subscribe ;  on  which  account  he  was  inca- 
'pable  of  any  considerable  preferment  in  the  church,  whicb^ 
we  nmy  suppose,  his  noUe  patron  was  ready  to  bestow 
upon  mm.  The  lecturer's  place  at  the  Temple  becoming 
tacant,  the  learned  gentlemen  of  that  society  invited  htm 
to  accmt  it ;  and,  as  no  subscription  was  requisite  for  that 
^office,  ne  complied  with  their  invitation. 

In  the  year  1584,  a  short  time  before  Dr.  Alvey,  master 
of  the  Temple,  closed  his  eyes  in  death,  the  doctor,  with 
tl|e  learned  gentlemen  of  that  society,  recommended  Mr. 
TVaveiB  for  his  successor.     Dr.  Alvey  the  master,  and  Mr. 
Travers  the  lecturer,  lived  together  some  years  in  great 
amity  and  love.    They  mutually  united  in  carrying  on 
the  wcMrk  of  reformation  in  the  place;  and,  with  much 
seal,  wisdom,  and  resolution,  they  joined  in  promoting 
true  christian  piety  among  the  learned  benchers,  by  whom  ^ 
they  were  both  very  highly  esteemed.f    The  above  recom- 
mendation was  presented  to  the  treasurer,  who  communicated 
.the  same  to  the  queen,  signifying  to  her  majesty  his  appro- 
bation of  their  choice.     But,  by  the  powerful  endeavours 
.and  superior  influence  of  Archbishop  Whiteift*  he  was 
rejected,  and  Mr.  Richard  Hooker,  author  of  ^^  Ecclesiastical 
'Polity,"  was  nominated  to  the  office.    Whitgift  most  vi- 
gorously opposed  the  admission  of  Mr.  Travers,  and  signified 
to  the  queen,  ^'  that  he  was  one  of  the  principal  authors 
of  dissention  in  the  church ;  that  h^  contenmed  the  Book 
of  Common  Prayer,  and  other  orders  as  by   authority 
-established;  that  he  sought  to  promote  innovation;  and 
that  he  was  only  ordained  abroad,  and  not  according  to  the 
fonn  of  the  church  of  England."    Mr.  Travers,  however, 

.•  MS.  Chronology,  toI.  ii.  p.  ilS.  (14.)  4^  Ibid.  p.  431.  (&) 


{'ustified  himself  against  all  the  false  charges  which  iren 
wrought  (u^inst  him,  and  proved,  at  some  length,  th^ 
validity  of  his  ordination.* 

During  the  above  year,  our  learned  divine  was  engnged 
in  a  public  conference  holden  at  Lambeth.  The  first  d'ty's 
conference,  December  10(h,  was  betwixt  Archbishop  Whttr 

fift  and  the  Bishop  of  Winchester,  on  the  one  part ;  and  Mr. 
Vavers  and  Dr.  Thomas  Sparke,  on  the  other,  in  the  pm- 
senre  of  the  Earl  of  Leic*  sler.  Lord  Gray,  and  Sir  Francis 
Walsingham.  The  subject  of  discussion  was  confined  to 
those  things  in  the  Book  ot  Common  Prayer  which  appeared 
to  n  quire  a  refbrmatio.'i.  The  conference  whs  opened  by 
the  following  declaration  made  by  the  archbishop :— ^<  Mj 
lord  of  Leicester  having  requestcMl,  for  his  own  satisfactiooi 
to  hear  what  the  ministers  could  reprove,  and  how  their 
objections  mi^ht  be  answered,  I  have  granted  his  reqaeit 
Let  us  then  hear  \^hat  things  in  the  Book  of  ConimaB 
Prayer  you  thirsk  ought  to  be  mended.  You  now  appear 
before  me,  not  judicially,  nor  as  called  in  question  bj 
authority,  but  by  way  of  conference.  You  snail,  there^ 
fore,  be  free  (speaking  in  duty)  to  charge  the  book  with 
those  things  in  which  it  is  faulty." 

Though  the  conference  is  of  considerable  length,  the 
substance  of  it  will,  no  doubt,  be  gratifying  to.the  inquisitive 
reader.  Whitgift,  therefore,  having  finished,  Dr.  Sparke 
replied  as  follows : — ^'  We  give  most  humble  and  heaitj 
thanks  to  Almighty  God,  and  to  these  honourable  penoos, 
that  alter  so  many  years,  wherein  our  cause  could  never  be 
admitted  to  an  impartial  hearing,  it  hath  pleased  God  of 
his  gracious  goodmss  so  to  order  things,  that  we  now 
enjoy  that  equity  and  favour,  before  such  honourable 
personages,  as  may  be  a  worthy  means  with  her  most 
excellent  majesty,  ol  promoting  a  further  reformation  of 
such  things  as  are  needful :  and  that  it  is  no